Population geography intro

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Population geography intro

  1. 2. <ul><li>There are a lot of people in the world and more all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently over 6.77 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates are that it will be over 9 billion by 2050. That’s almost a 50% increase in just 44 years! </li></ul><ul><li>When we look at global population or at population at a national scale, we look at a variety of factors. </li></ul>
  2. 4. Population Distribution This is the pattern of where people are located in an area. Generally, 75% of the world’s population lives within 1000km of the coastline. In Australia, that is almost 90% of our population lives within 100km of the coastline.
  3. 5. Population Density This is the average number of people within a square kilometre. It is the number of people / total land area Population Density 2009
  4. 8. <ul><li>Things that affect population growth: </li></ul><ul><li>Birth rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of live births for every 1,000 people in a given population. </li></ul></ul>Birth Rates 2008
  5. 9. <ul><li>Mortality rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of deaths per every thousand people in a given population. </li></ul></ul>Death Rates 2006
  6. 10. Natural Increase This is the birth rate minus the death rate. It is expressed in people per 1000 population. It does NOT include migration Positive number = increasing population Negative number = decreasing population Natural Increase 2010
  7. 11. <ul><li>Fertility rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The estimated number of children a woman may have in her lifetime in a given population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The replacement rate is a fertility rate of 2.1 children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are two parents, so two kids are needed to replace them. It’s 2.1 because you have to account for accidental deaths of young children. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The worldwide rate is now about 3.0. So we’re increasing. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. Fertility Rates 2006
  9. 13. <ul><li>Infant mortality rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of deaths of infants (under 1yr) per every 1000 live births. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This statistic is often used to gauge the health and healthcare abilities of a nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia has a low infant mortality rate with a rate of 4.4 in 2010, ranked 19 th in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can sometimes be a troublesome statistic because there is no uniform method across countries of measuring it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some countries don’t count it if the child dies within the first day, for example, or if it doesn’t breath upon birth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are also self-reported by each country and some may be motivated to play with the numbers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also, the more developed countries (with the will) will attempt to deliver at-risk babies at earlier times in the term. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 14. Infant Mortality (Year not specified)
  11. 15. The proportion of a population in different age groups is the Population Structure . It is normally measured in 3 categories: 0-14 year olds 15-64 years olds 65 and over year olds The Economically active population is the portion of the population that works and pays taxes. This the number of people in the 15-64 age bracket The Dependent population is the portion of the population that is supported by the workforce. This is the number of people in the under 15 and over 65 age brackets. We can compare the size of the dependent population to the size of the workforce by calculating the Dependency Ratio . It is a percentage. A high dependency ratio means an increased burden on the productive part of the population to maintain the upbringing and pensions of the economically dependent
  12. 16. <ul><li>Population pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>A graph which shows the population structure for males and females for a particular place. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the age and gender distribution of a society. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows geographers to evaluate the effect of different events. </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>1. Carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of land to support a population. The greater its carrying capacity, the more people it can support. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Doubling Time </li></ul><ul><li>The length of time it will take for the population to double in size. </li></ul>
  14. 18. Population Growth Rate This is the rate at which the number of people in a population increases. It includes migration. Population Growth Rate 2006
  15. 19. GNI PPP Per Capita 2007 Gross National Income Comprises the value within a country, the value of goods and services produced, together with its income received from other countries, less similar payments made to other countries. Purchasing Power Parity equalises different currencies.
  16. 20. <ul><li>Push-pull factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that compel people to migrate, either compelling them to leave an area (pushing them out) or that which attracts them to new areas (pulls them towards it). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are historical examples of each? </li></ul></ul>

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