Présentation Cherokees

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Présentation Cherokees

  1. 1. The Cherokee Phoenix and the Indian Removal Act <ul><li>Mélanie Bozzo </li></ul><ul><li>From a dissertation written in 2011 at Université Toulouse II – Le Mirail (France) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Sequoyah <ul><li>Transcribed the Cherokee language into a written alphabet. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cherokee alphabet <ul><li>Adopted by the Tribal Council in 1821. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Elias Boudinot <ul><li>Editor of the Phoenix </li></ul>
  5. 5. Samuel Worcester <ul><li>American missionnary, adapted the alphabet for the printing press. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Cherokee Phoenix <ul><li>Online databases for scans of the newspaper : </li></ul><ul><li>Sequoyah Research Center : http://www.anpa.ualr.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo – Georgia Historic Newspapers : </li></ul><ul><li>http://neptune3.galib.uga.edu/ssp/cgi-bin/tei-news-idx.pl </li></ul>
  7. 7. Andrew Jackson <ul><li>Removal was the only solution for Native Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Removal was on a voluntary basis. </li></ul>
  8. 8. « We apprehend, however, that the Cherokees will continue to be pretty stubborn. Those with whom we have conversed are determined to stay. » June 26, 1830. « We believe the present plan of the General Government to effect our removal West of the Mississippi (…) to be highly oppressive, cruel and unjust. And we hope there is no consideration which can induce our citizens to forsake the lands of our fathers. » November 12, 1831.
  9. 9. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831 <ul><li>Georgia sold Cherokee land to gold diggers in public lotteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Law that no Indian testimony in Court was valid without two white witnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>State militia started attacking the weakest Cherokees in 1831. </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokees argued that they were a sovereign nation and Georgia couldn't sell their land. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>« It is not perceived how it is possible to escape the conclusion that they [the Cherokees] form a sovereign state. They have always been dealt with as such by the government of the United States ; both before and since the adoption of the Constitution. » Justice Thompson, July 30, 1831. </li></ul><ul><li>The case ruled the Cherokee tribe as « a ward » to its guardian i.e the US governement (President referred to as the Great Father) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Worcester v. Georgia <ul><li>Georgia law of 1830 : all white men on Cherokee tribes must swear an oath to the state + be given a permit by the governor. </li></ul><ul><li>Violates the fact that the tribe is a soveregien nation with its own Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionnaries were arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>Justice Marshall ruled in favor of Worcester. </li></ul>
  12. 12. « Well, John Marshall has made his decision : now let him enforce it. » (Allegedly said by President Jackson)
  13. 13. John Ross <ul><li>Principal Chief the Tribal Council from 1828-1866. </li></ul>
  14. 14. John Ridge <ul><li>In favor of removal : only way for the tribe to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed the « Treaty Party ». </li></ul>
  15. 15. « My patriotism consist in the love of the country, and the love of the people. There are intimately connected. (…) If the country is lost, or is likely to be lost to all human appearance, and the people still exist, may I not, with a patriotism true and commendable, make a question for the safety of the remaining object of my affection ? » Elias Boudinot, 1832.
  16. 16. « They [the Cherokees ] have NEITHER THE INTELLIGENCE, the INDUSTRY, THE MORAL HABITS NOR THE DESIRE OF IMPROVEMENT, WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL TO ANY FAVORABLE CHANGE IN THEIR CONDITION !! » March 1, 1834
  17. 17. <ul><li>Cherokee Phoenix Office, New Echota. </li></ul>

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