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Intro to Behavioral
 

Intro to Behavioral

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    Intro to Behavioral Intro to Behavioral Presentation Transcript

    • © BEN Center 2011
      Smarter Lunchrooms Initiative
      Introduction to Behavioral Economics in Food Choices
    • References
      Just, David R. and Brian Wansink (2009), “Better School Meals on a Budget: Using Behavioral Economics
      and Food Psychology to Improve Meal Selection,” Choices, 24:3, 1-6.
      Just, David R. and Brian Wansink (2011), “School Lunch Debit Cards are Associated with Lower Nutrition
      and Higher Calories,” under review at Journal of Adolescent Health.
      Wansink, Brian, and David Just (2011), “Healthy Foods First: Students Take the First Lunchroom Food
      11% More Often Than the Third,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Volume
      43:4S1, S9.
      Wansink, Brian, David R. Just, and Joe McKendry (2010), “Lunch Line Redesign,” New York Times,
      October 22, p. A10.
      Wansink, Brian, David R. Just, and Collin R. Payne (2012), “The Behavioral Economics of Healthier
      School Lunch Payment Systems,” under review at Journal of Marketing.
      Wansink, Brian, David Just, and Laura Smith (2011), “Move the Fruit: Putting Fruit in New Bowls and New
      Places Doubles Lunchroom Sales,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Volume
      43:4S1, S1.
      Wansink, Brian, Koert van Ittersum, and James E. Painter (2005), “How Descriptive Food Names Bias
      Sensory Perceptions in Restaurants,” Food Quality and Preference, 16:5, 393-400.
      Wansink, Brian, David Just, and Laura Smith (2011), “What is in a Name? Giving Descriptive Names to
      Vegetables Increases Lunchroom Sales,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior,
      Volume 43:4S1, S1.
    • Choices…are they really ours?
      Behavioral Economics
      What factors affect our choices?
      Is it just price and preference?
      If so, the trilemma is a dead end
      Are there other options?
      Lots of research in this area
      Our research: What kinds of changes affect students’ daily choices in the lunchroom?
    • Choice Architecture
      Choice architecture
      Designing the choice to lead an individual to a particular outcome without forcing them
      Uses the tools of psychology to access economic decision-making
      Generally, adjusting the choice architecture is cheap
      Big bang for the buck
    • What issues impact changes in School Lunch?
      Rising obesity rates
      Many blame school lunches
      Local school lunch administrators
      under pressure to improve quality and nutrition
      Cut sugared drinks, dessert items, pizza, hot dogs and burgers
      Various proponents push for selling more “whole grain”, “vegetarian”, “organic” or “raw”
      Often, these are not what the students want
      Heavy-handed or short-sighted intervention can lead to worse outcomes for students and schools
    • School Lunch Trilemma
      Pressure to improve the nutrition of meals
      Pressure to keep participation up
      Pressure to balance revenue and cost
    • School Lunch Trilemma
      Pressure to improve the nutrition of meals
      Pressure to keep participation up
      Pressure to balance revenue and cost
      We are going to stop selling chocolate milk
    • School Lunch Trilemma
      Pressure to improve the nutrition of meals
      Pressure to keep participation up
      Pressure to balance revenue and cost
      We are going to stop selling chocolate milk
      I’ll stop buying
    • School Lunch Trilemma
      Pressure to improve the nutrition of meals
      Pressure to keep participation up
      Pressure to balance revenue and cost
      I’ll drink 3 glasses of chocolate milk when I get home
      We are going to stop selling chocolate milk
      I’ll stop buying
    • The School Lunch Challenge
      The Challenge:
      Improve nutritional content of meals
      Maintain low cost
      Maintain participation
      Encourage longer-term healthy decisions
    • Why?:Economics and Psychology
      Reactance
      Rebelling against a threat to freedom
      Fat tax versus a thin subsidy
      Limits on ketchup
      “Don’t press this button”
      Attribution
      It was my choice, I will repeat it in the future
      Choosing between celery and carrots
    • What We KnowAbout FoodDecisions
      We have two decision-making mechanisms
      Deliberative – Rational
      Emotional – Naïve, knee-jerk reactions
      Which takes over depends on the level of cognitive resources available
      Stress or distraction leads us to eat more and eat worse
      It takes effort and resources to resist temptation
    • Hot vs. Cold Decisions
      Hot State
      We eat for
      Taste
      Convenience
      Size
      Visual effect
      “This decision is an exception”
      We buy
      Bigger
      More hedonistic
      Cold State
      We consider
      Prices
      Health information
      Logic
      We buy
      Smaller portions
      Moderate foods
    • Sin and Virtue
      The food environment responds to us
      Marketers have learned to sell sinful foods to those in a hot state
      Healthy convenience food is generally a flop
      Healthy fast food is a flop
      Bad foods that are difficult to prepare are also less successful
      Cognitive policies (information or prices) won’t impact hot state consumers
      Commit while in a cold state:
      Control your future environment
      Limit exposure to temptation
    • What Does This Mean for Kids?
      Ever wonder why kids food is generally less healthy?
      Kids have not fully developed their rational system
      Very little understanding of long term consequences
      Developing understanding of the marketplace
      Almost like a hot state – all the time
      Reactance to paternalism
      Fortunately, most kids find some healthy foods to be appealing and acceptable
      We can make some foods cool
      Wecan lead them to make the right choice
    • Smarter Lunchrooms
      What if we design the lunch room to gently encourage the decisions we want?
      Use behavioral theory to encourage better choices
      Some of these changes can be extremely low cost
      This avoids reactance
      Banning sodas etc. can be self-defeating
      Encourages future healthy choices
    • The BEN Center Mission
      Explore how the tools of behavioral economics can be used to encourage better school lunch choices
      Share successful behavioral strategies with school lunch administrators and encourage their use
      Provide policy-makers with accurate information on how policy changes may impact children’s choice behavior
    • Cornell Center for Behavioral Economics and Child Nutrition Research
    • What is the Smarter Lunchrooms Initiative?
      The Smarter Lunchrooms Initiative seeks to…
      • Nudge choices: Using research-based suggestions to guide students to unknowingly, make smarter, healthier choices in the lunchroom
      • Increase sales: Finding innovative ways to increase cafeteria sales and participation by encouraging greater consumption of healthier foods
      • Implement low-cost/no-cost changes: Since many cafeterias receive a limited budget, suggestions are focused on changing the school lunch environment
      • Keep a variety of food choices: Nudging students without completely eliminating unhealthy choices from the menu or only raising prices on less healthy foods
    • Establish a Student Nutrition Advisory Council (SNAC)
      Students become a larger part of the school lunchroom program
      Students have input and ownership in meal choices
      Decide which foods to serve on which days—schools can limit choices so it is not hard to implement (ex.: type of fruit)
      Provide suggestions on which foods to serve
      Provide useful, reliable suggestions on improvements to foods and atmosphere
      Contest to name certain food items on menu
      Points system or loyalty card to encourage participation in school lunch (ex., buy 5 meals, get one free)
    • A side note: The impact of social influence on food choices
      • When eating in groups or social situations, individuals tend to eat quantities that are similar to others (Birch and Fisher, 2000; de Castro, 1994).
      • Students can influence one another’s food choices based on what the ‘leader’ of the group chooses
      • Influencing this ‘leader’ to choose healthier items can impact what other students choose
      • In younger grades, teachers and monitors are highly influential—they should encourage children that it is ‘cool’ to eat veggies
    • Increase Variety of Healthier Foods
      Increase the variety of more healthy a la carte items
      Decrease the variety of less healthy selections
      Ex.: pre-cut vegetables and health bars rather than chips and cookies
      Integrate whole grain options into food items (ex.: pizza with corn or whole wheat flour)
      Changes to school lunch foods should be made gradually (Ideally, over the summer or in increments)
      TO THIS
      ADD THESE
    • Increase Student Involvement
      Empowerment/Ownership/Self-serving Choice:
      Make students feel good about eating healthy
      Empowerment creates enthusiasm
      Placing posters by the lunch lines of role models eating healthier items encourages students to emulate them
      Increase student involvement in their own food choices through cooking or nutrition education
    • Increase Parental Involvement
      Provide lunch menus or pictures of food on parent newsletter or website
      Parent advocates and monitors
      Host a cafeteria open house
    • Thank You
      Learn More!
      www.SmarterLunchrooms.org
    • The Smarter Lunchrooms Initiative and the BEN Center
      www.SmarterLunchrooms.org
      BEN@cornell.edu
      The BEN Center: Behavioral Economics in Child Nutrition Programs
      Part of the Cornell University Food and Brand Lab
      Director: Dr. Brian Wansink, wansink@cornell.edu
      Deputy Director: Adam Brumberg, ab697@cornell.edu
      BEN Center Coordinator: Erin Sharp, eks6@cornell.edu
    • References
      Just, David R. and Brian Wansink (2009), “Better School Meals on a Budget: Using Behavioral Economics
      and Food Psychology to Improve Meal Selection,” Choices, 24:3, 1-6.
      Just, David R. and Brian Wansink (2011), “School Lunch Debit Cards are Associated with Lower Nutrition
      and Higher Calories,” under review at Journal of Adolescent Health.
      Wansink, Brian, and David Just (2011), “Healthy Foods First: Students Take the First Lunchroom Food
      11% More Often Than the Third,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Volume
      43:4S1, S9.
      Wansink, Brian, David R. Just, and Joe McKendry (2010), “Lunch Line Redesign,” New York Times,
      October 22, p. A10.
      Wansink, Brian, David R. Just, and Collin R. Payne (2012), “The Behavioral Economics of Healthier
      School Lunch Payment Systems,” under review at Journal of Marketing.
      Wansink, Brian, David Just, and Laura Smith (2011), “Move the Fruit: Putting Fruit in New Bowls and New
      Places Doubles Lunchroom Sales,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Volume
      43:4S1, S1.
      Wansink, Brian, Koert van Ittersum, and James E. Painter (2005), “How Descriptive Food Names Bias
      Sensory Perceptions in Restaurants,” Food Quality and Preference, 16:5, 393-400.
      Wansink, Brian, David Just, and Laura Smith (2011), “What is in a Name? Giving Descriptive Names to
      Vegetables Increases Lunchroom Sales,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior,
      Volume 43:4S1, S1.