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Research Methods in Education 6th Edition

Research Methods in Education 6th Edition

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    Chapter22 Chapter22 Presentation Transcript

    • ACCOUNTS © LOUIS COHEN, LAWRENCE MANION & KEITH MORRISON
    • STRUCTURE OF THE CHAPTER • Characteristics of the ethogenic approach • Characteristics of accounts and episodes • Procedures in eliciting, analyzing and authenticating accounts • Network analysis • Discourse analysis • Analyzing social episodes • Account gathering in educational research • Problems in gathering and analyzing accounts • Handling quantitative and qualitative accounts • Strengths and weaknesses of ethogenic approaches • A note on stories
    • ACCOUNTS • Accounts focus on language in context • Speech acts • Ethnomethodology • Conversation analysis • Discourse analysis • Ethnographic paradigm: see situations through the eyes of participants, their intentionality and their interpretations of situations, their meaning systems and the dynamics of the interaction as it unfolds
    • THE ETHOGENIC APPROACH • Synchronic analysis: the analysis of social practices and institutions as they exist at any one time • Diachronic analysis: the study of stages/processes by which social practices and institutions are created and abandoned, change and are changed.
    • THE ETHOGENIC APPROACH • Concentrates upon the meaning system, the sequence by which a social act is achieved. • Concerned with speech which accompanies action. • Founded upon the view that humans tend to be the kinds of person that their language, traditions, tacit and explicit knowledge tell them they are. • Ethogenic studies make use of commonsense understandings of the social world. • The ethogenic study employs an ongoing observational approach that focuses upon processes rather than products.
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCOUNTS AND EPISODES • Accounts must be seen within the context of social episodes. • Accounts serve to explain our past, present and future oriented actions.
    • PROCEDURES IN ELICITING, ANALYZING AND AUTHENTICATING ACCOUNTS • Attention to informants, the account-gathering situation, the transformation of accounts and researchers’ accounts, and control procedures • Eliciting, analyzing and authenticating accounts • Experience-sampling: a qualitative technique for gathering and analyzing accounts based on interviews that were themselves prompted by given situations
    • NETWORK ANALYSIS • There are structural regularities – regular patterns) – in social relations between entitities • These macro-structural relations influence people’s agentic decisions, actions, values and behaviours. • Network analysis is an attempt to measure and chart these, e.g. through graphic means. • Relations are context-specific and dynamic. • Two main components: – Actors – Relations
    • NETWORK ANALYSIS ADDRESSES . . . • The units (the actors) • The relational form – Dyads, triads, stars, chains etc. – The nature of the relationship – The strength, intensity and frequency of the relationship • The relational content • The type of tie • The level of data analysis
    • DISCOURSE ANALYSIS • The organization of ordinary talk and everyday explanations and the social actions performed in them. • Discourses are sets of linguistic material that are coherent in organization and content and enable people to construct meaning in social contexts. • Speech acts: utterances express content and intentions. • Talk as contextualized dialogue.
    • ANALYZING SOCIAL EPISODES • Quantitative analysis – Factor analysis – Linkage analysis – Multidimensional measurement – Cluster analysis • Qualitative analysis – Coding – Classifying – Within-site and cross-site analysis
    • PROBLEMS IN GATHERING AND ANALYZING ACCOUNTS • Many meanings present in a social episode • Actors may have biased meanings • Whose meaning(s) predominate/are valid and reliable