pest and disease surveillance and the role of new technology Dr Mike Robson, Plant Protection Service, FAO Dar Es Salaam, ...
outline of presentation <ul><li>what is surveillance  </li></ul><ul><li>improving national surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>...
1.  what is surveillance? <ul><li>“  The ongoing systematic collection and analysis of data and the provision of informati...
applied to plant pests & diseases... According to the international standard,  “ ISPM 6: Guidelines on Surveillance”
...official surveys <ul><li>are for 3 purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>detection  – establish the baseline (what pests are pres...
<ul><li>comments on a full reading of ISPM 6... </li></ul><ul><li>...the definitions are oriented towards international  t...
<ul><li>surveillance and reporting is already more established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OIE reporting rules (use of WAHIS),  ...
...but, why DO surveillance? <ul><li>[ this is a REAL question – will it actually help?; surveillance is not an end in its...
2.  improving national surveillance <ul><li>Ministry of Agriculture may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have roving survey activity ...
in most countries, common problems with surveillance are to: <ul><li>reinforce  partnerships  between the different agenci...
3. technology to support surveillance
stages in surveillance <ul><li>Data capture </li></ul><ul><li>=>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>=>Warning Messages </li></...
data, information, knowledge <ul><li>data => how many affected, where </li></ul><ul><li>information => (data with context)...
technology for surveillance  data capture <ul><li>Pen and paper (<$1/user) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone ($1-200?) </li></u...
comparing technologies for data capture <ul><li>not designed for field use </li></ul><ul><li>- expensive  </li></ul>- maxi...
technologies for analysis <ul><li>needs a database of survey records </li></ul><ul><li>visualise raw data (charts) and spa...
technologies for sharing warning <ul><li>broadcast – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>news media (TV, radio, newspaper) </li></ul></u...
Some current examples
SMS –  used for data collection over a wide area <ul><ul><li>install software to manage (receive and send) large number of...
Digital Pen –  used in a pilot for livestock surveillance in Namibia <ul><ul><li>used by vet inspectors </li></ul></ul><ul...
P.D.A. - c rop surveillance project in India, to quantify pest and disease outbreaks <ul><ul><li>handheld device used by d...
 
… scale of P.D.A. exercise <ul><li>after initial test, running in 9 districts – both rain-fed and irrigated - in Andhra Pr...
Next, a cell-phone based surveillance  pilot in Tanzania
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Fao Presentation 31 3 2008 To Tanzania Surveillance Workshop

933 views
866 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
933
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
16
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fao Presentation 31 3 2008 To Tanzania Surveillance Workshop

  1. 1. pest and disease surveillance and the role of new technology Dr Mike Robson, Plant Protection Service, FAO Dar Es Salaam, 31 March 2008
  2. 2. outline of presentation <ul><li>what is surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>improving national surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>technology to support surveillance </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. what is surveillance? <ul><li>“ The ongoing systematic collection and analysis of data and the provision of information which leads to action being taken to prevent and control a (pest or) disease”... </li></ul><ul><li>www.medterms.com </li></ul>
  4. 4. applied to plant pests & diseases... According to the international standard, “ ISPM 6: Guidelines on Surveillance”
  5. 5. ...official surveys <ul><li>are for 3 purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>detection – establish the baseline (what pests are present – emphasis on identification) – drawing up pest list) </li></ul><ul><li>delimiting - how far has a problem spread (quantification, mapping) – establishing pest free areas for bactrocera invadens </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring – repeated to identify trends </li></ul><ul><li>[from ISPM 6] </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>comments on a full reading of ISPM 6... </li></ul><ul><li>...the definitions are oriented towards international trade , (and focus on obligations of NPPO) </li></ul><ul><li>...it is an international standard, some things may seem ‘strange’ in local context or theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>however, the reality is that international pest reporting under IPPC is only just starting </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>surveillance and reporting is already more established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OIE reporting rules (use of WAHIS), guidance on establishing freedom from animal disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National monitoring using own tools, such as TADinfo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>animal movements make diseases more difficult to track/ map; diagnosis requires sampling to support observations </li></ul><ul><li>however, there are potentially fewer disease/ host combinations </li></ul>for animals
  8. 8. ...but, why DO surveillance? <ul><li>[ this is a REAL question – will it actually help?; surveillance is not an end in itself!] </li></ul><ul><li>survey in order to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recognise new problems early , ‘nip in the bud’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor pest or disease free status to be able to trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide early warning to nearby districts who may be affected, particularly if pests or diseases are avoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand patterns and trends ( research ) to counter in longer term </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2. improving national surveillance <ul><li>Ministry of Agriculture may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have roving survey activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>undertake fixed plot research (direct or through university) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carry out specific pest control activities, eg for fruit flies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local district agriculture officers </li></ul><ul><li>Local agricultural research stations </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer field schools, other development projects </li></ul>
  10. 10. in most countries, common problems with surveillance are to: <ul><li>reinforce partnerships between the different agencies involved </li></ul><ul><li>provide adequate people, equipment, funds for data collection; standardise methods, data collection formats </li></ul><ul><li>improve technical capacity to analyse, map data </li></ul><ul><li>develop communications to issue timely warning messages at right level </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3. technology to support surveillance
  12. 12. stages in surveillance <ul><li>Data capture </li></ul><ul><li>=>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>=>Warning Messages </li></ul><ul><li>=>Monitoring trends over time </li></ul>
  13. 13. data, information, knowledge <ul><li>data => how many affected, where </li></ul><ul><li>information => (data with context) it is getting worse, or better; it depends on the weather... </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge => what needs to be done (this is normal, it won’t affect yield; low cost practices to assist a “natural” solution; treat or spray) </li></ul>
  14. 14. technology for surveillance data capture <ul><li>Pen and paper (<$1/user) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone ($1-200?) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistant – PDA ($5-700) </li></ul><ul><li>Laptop ($1500) </li></ul>
  15. 15. comparing technologies for data capture <ul><li>not designed for field use </li></ul><ul><li>- expensive </li></ul>- maximum flexibility laptop <ul><li>more expensive </li></ul><ul><li>cost to implement </li></ul><ul><li>designed for field conditions </li></ul><ul><li>allows roving survey </li></ul><ul><li>data standardised </li></ul>PDA or other customised handheld device - running costs - no standard format - widely used already (minimal equipment costs) - data in digital form Cell phone - gets lost or “filed” - data cannot be used for multiple purposes - cheap, accessible - minimal training needed Paper Against For Method
  16. 16. technologies for analysis <ul><li>needs a database of survey records </li></ul><ul><li>visualise raw data (charts) and spatially (maps) </li></ul><ul><li>view data over time , to establish patterns in incidence, change/spread </li></ul><ul><li>include other factors (soil, climate, roads), to explain/establish causes </li></ul><ul><li>develop models to identify where there might be a threat </li></ul>
  17. 17. technologies for sharing warning <ul><li>broadcast – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>news media (TV, radio, newspaper) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>posters, other informational materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>targeted – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extension workers - training activities, specialist “clinics” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer-to-peer information sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dial-in response services, hotline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cell phone </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Some current examples
  19. 19. SMS – used for data collection over a wide area <ul><ul><li>install software to manage (receive and send) large number of SMS messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>train users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bangladesh, for farmers to report local rising flood water levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Bengal, for early reporting of avian influenza </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>track messages and report, issue warnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>format of messages, ease of integration with database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>confidence in reports? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resources to follow up? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Digital Pen – used in a pilot for livestock surveillance in Namibia <ul><ul><li>used by vet inspectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on a standard form printed on special paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a pen with built-in camera to record and transmit image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard copy can also be retained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- - - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- technically complex (pen, communications, handwriting recognition software, database) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- proprietary (SA company), so expensive, recurring costs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. P.D.A. - c rop surveillance project in India, to quantify pest and disease outbreaks <ul><ul><li>handheld device used by district research station scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>touch screen, protected against water & dust; daylight viewing screen, long battery life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has GPS and sensors for humidity, temp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows surveyors to return to precise spot and monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- - - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- equipment can prove device was taken to field but not accuracy of what was recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- still requires trained surveyors </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. … scale of P.D.A. exercise <ul><li>after initial test, running in 9 districts – both rain-fed and irrigated - in Andhra Pradesh (total area covered approx 100,000 sq km) for March-October, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>equipment set up for cotton, rice, groundnut, pulses </li></ul><ul><li>180 devices to be deployed </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially for use by trained surveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Initially 20/ district (need to train new surveyors) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Next, a cell-phone based surveillance pilot in Tanzania

×