Term paper in Childrens Literature


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Term paper in Childrens Literature

  1. 1. Lyceum-Northwestern University Urdaneta City Campus Nancayasan, Urdaneta City Term paper In Children’s literature Submitted By: Emilyn R. Ragasa Submitted To: Mr. Ernesto Bisquera Sr.
  2. 2. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION - The act of communicating; transmission. 1. The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. 2. Interpersonal rapport 3. The act or process of communicating; fact of being communicated. 4. The imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs. 5. Something imparted interchanged, or transmitted, esp. a document or message giving news, information, etc. 6. Passage, or an opportunity or means of passage, between places. 7. Means of sending messages, orders, etc., including telephone, telegraph, radio, and television. 8. Routes and transportation for moving troops and supplies from a base to an area of operations. 9. The professions of journalism, broadcasting, etc. 10. The techniques used to communicate information. 11. The study of these skills, as writing or broadcasting. 12. Activity by one organism that changes or has the potential to change the behavior of other organisms. 13. Transfer of information from one cell or molecule to another, as by chemical or electrical signals.
  3. 3. MEANS TO PARTICIPATE IN COMMUNICATION  Step 1 Listen actively. When you are receiving a message, look at the speaker and strive for eye contact. Try to rephrase the message in your head as you receive it. Nod your head or provide other nonverbal cues to make it clear that you are receiving and understanding the message. By listening in this interactive manner, you make the speaker feel respected and improve your chances of truly understanding the message being sent.  Step 2 Stay on topic. Even if you have a question about another workplace issue, to be respectful to your communication partners you should not veer off topic. You will be optimally effective if you first conclude your discussion of the current topic before broaching another one. If you do attempt to hijack the conversation, you likely will offend your communication partners.  Step 3 Study the subtext. To be an ultimately effective communicator, you must understand what underlies the message you receive. Management consultant Peter Drucker once said, “The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn't said.” Instead of taking a message at face value, use what you know about the message sender and her feelings about the topic to make educated guesses as to what she may mean.  Step 4 Answer “yes” whenever you can. If your first response to any question is always, “no,” members of your workplace will be unlikely to involve you in communication as they already know the result. Instead of answering no, always try to meet in the middle, agreeing to at least some part of the request.  Step 5 Format your message carefully. How you say something is as important as what you are saying. Even the best message can fall on deaf ears if you don’t format your message in a
  4. 4. manner that is both understandable and unlikely to offend. Particularly when communicating through a written medium, review your message several times before clicking send or printing out the penned memo. Ask yourself first if the message is understandable to all who will receive it. If it isn’t, it won’t be optimally effective. Finish by considering whether there is anything that could be offensive -- such as the inadvertent placing of blame -- as offensive messages will do more harm than good. A. NON-VERBAL SIGNS There are many different types of nonverbal communication. Together, the following nonverbal signals and cues communicate your interest and investment in others.  Facial expressions The human face is extremely expressive, able to express countless emotions without saying a word. And unlike some forms of nonverbal communication, facial expressions are universal. The facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust are the same across cultures.  Body movements and posture Consider how your perceptions of people are affected by the way they sit, walk, stand up, or hold their head. The way you move and carry you communicates a wealth of information to the world. This type of nonverbal communication includes your posture, bearing, stance, and subtle movements.  Gestures Gestures are woven into the fabric of our daily lives. We wave, point, beckon, and use our hands when we’re arguing or speaking animatedly—expressing ourselves with gestures often without thinking. However, the meaning of gestures can be very different across cultures and regions, so it’s important to be careful to avoid misinterpretation.
  5. 5.  Eye contact Since the visual sense is dominant for most people, eye contact is an especially important type of nonverbal communication. The way you look at someone can communicate many things, including interest, affection, hostility, or attraction. Eye contact is also important in maintaining the flow of conversation and for gauging the other person’s response.  Touch We communicate a great deal through touch. Think about the messages given by the following: a weak handshake, a timid tap on the shoulder, a warm bear hug, a reassuring slap on the back, a patronizing pat on the head, or a controlling grip on your arm.  Space Have you ever felt uncomfortable during a conversation because the other person was standing too close and invading your space? We all have a need for physical space, although that need differs depending on the culture, the situation, and the closeness of the relationship. You can use physical space to communicate many different nonverbal messages, including signals of intimacy and affection, aggression or dominance.  Voice It’s not just what you say; it’s how you say it. When we speak, other people “read” our voices in addition to listening to our words. Things they pay attention to include your timing and pace, how loud you speak, your tone and inflection, and sound that convey understanding, such as “ahh” and “uh-huh.” Think about how someone's tone of voice, for example, can indicate sarcasm, anger, affection, or confidence.
  6. 6. Evaluating nonverbal signals Eye contact Is eye contact being made? If so, is it overly intense or just right? Facial expression What is their face showing? Is it masklike and unexpressive, or emotionally present and filled with interest? Tone of voice Does their voice project warmth, confidence, and interest, or is it strained and blocked? Posture and gesture Are their bodies relaxed or stiff and immobile? Are shoulders tense and raised, or slightly sloped? Touch Is there any physical contact? Is it appropriate to the situation? Does it make you feel uncomfortable? Intensity Do they seem flat, cool, and disinterested, or over-the-top and melodramatic? Timing and pace Is there an easy flow of information back and forth? Do nonverbal responses come too quickly or too slowly? Sounds Do you hear sounds that indicate caring or concern? B. VERBAL SIGNS Verbal symbols are words, sentences, sounds, or other utterances that are said aloud in order to convey some meaning.  Advantages Of Verbal Communication In a world flooded with E-mail and other text-based communication, verbal communication has several advantages over other forms of communication. For example, we can slow down and present points one-by-one and make sure that each point is clearly communicated and understood before moving on to the next point. This can greatly increase both the speed and accuracy of communication. Verbal communication is far more precise than non-verbal cues. No matter how clear we believe we are being, different gestures have different interpretations between different cultures and even between two members of the same culture.
  7. 7. One famous example is Richard Nixon’s use of the victory finger salute in Australia, as he was unaware that the gesture was a vulgarity there. However, verbal communication is most effective when combined with other forms of communication like body language and gestures to help cue the intensity of the verbiage. Verbal communication is also the most effective way of explaining intangible concepts, as problem areas can be readily addressed and explained. Verbal communication also does not use natural resources in the way that technological methods or printing can.  Disadvantages of Verbal Communication Of course, this does not mean that verbal communication is the best option in every circumstance. From a legal point of view, verbal communication is sometimes problematic because there is a much smaller chance of an objective record. Verbal communication can also be quickly forgotten, especially if there are multiple points to consider. Additionally, there is always the possibility of miscommunications leading to angry responses or quick escalation of a situation that could be less intense in written form.  Four Purposes Of Communication There are four basic purposes for communication. Almost all of these purposes are better served through verbal communication than other options like E-Mail or print. First, communication can be used to convey information. Of all the purposes of communication, this is the one that can be adequately accomplished through text- based media as well as verbally. Many businesses use E-mail or interoffice memos in this way. It is used simply to pass information such as meeting times or new policies from administration to employees.
  8. 8. Second, communication can be used to ask for help. Asking verbally for help has been shown to trigger natural empathy in the listener more than text-based communication. Often seeing the person asking for help increases the likelihood that a request will be granted. Like other verbal communication, verbal requests also mean that a request can be stated clearly and any miscommunication can be immediately rectified. The third purpose of communication is to influence a listener or audience. This is the type of communication used by politicians. While this includes non-verbal cues like appearance and dress, the most important aspect is what words and syntax they choose to use. This is the most important component of influencing an audience. The fourth and final form is entertainment. Once again there is a clear advantage to verbal communication over text-based communications. For example, most of the top comedians in the country make their living in live shows where they can readily interact with an audience rather than in text-based communication like books or websites. CATEGORIES OF COMMUNICATION 1. Upward communication — when a subordinate communicates directly to his superior or supervisor. 2. Downward communication—when a superior or supervisor communicates directly to his subordinates. 3. On-the-same-level — when a supervisor or an executive communicates directly with other people or executives on the same level as his in the organization. 4. Diagonal — When a supervisor and a subordinate not under him communicate to each other, as a production man communicating with the marketing manager
  9. 9. ACCORDING TO GOALS AND PURPOSES 1. Purpose and goal are almost similar and one could hardly come across any difference between the two at one glance. Purpose and goal are interlinked, which makes it hard to make out a difference between the two. 2. One of the main differences that can be seen between the two is in the time factor. People try to reach their goals by setting deadlines. On the other hand, deadlines are not applicable in a purpose. Goal can be called as the point one wishes to achieve. On the other hand, purpose can be called as the reason one aims at to achieve a goal. Unlike purposes, goals always go forward in a specific direction. Purpose which is all about direction, is that something that influences goals. Unlike goal, purpose is broader and deeper. Purpose is directly influenced by the values and beliefs one holds. Purpose is deeply rooted in a person. Unlike goals, purpose can b said to be central to human life. Goals can be measured whereas purpose cannot be measured. In goals, the end result can be seen whereas in purpose, it is not that visible. Goals can also be called as the objectives or aims that a person seeks. Goal is that which one wants to accomplish. It involves the establishing of specific, realistic and attainable objectives. Goals have a specific target. On the other hand, Purpose does not have a specific aim. Goals can be short term, long term or personal. However, a purpose cannot be short or long term but only pertains to something personal. Purpose can be termed as a fundamental need of a human being, which gives a meaning to his actions. There is always a purpose behind all goals.
  10. 10. Summary 1. People try to reach their goals by setting deadlines. On the other hand, deadlines are not applicable in purposes. 2. Goal can be called as the point one wishes to achieve. On the other hand, purpose can be called as the reason one aims at to achieve a goal. 3. Unlike a goal, a purpose is broader and deeper. 4. Goals can be measured whereas purposes cannot be measured. 5. Goals have a specific target. On the other hand, purposes do not have a specific aim. 6. Purpose can be termed as a fundamental need of a human being which gives a meaning to their actions. There is always a purpose behind all goals. 7. In goals, the end result can be seen whereas in purpose, it is not that visible.