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Radiation presentation   m. emin özgünsür Radiation presentation m. emin özgünsür Presentation Transcript

  • YASAR UNIVERSITY ENGINEERING FACULTY COMPUTER ENGINEERING RADIATION M.EMIN OZGUNSUR 07030001052 December, 2009
  • Table Of Contents •What is the radiation ? •Radiation Kinds •Radiation Source •Radiation Using Place •Radiation Quantity •Nuclear Weapon Effective •Radiation Influance Range •Radiation Biological Effective •Radiation Infection Ways •Nuclear Power Plant •Radiation Injure And Protect •References
  • What is The Radiation ? When protons and neutrons ratios are out of balance, there is appearing an undecided atom. Generally, this situation to be seen from the bigger than 83 or smaller atom’s isotope, become stable equilibrium is sending like fast particles and electromagnetic waves to broadcasting extra energy wawes from natural or unnatural radioactive cores are named “ radiation “. [1,3] Radioactive word comes to mean from radio means spreading and active means continual. That is to say, radiation is continual radiating light a decreasing dose. [1,4]
  • What is The Radiation ? Table 1.1. Periodic Table ( Source : Michael Dayah http://dayah.com/periodic/ )
  • Radiation Kinds The atoms are constituted by two neutron and two proton throw helium core for get lighter to become determined. This throwing radiating light is named “alfa radiation “. [3] Alfa light is heavier seven thousand three hundred than electron. It is becoming in elements natural ways to atom number greater than eighty three. Alfa lights also lost their energy on short ways from pair burden (++) and fallen speed ( from big mass ). It is making thousand ionisation in one centimeter air. The strong alfa particle maximum ten centimeters pass through. In densier materials, this ratio is more fallen. Alfa lights will be stoped by a paper. They are not danger for dead layer founded in human skins.[4]
  • What is The Radiation ? If indecision is about from cores borden distribution, neutron will be transformed a proton and an electron then it will hold the proton in core and throw the electron. This throwing radiation is named “ beta radiation ”. [1,3] Beta lights will be installed positive ( positron ) or negative ( negatron ). The beta lights are becoming lighter, faster and installed one burden from alfa lights, its ratio higher for air and skin ratios. Average an energy is had by beta light have three meter ratio in air. If a beta light pass closed by core, it will interact core’s positive burden, missing speed and it will sway like x-light is named “ bremsstranhlung radiation “ to kinetic energy. [4] If an atom come determined to give much energy, it will do a popping out is named “ gama radiation ”. [3]
  • What is The Radiation ? Figure 2.2. Ionazing Radiation ( Source : http://slideshare.net/ion_rad.pdf )
  • Radiation Source Human life is started to meating environmental radiation more than three billion years from today. Humans understood to living an radiational environment becoming natural causes between 1890 to 1920. Each people is exposed to radiation whether natural or artificial. [4] This exposed radiation either seems any biological effects nor seems like reach death. The important thing is which radiation dose making biological damage and cancer cause of ionize in biol. [5]
  • Radiation Using Places Atom core’s expose to view an energy with a chemical reaction and its reason of there will be an explosion which named nuclear weapon. There are different names for appearing nuclear energy kinds like atom bomb, hydrogen bomb, fusion bomb, thermonuclear weapon etc... [7] In nuclear weapons, U-235 and Pu-239 are mostly using materials.Because this materials have becoming low energy, if they hit an neutron, they will crack two different mass with a high energy. Each of their connection will finish a chaning reaction. [7] Radiation is using today to find archaeological investigation for calculating date with carbon 14 method. [2] Some cosmic tiny kernels which come form space meet with some of carbon dioxide molecules are founded up to the atmosphere and thats conflagrations are bomb to determined carbon-12 atom continual. The carbon-12 atom take two neutron to its construction and become carbon-14 which shown radioactive special feature. The ruined carbon-14 atom is transformation to nitrogen-14 gas. [1,2]
  • Radiation Quantity The science world gave “ bekerel ” name for unit of radiation. Because the respect of Bekerel who worked first radiation works. But some of scientist who are working on radiation biological effects, they put on a new unit for using radiation sucked parts. The “ rem ” is using for radiation staying time in body of a new unit. [1] First radiation unit was “ curi ”. The bekerel unit is using approximately one milligram broadcasting radiation instead of curi. One bekerel is twent-seven pikocuri. In a mineral water measurement will found ten bekerel radiation. [1] Pilots, roentgen technicians, television technicians are exposed to five rem radiation in one year. [1] Some radioactive elements are staying in body between fifteen or twenty day have a like iron, iodine structures. Some radiational element structures like barium, indium, cripton and technisium are not stay more than twelve hours. Calcium and stronsium are the most staying radioactive materials in body. [3] The radioactive materials are evaluating by “ geiger meter ”. But it is not give radiation kinds. [1]
  • Nuclear Weapon Effect Fire ball heat pushes the air. This is the first effect. Second effect is assaulting become empty heat air instead of the cold air. Exactly, undestroyed structures which do not destroyed heat ait effect will destroyed second cold air effect. Its dangerious ratio is percent forty-five. [7] Figure 6.1. Atom Bomb Test ( Source : http://interesan.com/ )
  • Radiation Influance Effect The radiation will be show different effects with obstacle meeting. It will passing some materials but some materials are hold it. This is different for each radiation. [1] The alfa light will stop a paper, an beta light will stop a plastic. If gama light wanted to stoped, it will be stop with lead wall. [1] Nuclear weapons destroying effects are become distant for increasing and its effects are bound to meteorological broadcasting range. Its effects order is air, water, soil and body. So it will said the biggest effect of radiation is air effects. [1]
  • Radiation Biological Effect The radiation is bumbing a molecule, constituted first thing is ionize to molecule for electron’s break of to atom. This situation is air become ionazing for daily life. [2] When radiation is being water surface in biols and tissue’s ionizing, it is causing of oxygen increasing with chemical operation. The oxygen increasing is speeding up to biol activity for fallen dose radiation and more than radiation dosages are realize to biol death. The thermal springs are having active radiation where chronic illness treatments with low dosage sides in biols. So that biols are getting younger. [2] Radiation effects on genetic information system DNA, some radiation kinds making death biols but some radiation kinds are changing genetic codes. If this radiation kinds are using inspecting for destroying cancer’s biols. [2]
  • Radiation Infection Ways On air there are normal quantity radioactive carbon and low quantity radon and most taken natural radiation is exposed to continents traveling with airplane. So that it is about staying high places. For example, a human is exposed to thirty milirem radiation on sea level and one hundred milirem on high land level. [2] A radiation accident or bomb, radiation firstly appear on air. There will be appear a radioactive cloud. A cloud motion is giving shape to radiation broadcasting motion. Consequeently, radiation broadcasting movement is designated by meteorological events. This radiation cloud’s most important danger is radiation rain. [2]
  • Nuclear Power Plant The radiation is not have any effect about social in normal conditions. It is validate for striving about radiation. Chernobil accident is a cause of negligence and using rest technology. A lot of grew up country preference to nuclear energy. [1,3] There is a nuclear power plant fifty kilometers close to Paris and each one of four electric bulb are using the nuclear energy in Europe. So that it is a ignorance of protesting the nuclear power. [1,3] Figure 10.1. Nuclear Power Plant ( Source : http://images.google.com/ )
  • Radiation Injure and Protect Radiation lights are affcted directly DNA and protein like important biological molecules. Radiation also affect some chemical compounds and giving damage with making unrestricted fundamental biological compounds. Its first affect is destroying to DNA’s chromosome structures. [5] Prenatal radiation effects are changing according to embryo and fetus growing period. If a radiation light will taken after the insemination week, egg will die and organ formation period, there will be growing defeat, unchaste, skeleton, soft lesion, mongoloid, leukemia, cancer seen. [5] If exposed to radiation must be exhausted many potassium nourishment like melon, watermelon and taking fresh air with vitamin b. Radiation ratio is too much in a place, this place must be covered with concrete, evacuate people to three hundred kilometers away, escape to closer shelters and burry to radioactive things under the eleven meter deep.
  • Radiation Injure and Protect Figure 11.2. Escaping From Radiation Plan ( Source : http://geocities.com/kafkasfizik/ )
  • Referances 1- Doç.Dr.Adil Gediklioglu, Atom Ve Çekirdek Fiğine Giriş , İnönü Üniversitesi Yayınları, 1981 2- Salahattin Göksel, Radyasyonların biyolojik etkileri ve korunma yolları,1979 3- Uzm. Dr. Hakan YAREN, Prof. Dr. Ecz. Turan KARAYILANOGLU TSK Koruyucu Hekimlik Bülteni, 2005: 4 (4) 4- Yard. Doç. Dr. Hüseyin Bora Ankara Üniversitesi Dikimevi Sağlık Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksekokulu Yıllığı Cilt 2 Sayı 1 2001 5- Dr. Arif Bozbıyık, Dr. Çağlar Özdemir, Dr. Hamit Hancı Radyasyon Yaralanmaları ve Korunma Yöntemleri ; Yearbook 2002, cilt 11, sayı 7 6- Köksal M. : Radyasyon Güvenliği, Ankara, Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu Yayınları 7- Dr. Özgür Demirkan, Dr. Çağlar Özdemir Nükleer Silahlar : Yearbook 2001, cilt 10, sayı 10 8- Prof. Dr. Yücel Pak, Radyasyon Onkolojisi ve Radyoterapi Kavramları : Ankara Üniversitesi Dikimevi Sağlık Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksek Okulu Yıllığı, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 2001 Afetlerde hemşirelik bakımı ve ilk yardım, Açıköğretim Fakültesi yayınları, 1992 9- Irving Kaplan, Nükleer Fizik, 1965