Myron Orfield Slides

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Presented on 9 July 2013 the Minnesota House Education Policy Committee held a hearing on integration policy at the Crosswinds Arts & Science School in Woodbury, MN.

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Myron Orfield Slides

  1. 1. Education and Demographics Presentation -Myron Orfield-
  2. 2. Twin Cities School Demographics
  3. 3. GRAD Graduation-Required Assessments for Diploma Test
  4. 4. Dropout and Graduation Rates
  5. 5. Completion Rates
  6. 6. Minneapolis Schools Demographics
  7. 7. Minneapolis Schools Race and Ethnicity
  8. 8. Minneapolis Schools Free Lunch Eligibility
  9. 9. Minneapolis Schools MCA Testing Proficiency Rates
  10. 10. Neighborhood (Residential) Segregation and Transition In Minneapolis
  11. 11. Twin Cities Metro Neighborhood Type 1990-2010
  12. 12. Saint Paul-South Suburban School Demographics
  13. 13. Saint Paul- South Suburban Schools Race and Ethnicity
  14. 14. Saint Paul- South Suburban Schools Free Lunch Eligibility
  15. 15. Suburban School Demographics
  16. 16. Northwest Minneapolis Suburban School Demographics
  17. 17. Northwest Minneapolis Suburbs Race and Ethnicity
  18. 18. Northwest Minneapolis Suburbs Free Lunch Eligibility
  19. 19. Northwest Minneapolis Suburbs MCA Testing Proficiency Rates
  20. 20. Crime in Schools Minneapolis and Western Suburbs
  21. 21. Southwest Minneapolis Suburban School Demographics
  22. 22. Southwest Minneapolis Suburbs Race and Ethnicity
  23. 23. Southwest Minneapolis Suburbs Free Lunch Eligibility
  24. 24. Southwest Minneapolis Suburbs MCA Testing Proficiency Rates
  25. 25. Northeast Saint Paul Suburban School Demographics
  26. 26. Northeast Saint Paul Suburbs Race and Ethnicity 1995-2011
  27. 27. Northeast Saint Paul Suburbs Lunch Eligibility Status 1997-2011
  28. 28. Southeast Saint Paul Suburban School Demographics
  29. 29. Southeast Saint Paul Suburbs Race and Ethnicity 1995-2011
  30. 30. Southeast Saint Paul Suburbs Lunch Eligibility Status 1997-2011
  31. 31. School Boundaries and Race
  32. 32. Eden Prairie and Surrounding Area Race and Ethnicity 1995-2010
  33. 33. Eden Prairie and Surrounding Area Lunch (Economic) Status 1997-2010
  34. 34. Eden Prairie Boundaries Current and Proposed Attendance Boundaries
  35. 35. High-poverty, segregated schools undermine opportunity for their students in many ways, including: • Lower test scores • Higher dropout rates • Lower college attendance rates • Lower earnings later in life • Greater risk of being poor as adults
  36. 36. Characteristics of High-Poverty Schools that Undermine Quality of Education • Less qualified and less experienced teachers due to high turnover among teachers • Limited curricula taught at less challenging levels, which limits educational and career options • Absence of positive peer competition and influence, which lowers educational expectations
  37. 37. A large number of school districts in the Twin Cities are at risk of re-segregating if nothing is done.
  38. 38. Many of these districts have recently gone through (or are now going through) school boundary changes as a result of school closings, openings or other types of reorganization. These include: Osseo, Hopkins, St. Louis Park, Burnsville, Chaska/Chanhassen, and Eden Prairie.
  39. 39. Larger, multi-district approaches to desegregation could ease this process by providing alternative approaches like multi-district magnets near job centers and inter-district transfer programs.
  40. 40. Twin Cities Jobs and Job Centers
  41. 41. Twin Cities Municipal Property Tax Base
  42. 42. Twin Cities Charter School Demographics
  43. 43. Charter School Time Series 1995-2010
  44. 44. Serious Crime in Twin Cities Metropolitan Area
  45. 45. Residence of Felons
  46. 46. Health
  47. 47. Migration of White Children
  48. 48. Subprime Lending and Foreclosure Crisis
  49. 49. Subsidized and Affordable Housing
  50. 50. Low Income Housing, Schools and Choice is Yours Demographics
  51. 51. Key Key Note: data are from representational survey for 53% of all LIHTC units in Twin Cities
  52. 52. Key
  53. 53. Metropolitan School Integration Scenarios Number of black students that would have to change schools in order to achieve racial balance. 12,580 Number of additional black students that would already be in a racially integrated school if: • LITHC units were assigned randomly by race. • Section 8 project units were assigned randomly by race. 738 789 Number of additional black students that would already be in a racially integrated school if: • LIHTC units were distributed across the region in proportion to school enrollment. • Section 8 project units were distributed across the region in proportion to school enrollment. 655 1,301 Additional Section 8 vouchers in the suburbs if they were distributed in same proportions as school enrollment. Additional black households in suburbs (at 2000 shares in voucher program). Children aged 6-17 in the added suburban black households (at 2000 average). 4,750 2,215 1,788 Grand Total additional black school-age children in the suburbs 5,271 (42%)
  54. 54. Working in the inner suburbs alone is not enough. • In 2001, just 5 of the 65 inner suburb schools participating in the Choice Is Yours program had free and reduced cost lunch eligibility rates greater than 40%. • In just 5 years, this number had nearly quadrupled to 19. • Higher poverty rates are associated with both lower test scores and lower retention rates for suburban districts participating in the program.
  55. 55. Receiving School District CIY Retention Rates by FRLE (correlation = -.87) 25 50 75 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 FRLE Rate CIYReturnRate2005-06
  56. 56. Receiving School District CIY Retention Rates by Reading Proficiency (correlation = +.77) 25 50 75 100 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Reading Proficiency Share CIYReturnRate2005-06 Receiving School District CIY Retention Rate by Math Proficiency (correlation = +.79) 25 50 75 100 50 60 70 80 90 100 Math Proficiency Share CIYReturnRate2005-06
  57. 57. Working in the inner suburbs alone is not enough. • In 2001, just 3 of the 65 inner suburb schools participating in the Choice Is Yours program had minority shares greater than 40%. • In just 5 years, this number had risen by 7 times to 21.
  58. 58. U.S. School Integration Trends
  59. 59. 2000 Distribution of 633 Tracts that were White/Black Integrated in 1980 in 15 Metro Areas with County- or Metro-wide Busing in the 1980's and 1990's 0 25 50 75 100 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 Percentage Black in 1980 Conclusion: Tracts were more likely to remain integrated than to resegregate during the next 20 years from all starting points. PercentageofTractsin2000 Remained Integrated Changed to Segregated Changed to Predominantly White
  60. 60. Suggested Policies:
  61. 61. Expanding Children’s Opportunities: School desegregation and integration • Local solutions alone cannot turn schools around. Already existing segregation and regional processes like white flight and fragmented land-use planning mean that local areas and school districts cannot go it alone. Regional approaches are needed. • Local approaches can help, if designed to complement regional solutions.
  62. 62. Regional Approaches to School Integration: Metro Collaborative Integration Districts • Schools within the collaborative districts share pupils and funding to integrate all schools within the collaborative district. • Such districts already exist in the Twin Cities, but are not metro-wide. • In the Twin Cities, collaboration districts would be more efficient and integrative, for instance, if the metro area were divided into five metro “meta- districts,” drawn to maximize diversity within each meta-district.
  63. 63. Regional Approaches to School Integration: The Choice is Yours • Choice is Yours allows low income students to move to suburban districts. It initially resulted in some integration of suburban districts and academic gains for the participating students. • The program does not cover the entire region and a number of participating suburban schools have become racially isolated, high poverty schools, implying that the program needs to be expanded further into the suburbs. • Choice is Yours should also be linked to housing choice programs in high opportunity school districts and suburbs.
  64. 64. Regional Approaches to School Integration: Integration Revenue • Integration Revenue is extra funding meant to promote integration that is provided to Minnesota school districts with racially isolated schools. • Integration revenue funds currently provide little or no incentive for school districts to desegregate their minority and low-income students. • The purpose of the funding should be changed from “increasing interracial contact” to the physical integration of school districts, schools, and classrooms.
  65. 65. Neighborhood Approaches to School Integration: Charter schools • Although charter schools were presented as an integrating force in public education, segregation and poverty is more severe in charter schools than in traditional public schools and there is little evidence that charter schools are bridging the achievement gap. • Integrated middle-class schools have a proven track record of improving the school performance and life opportunities students of color. This is not the case for charter schools.
  66. 66. Neighborhood Approaches to School Integration: Magnet schools • While highly segregated inner city schools are often failing, the solution cannot be just moving students into the suburbs; inner-city communities need strong schools. • One way to do this, is to develop magnets schools in inner-city neighborhoods that appeal to commuting parents. Downtown areas are a likely target. • These magnet schools could offer extended days to match the schedules of commuting parents by providing high-quality daycare and link the magnets to public institutions in the central cities.
  67. 67. Neighborhood Approaches to School Integration: Addressing segregation within schools • Minority students and white students are often tracked into separate programs, even within otherwise integrated schools. • In order to prevent damaging in-school segregation, school districts should be monitored for racial disparities in gifted and talented programs and other advanced standing classes and in special education. • Community groups could also help actively monitor schools and challenge segregative classroom assignment practices to ensure that students have equal opportunities in integrated schools.
  68. 68. Contact Us: http://www.law.umn.edu/metro.html

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