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Logo Logo Presentation Transcript

  • LOGO
  • What is Logo?
    • computer programming language designed for use by learners
    • also powerful and can be effectively used as a mathematical problem-solving tool without limits
    • originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the 1960's to allow people, even small children, to use computers as a learning tool
  • What is Logo?
    • Logo was based on LISP, a programming language used in artificial intelligence research
    • It is the language for learning and is a tool to teach the process of learning and thinking
  • Usage of Logo
    • widely used in the classrooms of Europe and Japan
    • In England, Logo is a mandated part of the national curriculum
    • Now that most schools have a lab such that each student can have their own computer, using Logo in the mathematics classroom can be even more powerful
  • How it works?
    • The computer interprets every command separately while the program is running rather than running a program that "compiles" the entire program into machine code.
    • a program that is "interpreted" runs more slowly
    • is actually a plus if you want to use Logo for education
    • Students can try their Logo procedures immediately and make changes and additions to their work easily with immediate results
  • Why Use Logo?
    • not limited to any particular topic or subject
    • has a natural tendency for the exploration of mathematics concepts and for promoting mathematical thinking
    • encourages students to explore and to think about the processes involved in developing mathematical ideas
    • The creation of a product becomes more important than the finished product itself
    • make the bridge from the concrete to the abstract, particularly with geometry and algebraic thinking
    • Turtle graphics - leads to natural investigations of geometry concepts with easy-to-learn commands
    • Logo provides an arena where students use algebra, need algebra and enjoy the productivity of algebra
    Why Use Logo?
  • LOGO as a Programming Language for Educational Applications
    • Theories of Jerome Bruner, a great promoter of Piagetian theory, clearly frame the significance of Logo as a tool for education.
    • Studies in Cognitive Growth - three modes of representing knowledge: enactive, iconic, and symbolic
    • enactive representation the significance of a stimulus is in the motor reaction it produces
    • Iconic representation is representing external objects with images, either internal or external
  • LOGO as a Programming Language for Educational Applications
    • symbolic representation is linguistic in nature
    • Children start out with primarily the enactive mode and progress through the dominance of the iconic mode to the modal Western adult form of symbolic representation
  • Turtle graphics and Bruner's forms of representation
    • The concept of a geometric figure, say a square, can be translated into enactive mode
    • The child may be instructed to walk forward 10 paces, turn right, walk forward 10 more paces, and so forth, until a square has been described on the floor. A connection can be made between these movements and the symbols FD 10 RT 90 FD 10 in this way, giving a concrete interpretation of a symbolic language. Finally, what the child sees as these commands are executed, is a visual image of a turtle drawing a square on the monitor--the iconic mode.
  • “ Whole-brain learning"
    • The right brain tends to specialize in schematic thinking and detailed visual imagery
    • The left brain, in categorical and linguistic thinking.
    • Symbols such as FD 50 RT 90 are processed by the left brain
    • Images such as a square drawn on the monitor screen are processed by the right brain.
  • “ Whole-brain learning"
    • allows the left brain to communicate with the right brain
    • In order to draw a certain geometric figure, the child can experiment with different strings of symbols until the desired result is achieved. With just a little prompting from the teacher, the child is on his or her own schedule of learning
  • Learning Problem Solving Skills
    • our problem solving activity grows out of our creativity
    • Out of our attempts at goal-achievement grow our problem-solving endeavours
    • Learn the importance of being able to document the steps in our approaches to solving problems (a procedural outlook).