Chapter 9Complex Cognitive Processes<br />Emily Richardson, Cisnell Baez, Blair Balchunas, Vas Kochura, Brian Browne, Lindsey Favacchia, Alex Crassaris, Azusa Higuchi<br />
Chapter Overview<br />It is important that students think deeply. This chapter looks at how teachers can guide students to engage in COMPLEX COGNITIVE PROCESSES like understanding concepts, solving problems and transferring what they learn to other settings.<br />
Conceptual Understanding<br />WHAT ARE CONCEPTS?Categories: they group objects, events and characteristics on the basis of common properties.Concepts: ideas about what categories represent.<br />
Defining Concepts & Providing ExamplesRule-Example Strategy<br />Define the concept<br />Clarify in terms of defintion<br />Give examples to illustrate key characteristics<br />Provide additional examples<br />
Thinking & Reasoning<br />What is thinking? Thinking involves manipulating & transforming memory.<br />REASONING:Inductive Reasoning – from the specific to the general.Analogies – Draw on inductive reasoningDeductive Reasoning – from the general to the specific<br />
Critical Thinking: thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating evidence<br />Decision Making: Involves evaluating alternates and making choices among them. EX: Weighing costs and benefits of various outcomes.<br />Creative Thinking: The ability to think about things in new & interesting ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.CONVERGENT THINKING vs DIVERGENT THINKING<br />
Problem Solving<br />Find & Frame Problems<br />Develop Good Problem-Solving StrategiesSubgoaling Algorithms Heuristics Means-End Analysis<br />Evaluate Solutions<br />Rethink and Redefine Problems & Solutions overtime<br />Obstacles to Solving Problems: Fixation, lack of motivation & persistance, inadequate emotional control.<br />
TRANSFER<br />What is transfer?: applying previous experiences and knowledge to learning or problem solving in a new situationTYPES OF TRANSFERNear TransferFar TransferLow Road & High Road TransferForward Reaching TransferBackward Reaching Transfer<br />
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