Fao Presentation 31 3 2008 To Tanzania Surveillance Workshop
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Fao Presentation 31 3 2008 To Tanzania Surveillance Workshop Fao Presentation 31 3 2008 To Tanzania Surveillance Workshop Presentation Transcript

  • pest and disease surveillance and the role of new technology Dr Mike Robson, Plant Protection Service, FAO Dar Es Salaam, 31 March 2008
  • outline of presentation
    • what is surveillance
    • improving national surveillance
    • technology to support surveillance
  • 1. what is surveillance?
    • “ The ongoing systematic collection and analysis of data and the provision of information which leads to action being taken to prevent and control a (pest or) disease”...
    • www.medterms.com
  • applied to plant pests & diseases... According to the international standard, “ ISPM 6: Guidelines on Surveillance”
  • ...official surveys
    • are for 3 purposes:
    • detection – establish the baseline (what pests are present – emphasis on identification) – drawing up pest list)
    • delimiting - how far has a problem spread (quantification, mapping) – establishing pest free areas for bactrocera invadens
    • monitoring – repeated to identify trends
    • [from ISPM 6]
    • comments on a full reading of ISPM 6...
    • ...the definitions are oriented towards international trade , (and focus on obligations of NPPO)
    • ...it is an international standard, some things may seem ‘strange’ in local context or theoretical
    • however, the reality is that international pest reporting under IPPC is only just starting
    • surveillance and reporting is already more established
      • OIE reporting rules (use of WAHIS), guidance on establishing freedom from animal disease
      • National monitoring using own tools, such as TADinfo
    • animal movements make diseases more difficult to track/ map; diagnosis requires sampling to support observations
    • however, there are potentially fewer disease/ host combinations
    for animals
  • ...but, why DO surveillance?
    • [ this is a REAL question – will it actually help?; surveillance is not an end in itself!]
    • survey in order to:
      • recognise new problems early , ‘nip in the bud’
      • monitor pest or disease free status to be able to trade
      • provide early warning to nearby districts who may be affected, particularly if pests or diseases are avoidable
      • understand patterns and trends ( research ) to counter in longer term
  • 2. improving national surveillance
    • Ministry of Agriculture may
      • have roving survey activity
      • undertake fixed plot research (direct or through university)
      • carry out specific pest control activities, eg for fruit flies
    • Local district agriculture officers
    • Local agricultural research stations
    • Farmer field schools, other development projects
  • in most countries, common problems with surveillance are to:
    • reinforce partnerships between the different agencies involved
    • provide adequate people, equipment, funds for data collection; standardise methods, data collection formats
    • improve technical capacity to analyse, map data
    • develop communications to issue timely warning messages at right level
  • 3. technology to support surveillance
  • stages in surveillance
    • Data capture
    • =>Data Analysis
    • =>Warning Messages
    • =>Monitoring trends over time
  • data, information, knowledge
    • data => how many affected, where
    • information => (data with context) it is getting worse, or better; it depends on the weather...
    • knowledge => what needs to be done (this is normal, it won’t affect yield; low cost practices to assist a “natural” solution; treat or spray)
  • technology for surveillance data capture
    • Pen and paper (<$1/user)
    • Cell phone ($1-200?)
    • Personal Digital Assistant – PDA ($5-700)
    • Laptop ($1500)
  • comparing technologies for data capture
    • not designed for field use
    • - expensive
    - maximum flexibility laptop
    • more expensive
    • cost to implement
    • designed for field conditions
    • allows roving survey
    • data standardised
    PDA or other customised handheld device - running costs - no standard format - widely used already (minimal equipment costs) - data in digital form Cell phone - gets lost or “filed” - data cannot be used for multiple purposes - cheap, accessible - minimal training needed Paper Against For Method
  • technologies for analysis
    • needs a database of survey records
    • visualise raw data (charts) and spatially (maps)
    • view data over time , to establish patterns in incidence, change/spread
    • include other factors (soil, climate, roads), to explain/establish causes
    • develop models to identify where there might be a threat
  • technologies for sharing warning
    • broadcast –
      • news media (TV, radio, newspaper)
      • posters, other informational materials
    • targeted –
      • extension workers - training activities, specialist “clinics”
      • peer-to-peer information sharing
      • dial-in response services, hotline
      • cell phone
  • Some current examples
  • SMS – used for data collection over a wide area
      • install software to manage (receive and send) large number of SMS messages
      • train users
        • Bangladesh, for farmers to report local rising flood water levels
        • West Bengal, for early reporting of avian influenza
      • track messages and report, issue warnings
      • ---
      • format of messages, ease of integration with database
      • confidence in reports?
      • resources to follow up?
  • Digital Pen – used in a pilot for livestock surveillance in Namibia
      • used by vet inspectors
      • based on a standard form printed on special paper
      • a pen with built-in camera to record and transmit image
      • hard copy can also be retained
      • - - -
      • - technically complex (pen, communications, handwriting recognition software, database)
      • - proprietary (SA company), so expensive, recurring costs
  • P.D.A. - c rop surveillance project in India, to quantify pest and disease outbreaks
      • handheld device used by district research station scientists
      • touch screen, protected against water & dust; daylight viewing screen, long battery life
      • has GPS and sensors for humidity, temp.
      • allows surveyors to return to precise spot and monitor
      • - - -
      • - equipment can prove device was taken to field but not accuracy of what was recorded
      • - still requires trained surveyors
  • … scale of P.D.A. exercise
    • after initial test, running in 9 districts – both rain-fed and irrigated - in Andhra Pradesh (total area covered approx 100,000 sq km) for March-October, 2008
    • equipment set up for cotton, rice, groundnut, pulses
    • 180 devices to be deployed
    • Essentially for use by trained surveyors
    • Initially 20/ district (need to train new surveyors)
  • Next, a cell-phone based surveillance pilot in Tanzania