What is thedifference between a“snapshot” andphotograph?
Review –How do you controlexposure?ShutterSpeedAperture/FstopISO
Shutter Speed Lengthening the amount of time that your shutter is open increases the amount of light hitting your image sensor. Keep in mind that if there is movement in your scene (even small movements) that the longer the shutter is open the more blur you‟ll get in your shot.
Aperture / F-Stop If you increase the aperture of your camera increase the size of the hole in your lens more light is able to get in quickly. You then also decrease the depth of field in your shot you need to get your focus spot on not everything in your shot might be in focus. ↑ Aperture = ↓ DOF
Depth of Field (DOF) Depth of Field (DOF) = amount of your shot that will be in focus. Large depth of field = most of your image will be in focus whether it‟s close to your camera or far away small aperture = large f/stop # (i.e. f/22) Small (or shallow) depth of field = only part of the image will be in focus and the rest will be fuzzy large aperture – small f/stop # (i.e. f/2.8)
ISO Increasing the ISO setting increases the camera‟s sensitivity to light. The ambient light will have more effect and you‟ll have less need for flash. Keep in mind that increasing ISO also increases the grain or noise in your shots.
Example of Graininess or NoiseISO 100 ISO 3200
To Flash or not to Flash? The problem that point and shoot camera owners face when it comes to using flash to light a scene is that many point and shoot cameras offer a photographer much less control over how powerful the flash is and what direction the light is pointed - in comparison to a DSLR with a dedicated flash unit that can be bounced in different directions at different levels.
Use Flash as Last Resort A flash should only ever be thought of as a secondary light source. In almost every situation that you will want to photograph there will be some level of existing ambient light. This light is important as it is the natural light of the scene you‟re trying to capture. Your flash should be used to supplement existing light rather than as the primary way of lighting a scene. If you use a flash as the primary source of light it will look artificial.
Tip #1: Take A Step Back One of the simplest ways to decrease the impact of the light coming from your flash is to put a little more distance between you and your subject.. Stepping back further away from your subject doesn‟t mean that you can‟t fill the frame – you could use your camera‟s zoom lens (although this can increase the effect of camera shake) or simply crop the shot later on your computer.
Tip #2: Diffuse It One of the most effective ways of doing this is simply to find some semi opaque material to place over your flash. You can stick a little white tissue paper over their flash or use some opaque tape. Use white tape or tissue paper to make it look more natural light (don‟t use colored material)
Tip #3: Use Night Mode Recall that Night Mode will take a shot with a slower shutter speed while still shooting the flash. You get a little more ambient light from the scene while still freezing the action with the flash You won‟t give you pin point sharp images – but they can be fun & very effective (particularly if there is some nice colored lights in the room).
Tip #4: Decrease Flash Output Some point and shoot cameras have the ability to tell the camera just how much flash you want it to use – check your camera‟s manual. If you do, dial back your flash output by a stop or two to see what impact it has.
Tip #5: Add/Adjust Light Turn on more lights in a room, move your subjects to a better lit position near a lamp or light (or move the light to them). Another way to increase the impact of ambient light on a subject is to think about reflective light. Point the light towards a light wall so it “bounces” back onto the subject.
Tip #6: Tweak Your Settings One last way to decrease the impact your flash has on a scene is to tweak some of your camera‟s exposure settings – particularly those that impact how the camera treats light like ISO, Aperture and Shutter Speed.
What else can youcontrol? Composition Rule of Thirds Focal point Fill Your Frame Change your Angles & Perspective
Rule of Thirds The basic principle behind the rule of thirds is to imagine breaking an image down into thirds (both horizontally and vertically) so that you have 9 parts. As follows.
Rule of Thirds The theory is that if you place points of interest in the intersections or along the lines that your photo becomes more balanced Studies show that your eyes usually go to one of the intersection points most naturally rather than the center of the shot Works with this natural way of viewing an image rather than working against it.
Focal Point What is the central point of interest? What will draw the eye of the viewers of this picture? What in this image will make it stand out from others? What is my subject? Focal point is important because when you look at an image your eye will generally need a „resting place‟ or something of interest to really hold it. Without it you‟ll find people will simply glance at your shots and then move on to the next one.
Fill Your Frame While empty spaces can be used effectively in photos to create stunning results, you‟re much more likely to get a „wow‟ from those looking at your photos if your shots are filled with interest. Use your legs Use your zoom Crop during processing
Angles & Perspective Change your perspective and your angles: Take pictures from on top Put the camera on the floor Take it a wonky angle Use lines & angles to your advantage
Additional CompositionTips Look at reflections & shadows Get horizons straight Look for ways to “frame” images Be mindful of your background Move to avoid trash bins, people in background Change perspective Wait for cars or people to pass
Camera Modes - Automatic Automatic Portrait Mode Macro Mode Landscape Mode Sport Mode Night Mode
Camera Modes – Semi Automatic Aperture Priority Mode Shutter Priority Mode Program Mode
Portrait Mode Your camera will automatically select a large aperture (small number) which helps to keep your background out of focus (ie it sets a narrow depth of field – ensuring your subject is the only thing in focus and is therefore the centre of attention in the shot). Portrait mode works best when you‟re photographing a single subject so get in close enough to your subject (either by zooming in or walking closer) so that your photographing the head and shoulders of them). If you‟re shooting into the sun you might want to trigger your flash to add a little light onto their face.
Macro Mode Lets you move your closer into your subject to take a close up picture. It‟s great for shooting flowers, insects or other small objects. Keep your camera and the object you‟re photographing parallel if possible or you‟ll find a lot of it will be out of focus. You probably won‟t want to use your camera‟s built in flash when photographing close up objects or they‟ll be burnt out. Lastly – a tripod is invaluable in macro shots as the depth of field is so small that even moving towards or away from your subject slightly can make your subject out of focus.
Landscape Mode This mode is almost the exact opposite of portrait mode in that it sets the camera up with a small aperture (large number) to make sure as much of the scene you‟re photographing will be in focus as possible (ie it give you a large depth of field). It‟s therefore ideal for capturing shots of wide scenes, particularly those with points of interest at different distances from the camera.
Sports Mode Photographing moving objects is what sports mode (also called „action mode‟ in some cameras) is designed for. It is ideal for photographing any moving objects including people playing sports, pets, cars, wildlife etc. Sports mode attempts to freeze the action by increasing the shutter speed. When photographing fast moving subjects you can also increase your chances of capturing them with panning of your camera along with the subject and/or by attempting to pre focus your camera on a spot where the subject will be when you want to photograph it (this takes practice).
Night Mode Also called ‟slow shutter sync‟ Used when shooting in low light situations and sets your camera to use a longer shutter speed to help capture details of the background but it also fires off a flash to illuminate the foreground (and subject). If you use this mode for a ‟serious‟ or well balanced shot you should use a tripod or your background will be blurred However it‟s also fun to take shots with this handheld to purposely blur your backgrounds – especially when there is a situation with lights behind your subject as it can give a fun and experimental look (great for parties and dance floors with colored lights).
Aperture Priority Mode (A orAV) you choose the aperture and where your camera chooses the other settings (shutter speed, white balance, ISO etc) so as to ensure you have a well balanced exposure. Aperture priority mode is useful when you‟re looking to control the depth of field in a shot - usually a stationary object where you don‟t need to control shutter speed.
Shutter Priority Mode (S orTV) Shutter priority is very similar to aperture priority mode but is the mode where you select a shutter speed and the camera then chooses all of the other settings. You would use this mode where you want to control over shutter speed (obviously). For example when photographing moving subjects (like sports) you might want to choose a fast shutter speed to freeze the motion. On the flip-side of this you might want to capture the movement as a blur of a subject like a waterfall and choose a slow shutter speed. You might also choose a slow shutter speed in lower light situations.
Program Mode (P) Some digital cameras have this priority mode in addition to auto mode In those cameras that have both, Program mode is similar to Auto but gives you a little more control over some other features including flash, white balance, ISO etc. Check your digital camera‟s manual for how the Program mode differs from Automatic in your particular model.
Using photography to tell astory How can you take a more interesting photograph? How do you create an emotion with your image?
In Migrant Mother,Dorothea Langeproduced theseminal image ofthe GreatDepression.
Burst of Joy is a Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph by Sal Veder, taken in 1973.The photograph came to symbolize the end of United States involvement in theVietnam War.
Types of Photography Street / urban Landscape Nature Macro Architectural Portraiture Photojournalism
Assignment Take a photo at a unique angle. Take a photo that is an example of a specific genre discussed. Bring in digital files for lab work.
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