Three Needs Theory
- David McClelland
American psychological theorist David McClelland proposed human behavior is motivated by 3 needs
The Need for Achievement
- The extent to which success is valued by a person
Individuals with a high need for achievement generally seek positions offering personal responsibility in
which they can set moderately challenging goals and receive feedback on their performance. This trait is
not essential in relation to management as high achievers often focus on their own accomplishments
rather than working as a team or assisting others to achieve their goals.
The Need for Power
- The desire to have an impact on others or to establish or maintain personal prestige
Individuals motivated by power have a strong urge to lead others and enjoy status and recognition.
These individuals have the potential to be efficient and successful managers.
The Need for Affiliation
- The desire for social belongingness, emotional support and praise
Managerial decision making may be impeded by individuals motivated by affiliation due to the
underlying desire for such individuals to be liked. For this reason it is assumed individuals motivated by
the need for affiliation generally do not make good leaders.