ParaUse para to indicate the recipient of items In order tooto, in order to, so as to, in order not to, so as not to. Intended for for, for the purpose of, intended for
Indirect Object PronounsThe IO tells us where the DO is going.The IO answers the question "to whom?" or "for whom" the action of the verb isperformed. me compra le compra buys (for) me buys (for) her te compra nos compra buys (for) you buys (for) us les compra os compra buys (for) them buys (for) you-all
Object pronoun placement• Attach the pronoun to the infinitive• Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense• Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command• Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
Gustar means to like. Gustar is notconjugated like other verbs, gustar in conjuated depending on the object. Gustar
Affirmative and negative wordsNada NothingNadie No oneNinguno Not any, noneTampoco Neither, eitherAlgo SomethingAlguien SomeoneAlguno SomeTambien Also
SuperlativesMalo MalisimoMuchas MuchisimasFacil Facilisimo• Superlatives are added to adjectives or adverbs• Used to mean very or extremely
Reflexives• Used with reflexive verbs to indicate the subject receives the action of the verb.• When using the reflexive verb, you must use an indirect object pronoun.Me- to me Nos-to usTe-to youLe-to him/to her Les-to them
Affirmative commands/irregular/pronoun placementCommon commands Di Haz Use affirmative commands to Ve tell someone what to do. Pon Sal Se Ten Ven
Negative tu commands/irregular/pronoun placement • Used to tell what not to do.Examples:Negative TÚ commandNo hables mucho Don’t talk a lotNo contestes las preguntas Don’t answer questionsNegative TÚ commandNo tomes Don’t drinkNo trabajes Don’t work
Sequencing EventsFirst Primerothen entonces Used to transitionbefore antes between different events or describeafter despues when you doFinally finalmente something.Later luego
Preterits Ar Er and Iré amos í imosaste isteó aron ió ieron
Trigger wordslast night anochethis morning esta mañanathis afternoon esta tardelast week semana pasadathis week esta semanaone time una vezthe other day el otro díalast weekend fin de semana pasado
Car, Gar, Zar Tocar Jugar Comenzar Toqué Jugué Comencé Tocaste Jugaste Comenzaste Tocó Jugó ComenzóTocamos Jugamos ComemzamosTocaron jugaron comenzaron The only form that changes is the “yo” form.
Deber means ought to orshould Deber infinitive Conjugate deber and add the not conjugated infinitive
Modal Verbs• Deber-should to, ought Normal verbs to which have past / present / future• Necesitar-to need tenses and• Querer-to want "aspects.“• Desear-to desire Sometimes known as auxiliary verbs.• Saber-to know• Poder-can, could, be able to• Soler-used to, usually
Present Progressive• Steps to use a present progressive 1)add estar and conjugate it according to the subject. ex: Yo estoy 2)change the ending of the verb to ando/iendo/yendo. When the stem of an er/ir verb ends in a vowel, change the iendo to yendo.• Keep in mind some verbs have irregular present participial forms.
AdverbsWhen the adjective When the adjectiveends in e, l, or z Fácilmente ends in o FelizmenteJust add mente to the Replace o with an aending. and add mente. Lenatmenta Rapidementa Tranquilamente Frecuentemente Especialmente When using two adverbs, only add the mente to the second one.