2ndInternational e-Governance ConferenceBaghdad, 2-3 December 2012Breaking information silos: toward an Iraqi e-Service ecosystem supporting the life-eventapproachEmilio Bugli Innocenti
The Life Event ApproachServices that are directly related to the solution of a particular problemshould be linked or integrated in such a way that the customers gain quickand convenient access to all the services they need in one place, regardlessof the distribution of competences between different public agencies andbusinessesSuch approach is called a life-event approach since it integrates services,which are specifically designed around nodes that directly correspond to aparticular life-event (e.g. moving a house, starting a business, gettingmarried, etc.).
The Life Event ApproachLife-event portal implementationall relevant agencies offering the same service in a common manner,sharing data definitions and at best sharing data, but no technologicalintegration between the services being offeredservices are collected together under a common theme or event. Theservices are not inherently integrated, or even with a common look-and-feel, but are grouped in ways that aid discovery and promote thecomprehensive completing of necessary servicesservices are delivered by a single provider as an agent of othergovernment agencies. Singular services are offered by the agent and theintegration is hidden from the ‘customer’services are technologically integrated into a supply-chain application.This requires the most sophisticated integration work and is not oftenimplemented
The Life Event ApproachA Case Study: Slovenia Life-event portal
The Life Event ApproachThe Slovenia Life-event portal (www.e-uprava.gov.si)Information has been classified according to life events, thus enablingusers to acquire the desired information more rapidly. Each insight intospecific life situations of citizens and businesses is associated with linksleading to Public Administration web pages of similar contentThe portal provides access to the e-SJU system (Electronic Services ofPublic Administration) which supports all the procedures with electronicforms (generating eForms with a special generic tool, authentication withall qualified digital certificates, partial pre-fill from Central PopulationRegister, logical controls, support for attachments, ePayments, electronicsigning, delivering to the responsible institution, electronic delivery). Theapplication can be used by all residents equipped with qualified digitalcertificates valid in Slovenia.
The Life Event ApproachA Case Study: Dubai Life-event portal
The Life Event ApproachA Case Study: Dubai Life-event portal (www.dubai.ae)Dubai e-GOVERNANCE has collaborated with government departmentsand private sector organisations to create awareness about the latestinnovations in e-Governance and the efficiency of the e-Services beingoffered by Dubai e-GOVERNANCE, where e-Services provided by more thanone government department are integrated into customer focused lifeevents.A strong, unified base to address the needs of the public through morethan 2,000 electronic services provided by various governmentdepartments in the emirate has been built. Information and services arepackaged based on various life stages of individuals, businesses andvisitors. This system allows portal users to have direct access to servicesthat they require without having to browse through several web pages
Life-Events and e-Service IntegrationE-Service Taxonomy•Process Services which represent actual workflows (macro flow), combiningother (basic and/or composed) services through service orchestration in along-running flow of activities (or services) which can be interrupted byhuman intervention. Process services are therefor stateful meaning that theycan preserve certain state across multiple calls of the service;•Composed Services are based on other services which are combined into anew composed service. Conceptually composed services are stateless andshort-term running. They represent a micro flow comprising a short-runningflow of activities (which are services) as part of a business process;
Life-Events and e-Service IntegrationE-Service Taxonomy•Basic Services implement basic business functionality which it does notmake sense to split into multiple services. Basic services are also stateless andcan be subdivided into two types:– Basic Data Services read or write data from or to one backend system.These services typically each represent a fundamental businessoperation of the back-end. Basic services encapsulate platform-specific aspects and implementation details from the outside world,so that the consumer can request a service without knowing how it isimplemented. These services should provide some minimal businessfunctionality– Basic Logic Services represent fundamental business rules. Theseservices usually process some input data and return correspondingresults
Life-Events and e-Service IntegrationE-Service Taxonomy
Life-Events and e-Service IntegrationFundamental Services•A ‘Fundamental Service’ is a Basic public service (both BasicData and Basic Logic Services) that is autonomous and that isprovided by a single responsible role, and receives as input onlythe output from Basic Data Services, documents or objectsproduced by citizens, businesses or administrations.
Life-Events and e-Service IntegrationExamples of e-Service Re-usabilityEnvironmental Permit•A combination of different permits (building and demolition permits, usage permits,waste permits and water permits each of them issued by municipalities in isolation) isneeded to be compliant with the environmental law•The implementation of the Environmental Permit law in municipalities demonstrateshow establishing services as building blocks has helped municipalities to solve theproblems related to the implementation of this law.
Life-Events and e-Service IntegrationExamples of e-Service Re-usabilityEnvironmental Permit
Life-Events and e-Service IntegrationExample of e-Service Re-usabilityEnvironmental Permit•The ‘intake of request’ service ensures that all the required information iscollected from the permit requestor•The ‘orchestration & follow’ up keeps track of the sequence (performance ofthe cases in parallel or sequence), the time limit and the consistency betweenthe regulations of the overall permit•This orchestration services are the ‘glue’ between the domain specificservices, such as the building, water, waste and usage permits, all of whichare provided by different departments
Life-Events and e-Service IntegrationExamples of e-Service Re-usabilityThe Permit Front Office
SOA enables Cloud Computing Cloud Computing is a deployment architecture, not an architecturalapproach for how to architect an enterprise/public administration. SOA is an architectural approach that creates services that can be sharedand reused. It converts current vertical applications into a number ofcomponents called services that can be reused across multipleapplications, thus providing savings and improved agility to make changesfaster and more cost effectively
SOA enables Cloud Computing Moving successfully into cloud computing requires an architecture thatwill support the new cloud capabilities. Many business leaders andanalysts agree that moving to cloud requires having a solid, serviceoriented architecture to provide the infrastructure needed for successfulcloud implementation SOA can provide the backbone to allow both user front-end applicationsand enterprise back-end servers to easily access cloud services. With SOAalready in place, taking advantage of cloud computing will be easier,faster and more secure.
Making SOA and Cloud Computing happenThe adoption/customisation/implementation of an EnterpriseService Bus
Making SOA and Cloud Computing happenThe ESB-based Integration Architecture
Making SOA and Cloud Computing happenCase Study: Belgium•The Belgian Federal ICT Service (FEDICT) has established the Federal ServiceBus (FSB) through which services from different domains, related to differentback-ends, are provided openly and are reused by different actors•FEDICT acts as a service integrator, which means that the FSB acts as aplatform on which services are provided and integrated so that they can beopenly accessed by parties that are interested in re-using them.•The Belgian example of the FSB provides a real-life example of how servicescan be reused and combined based on SOA principles. Currently a total of 53existing services are made publicly available on the FSB, including forexample applications for eBirth (electronic registration of the birth of a childby hospital personnel), the Crossroad Bank for Social Security (CBSS) and theCrossroads Bank for Enterprises (CBE), the latter of which is currently beingdeployed within this architecture, and the eDepot.
Making SOA and Cloud Computing happenRecommendations•In addition to technical issues, consider legal, contractual, organisational,privacy, security constraints.•Concerning the Cloud Computing privacy/security there are a number ofrecommendations available from the EU  and the US .•Avoid being locked-in by vendors, cloud infrastructure should be selected toallow switching from one vendor to another through the adoption of thefollowing standards:– Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI)– Open Virtualization Format (OVF)•On the organisational side, the standardisation of interfaces and cloudcomputing can have a dramatic effect on ICT job losses as witnessed by themassive adoption of such technology by the multinational oil company ENI.
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