Sonata form
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Sonata form Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Sonata Form - Explained
  • 2. Sonata Form
    Tchaikovsky’s Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture is written in sonata form
    Sonata form is a type of structure, based on the relationship between keys, that became popular in the Classical Period
    Romantic composers, such as Tchaikovsky, adapted classical sonata form in their compositions
    Sonata form can also be described as Ternary form (ABA) as it has three main sections: Exposition, Development and Recapitulation
    Sonata form can also be extended to include an introduction and coda
  • 3. Sonata Form Diagram
  • 4. Introduction
    The tempo of the introduction is usually slower than that of the exposition
    The musical themes are often independent of those presented in the exposition
    The opening Friar Lawrence theme forms the Introduction of Tchaikovsky’s Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture
  • 5. Exposition
    In the exposition the main themes
    are exposed for the first time
    The themes are divided into two groups called subjects: the first subject and the second subject
    The first subject is generally rhythmic, fast and in the tonic key
    The Strife theme in Romeo and Juliet is the first subject
  • 6. Exposition (contd.)
    After the first subject there is a transition period before the music moves to the second subject
    During this transition period the music changes key
    The second subject is usually much more lyrical and beautiful than the first. It is in a related key (either the dominant or relative minor)
    Tchaikovsky’s second subject is unusual as it doesn’t modulate to the relative major but instead to a key a semitone lower
    The second subject in the Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture has two parts
  • 7. Exposition (contd.)
    The second subject (part 1) is the familiar Love theme
    The second subject (part 2) is the extended love section:
  • 8. Development
    Fragments of material heard in the Exposition are developed in this section
    The themes can be developed by changing the texture, key and order of themes
    The themes can also be developed by using compositional devices such as dialogue and sequence
    In the development of the R+J overture Tchaikovsky fuses fragments of the Strife and Friar Lawrence themes together to reflect what is happening in the story
  • 9. Recapitulation
    This section restates the music of the exposition but with a few changes
    Usually the second subject will now be in the tonic key to help resolve the tension
    This does not happen in the R+J overture. Instead the music moves finally to the relative major key of D major for the second subject.
    In the Recapitulation the second subjects also occur in a different order with the second subject (part 2) coming before the second subject (part 1) this time
  • 10. Coda
    A Coda is often added in the tonic key after the recapitulation to complete the movement
    In R+J the coda establishes the mood of a funeral
    Though the exact themes cannot be heard, an altered love theme is heard at the start to represent the lovers’ deaths
    A chorale tune not unlike the Friar Lawrence theme is also heard in this section