Review of APA Citation Format6th ed. Writing and Academic Resource Center Emerson College
What is APA format? APA refers to the American Psychological Association. APA is used to document sources in the sciences, social sciences, and business. APA format is sometimes called the author-date style because it uses the author’s (or authors’) last name(s) and the date of publication as the primary citation marker.
What do I need to cite? Direct quotations Also: images (drawings or photographs), data, and music. Summaries Paraphrases It is not enough simply to change the wording of a text. You must also change the structure of the original passage. Any distinctive words or phrases taken from the original passage must be put in quotation marks. The reader must be able to distinguish where the paraphrased text begins and ends.
Why is citation important? A standard and consistent method of citing sources enables the reader to find the sources. Correct citations help you use sources in a way that credits the author and avoids problems of poor scholarship and academic dishonesty.
What does APA look like in the body of my paper? Cite a text with the author’s or authors’ last name(s) followed by the date of publication. Xxxxxxx (Ebert & Griffin, 2007). According to Ebert and Griffin (2007), xxxxxxx. If you are citing from a particular page or pages, add p. or pp. with the page number(s). Xxxxxxx (Ebert & Griffin, 2007, p. 100). Ebert and Griffin (2007) reported that xxxxxxx (p. 10).
In-text citations (continued) Many business documents have corporate authors. Use the name of a corporate author as you would any individual author. (Microsoft Corp., 2011) If there is truly no author for an article or web page, use a shortened version of the title in quotation marks. (“Managing,” 2006). Attempt to find a date. Otherwise, use n.d. (Smith, n.d.).
In-text citations (continued) If a quote comes from a secondary source, use the secondary source in your citation. According to Marshall, “Xxxxxxxx” (as cited in Baker & Wong, 2008). Each in-text citation must directly match the beginning of the full citation on the References page. In the above example, the reader would search for Baker in the References.
What is the References list? The list of sources for the in-text citations should be on a separate page titled References. The list is alphabetized by authors’ last names or by the first word of the title if there is no author. Do not number the entries. Authors’ (or editors’) names always appear as last name and first and middle initials. Authors’ names are followed by publication date in parentheses.
References list Basic citation for a book: Author or editor. (Publication year). Title with sentence-style capitalization, in italics. Publication location: Publisher. Ebert, R. J. & Griffin, R. W. (2007). Business essentials (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
References list (continued) Basic citation for a journal or magazine: Author. (Publication date). Article title with sentence-style capitalization and no quotation marks. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers if available. URL or DOI if retrieved online. Frank, T. (2011, July). Gold faithful: Profiting from paranoia with precious metals. Harpers, 323(1934), 9-15.
References list (continued) Newspaper: Author. (year, month day). Article title in sentence-style capitalization, no quotation marks. Newspaper Title, capitalized, in italics, page numbers if available. URL or DOI if retrieved online. Di Leo, L. & Hilsenrath, J. (2011, June 22). Fed on hold amid slow recovery. TheWall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com
What is a DOI? A DOI (digital object identifier) is a registered persistent link to an article on the Internet. It is located on the first page of an electronic journal article and on the article citation in a database. The DOI links to the article online, so no URL or database information is necessary. APA (6th ed.) requires the use the DOI if it is available. Not all electronic sources have one.
References list: Article with a DOI Anechiarico, F. & Segal, L. (2010). Public integrity networks. Public Integrity, 12(4), 325-229. doi: 10.2753/PIN1099-992212040 Note: The DOI appears in the References list only. Do not use it in the in-text citation.
Points to remember about APA Double space your entire paper, including the References page, unless you are told otherwise. Put a running (short) title and page number in the upper-right corner of each page. Alphabetize listings on the References page. Use hanging indentation. Cite all sources carefully. Do not fail to cite all material that you take from sources.
Where can I get help? Make an appointment at the Writing and Academic Resource Center (617) 824-7874. Check the Reference Help section of the EmersonLibrary website. Use a content management system. Noodlebib is a good choice that is available on the library website under databases. You need to register and select a password. Refer to an online writing center like the one from Purdue University at <owl.english.purdue.edu>