European Developments                1947-1949• In 1948 the USSR  and the West  disagreed over  Berlin.  – Disagreements o...
• Western allies (USA, UK and France)  agreed to a single government in their  zones and a new currency to help  economic ...
• The Soviet Union  opposed these moves• Stalin wanted to keep  G weak, so he decided  to blockade Berlin.• Land communica...
Berlin survided bc of the Berlin                  airlift• All supplies by air.• In 1949, Stalin ended  the blockade.• It ...
Formation of 2 new states• West Germany =  German Federal  Republic.• Communist East  Germany =  German  Democratic  Repub...
Eastern Europe• BTW 1947 and 1961 , USSR consolidated  its control over Eastern Europe.
Development of the Cold War• Conflicts until  1989: Proxy  wars  – It’s a war    where two    powers use    third parties ...
World was bipolarised
Sphere of influence: Iron curtain
In August 1949, USSR tested a          nuclear device• Prototype of the hydrogen bomb• The west was alarmed• The arms race...
This was the theory of  ‘DETERRENCE’
Korean war• Early example of  decolonisation• Korean Peninsula  had been  occupied by the  japanese since  1910
• In 1945, when  Japan surrendered  they were obliged  to leave Korea• They were replaced  by the soviets• The 2 countries...
• North Korea was invaded by UN.• China launched an attack on the UN  forces.• A cease-fire was agreed in 1953.
1949• Communist state of China by Mao Tse  Tung
• The idea of  Containment was  modified with  President  Eisenhower• He first mentioned a  new idea on a radio  interview...
Domino Theory• If just one country was taken by  Communist leader, then that would lead to  nearby countries becoming Comm...
Confrontation and Détente• Détente was a  period of  increased  cooperaton btw  USA and USSR.• Both wanted to  avoid anoth...
• USA realised that it could not fight China,  with its massive population• Korean war proved that a 3rd WW was  possible....
1953-Stalin died
Replaced by Khrushev• Eisenhower replaced Truman.• They both met at Geneva Conference and  agreed to reduce Cold War tensi...
• A permanent ‘hot line’ telephone was set  up btw Kremlin and the White House.
The Korean War• The Korean War was a war between the  Republic of Korea (supported primarily by  the United States of Amer...
• After the surrender of the Empire of Japan  in September 1945, American  administrators divided the peninsula along  the...
North Korea• Kim Il Sung, supported by the Ussr
South Korea• Supported by the USA• Dictatorship of Syngman Rhee
Mac Arthur wanted to use the       nuclear bomb
Napalm (gasolina gelatinosa)
Gasoline-gel napalm bombs were used extensively by US forces    during the Korean war.
1953. Stalemate and 5 million        civilians died
‘Detente’• Krushev rejected  Stalin’s policies and  shocked the  Russians by publicly  criticising the old  regime• In 195...
• The only events that threatened this  peace were the Suez Crisis and the  Hungarian uprising (october-november  1956)
The Suez Crisis
War ended in 1957• UN sent a peace-force to protect the area
Hungarian uprising• Death Stalin: Opportunity to free the  ‘puppet’ government  – Imre Nagy was a hungarian communist leader
USA didn’t want to get involved in            the conflict• Hungary wanted to leave the Varsaw Pact!• USSR invaded the cou...
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
186 197 (i)
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186 197 (i)

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186 197 (i)

  1. 1. European Developments 1947-1949• In 1948 the USSR and the West disagreed over Berlin. – Disagreements over the administration of the four zones of occupation of Berlin.
  2. 2. • Western allies (USA, UK and France) agreed to a single government in their zones and a new currency to help economic recovery.
  3. 3. • The Soviet Union opposed these moves• Stalin wanted to keep G weak, so he decided to blockade Berlin.• Land communication should be cut off.
  4. 4. Berlin survided bc of the Berlin airlift• All supplies by air.• In 1949, Stalin ended the blockade.• It hardened the division btw East and West.
  5. 5. Formation of 2 new states• West Germany = German Federal Republic.• Communist East Germany = German Democratic Republic.
  6. 6. Eastern Europe• BTW 1947 and 1961 , USSR consolidated its control over Eastern Europe.
  7. 7. Development of the Cold War• Conflicts until 1989: Proxy wars – It’s a war where two powers use third parties as a suplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly
  8. 8. World was bipolarised
  9. 9. Sphere of influence: Iron curtain
  10. 10. In August 1949, USSR tested a nuclear device• Prototype of the hydrogen bomb• The west was alarmed• The arms race began
  11. 11. This was the theory of ‘DETERRENCE’
  12. 12. Korean war• Early example of decolonisation• Korean Peninsula had been occupied by the japanese since 1910
  13. 13. • In 1945, when Japan surrendered they were obliged to leave Korea• They were replaced by the soviets• The 2 countries were divided by the 38th parallel – Demilitarised zone
  14. 14. • North Korea was invaded by UN.• China launched an attack on the UN forces.• A cease-fire was agreed in 1953.
  15. 15. 1949• Communist state of China by Mao Tse Tung
  16. 16. • The idea of Containment was modified with President Eisenhower• He first mentioned a new idea on a radio interview in 1954.
  17. 17. Domino Theory• If just one country was taken by Communist leader, then that would lead to nearby countries becoming Communist as well.
  18. 18. Confrontation and Détente• Détente was a period of increased cooperaton btw USA and USSR.• Both wanted to avoid another crisis.• Détente=relaxation in relations
  19. 19. • USA realised that it could not fight China, with its massive population• Korean war proved that a 3rd WW was possible.• USSR accused USA of using UN for its own purposes
  20. 20. 1953-Stalin died
  21. 21. Replaced by Khrushev• Eisenhower replaced Truman.• They both met at Geneva Conference and agreed to reduce Cold War tensions
  22. 22. • A permanent ‘hot line’ telephone was set up btw Kremlin and the White House.
  23. 23. The Korean War• The Korean War was a war between the Republic of Korea (supported primarily by the United States of America, and UN) and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (supported by the China, with military and material aid from the USSR).
  24. 24. • After the surrender of the Empire of Japan in September 1945, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th parallel.
  25. 25. North Korea• Kim Il Sung, supported by the Ussr
  26. 26. South Korea• Supported by the USA• Dictatorship of Syngman Rhee
  27. 27. Mac Arthur wanted to use the nuclear bomb
  28. 28. Napalm (gasolina gelatinosa)
  29. 29. Gasoline-gel napalm bombs were used extensively by US forces during the Korean war.
  30. 30. 1953. Stalemate and 5 million civilians died
  31. 31. ‘Detente’• Krushev rejected Stalin’s policies and shocked the Russians by publicly criticising the old regime• In 1956, Krushev called for ‘peaceful coexistence’
  32. 32. • The only events that threatened this peace were the Suez Crisis and the Hungarian uprising (october-november 1956)
  33. 33. The Suez Crisis
  34. 34. War ended in 1957• UN sent a peace-force to protect the area
  35. 35. Hungarian uprising• Death Stalin: Opportunity to free the ‘puppet’ government – Imre Nagy was a hungarian communist leader
  36. 36. USA didn’t want to get involved in the conflict• Hungary wanted to leave the Varsaw Pact!• USSR invaded the country and sent Nagy to prision• Then, executed.
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