On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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European Developments 1947-1949• In 1948 the USSR and the West disagreed over Berlin. – Disagreements over the administration of the four zones of occupation of Berlin.
• Western allies (USA, UK and France) agreed to a single government in their zones and a new currency to help economic recovery.
• The Soviet Union opposed these moves• Stalin wanted to keep G weak, so he decided to blockade Berlin.• Land communication should be cut off.
Berlin survided bc of the Berlin airlift• All supplies by air.• In 1949, Stalin ended the blockade.• It hardened the division btw East and West.
Formation of 2 new states• West Germany = German Federal Republic.• Communist East Germany = German Democratic Republic.
Eastern Europe• BTW 1947 and 1961 , USSR consolidated its control over Eastern Europe.
Development of the Cold War• Conflicts until 1989: Proxy wars – It’s a war where two powers use third parties as a suplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly
World was bipolarised
Sphere of influence: Iron curtain
In August 1949, USSR tested a nuclear device• Prototype of the hydrogen bomb• The west was alarmed• The arms race began
This was the theory of ‘DETERRENCE’
Korean war• Early example of decolonisation• Korean Peninsula had been occupied by the japanese since 1910
• In 1945, when Japan surrendered they were obliged to leave Korea• They were replaced by the soviets• The 2 countries were divided by the 38th parallel – Demilitarised zone
• North Korea was invaded by UN.• China launched an attack on the UN forces.• A cease-fire was agreed in 1953.
1949• Communist state of China by Mao Tse Tung
• The idea of Containment was modified with President Eisenhower• He first mentioned a new idea on a radio interview in 1954.
Domino Theory• If just one country was taken by Communist leader, then that would lead to nearby countries becoming Communist as well.
Confrontation and Détente• Détente was a period of increased cooperaton btw USA and USSR.• Both wanted to avoid another crisis.• Détente=relaxation in relations
• USA realised that it could not fight China, with its massive population• Korean war proved that a 3rd WW was possible.• USSR accused USA of using UN for its own purposes
Replaced by Khrushev• Eisenhower replaced Truman.• They both met at Geneva Conference and agreed to reduce Cold War tensions
• A permanent ‘hot line’ telephone was set up btw Kremlin and the White House.
The Korean War• The Korean War was a war between the Republic of Korea (supported primarily by the United States of America, and UN) and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (supported by the China, with military and material aid from the USSR).
• After the surrender of the Empire of Japan in September 1945, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th parallel.
North Korea• Kim Il Sung, supported by the Ussr
South Korea• Supported by the USA• Dictatorship of Syngman Rhee
Mac Arthur wanted to use the nuclear bomb
Napalm (gasolina gelatinosa)
Gasoline-gel napalm bombs were used extensively by US forces during the Korean war.
1953. Stalemate and 5 million civilians died
‘Detente’• Krushev rejected Stalin’s policies and shocked the Russians by publicly criticising the old regime• In 1956, Krushev called for ‘peaceful coexistence’
• The only events that threatened this peace were the Suez Crisis and the Hungarian uprising (october-november 1956)
The Suez Crisis
War ended in 1957• UN sent a peace-force to protect the area
Hungarian uprising• Death Stalin: Opportunity to free the ‘puppet’ government – Imre Nagy was a hungarian communist leader
USA didn’t want to get involved in the conflict• Hungary wanted to leave the Varsaw Pact!• USSR invaded the country and sent Nagy to prision• Then, executed.