PHILOSOPY..• The ancient definition is the traditional concept of philosophy which comes from the Greek terms “philos” meaning “love” and “sophia” means “wisdom” or “knowledge”. Therefore, philosophy is ordinarily and etymologically construed as the love for wisdom or knowledge.
• Aristotle viewed philosophy as “thinking which aims at maximum connected truth about all available experiences.”• The medieval-scholastics definition considers philosophy as “the science of the ultimate causes of things” These causes are the objects of philosophical inquiry, and the associated goal is to know these causes with certitude.
• Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek word (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom".(Wikipedia.org)
• Philosophy is the systematic inquiry into the principles and presupposition of any field of inquiry.• Psychologically, philosophy is an attitude, an approach, or a calling to answer, or to ask, or even to comment upon certain peculiar problems
The Fields of Philosophy• Philosophy is classified into practical and speculative. Practical philosophy includes; Logic as the science and art of correct thinking; Ethics which is the study of standards of right and wrong and Axiology defined as the nature, types criteria and status of human values. While Speculative philosophy includes; Epistemology, Metaphysics, Aesthetics, Rational Psychology, Social Philosophy, Philosophy of man, Theodicy and Political Philosophy.
Several meanings of logic were defined by different authors..• Generally, Logic is understood as the science and art of correct thinking (Cruz, 1995).• Logic as an art, it guides man’s reasoning so he can proceed with order and ease and without error in the constructive activity of making definitions of terms, propositions and inferences.( Gualdo, 2000)
• According to Resnik, 1970, Logic is considered a science for 3 major reasons: (1) as body of certain and proven knowledge, (2) this body of knowledge is obtained and arranged in a systematic manner, (3) it is objective and possesses “general principles of argumentation and proof, which can be formulated precisely and communicated to others”.
• Logic as a speculative science, is concerned primarily with what is correct reasoning and why it is correct. (McCall, 1971)” Logic is the science and art of correct thinking “(Bachelor, 1966).
• Logic- derived from the greek word logos which means “spoken word.” “Speech” or “reason”. It was introduced by Zero, a Greek philosopher, through his use of the term “logike” which means “discourse of thinking” or “treatises on thought.” Logic The Philosophical Discipline of Correct Thinking (Eddie R. Babor) p.13
MENTAL ACT MENTAL EXTERNAL SIGN LOGICAL ISSUE PRODUCT SIMPLE IDEA TERM PREDICABILITYAPPREHENSION JUDGMENT ENUNCIATION PROPOSITION PREDICATION REASONING ARGUMENT SYLLOGISM INFERENCE
3 Division of Logic Logic may be divided according to the Tree Acts of the Intellect. These are: simple apprehension, judgement and reasoning Simple apprehension is the first act of the intellect wherein bythe acts of our senses we mentally grasp a thing without affirming ordenying anything about it. Judgement is the second act of the intellect wherein wejoin two understood terms obtain or acquired in simple apprehension anddeconstruct them either by affirmation or by negation. Reasoning is the third act of theintellect wherein we draw conclusion from a given act of validity.
• Before the mind can proceed to determine the truth or falsity of anything it has first to apprehend that something. This act of the mind is what is generally called simple apprehension, which is an act whereby the minds understands the general meaning of a thing without affirming or denying anything about it.
• This is the first act of the intellect wherein by the act of o This is the first act of the intellect wherein by the act of our senses we mentally grasp a thing without affirming or denying anything about it .we mentally grasp a thing without affirming or denying anything about it • An act whereby understands the essence or general meaning of a thing without affirming of denying anything about it (McCall, 1971)
Process of Simple Apprehension•Faculty: Senses (sight, touch, smell, taste, and hear)•Sensation: process of senses aroused•Sense Image: image is produced•Imagination: is the process or power of forming pictures in the material organic faculty of things not present to the senses•Phantasm: product of imagination imperfectly pictured •Abstraction: discard, eliminate the common characteristics of the object Idea: define the significant characteristics •Term: figure of the subject (needs speech or writing) •Predicability: term extended to another term (but without affirmation nor negation)
Faculty: sense of touch. I touch something sticky.Sensation: The texture arouse my sensation or instinct to touch. I sense that the texture is sensational that please my senses.
Sense image: I sense now an image of a pleasant object with itssticky texture.Imagination: I imagine this sticky object.Phantasm: the result of my imagination is sense knowledge of adefinite object with sticky texture.
Abstraction: My mind mirrors or sees the essence of that STICKYobject by disregarding the physical characteristics or accidentalfeatures. My intellect now understands or apprehends therepresentation of that essence.
Idea: The mental representation is an idea, myidea of a JAM.
Term: I express this idea orally or in writing and say JAM. I write JAM.Predicability: The term “JAM” can be predicated or related to other terms like STRAWBERRY JAM, GUAVA JAM, ORANGE JAM, RASPBERRY JAM, etc.
Faculty: sense of smell. I smell something unpleasant. Sensation: The odor arouse my sensation or instinct to smell. I sense that the odor is sensational that please my senses.
Sense image: I sense now an image of a pleasant object with its unpleasantodor.Imagination: I imagine this unpleasant smell.Phantasm: the result of my imagination is sense knowledge of a definiteFOOD which is unpleasant to smell.
Abstraction: My mind mirrors or sees the essence of that uniquefruit by disregarding the physical characteristics or accidentalfeatures. My intellect now understands or apprehends therepresentation of that essence.
Idea: The mental representation is an idea, my idea of DURIAN
Term: I express this idea orally or in writing and say DURIAN. I write DURIAN.Predicability: The term “DURIAN” can be predicated or related to other terms like DURIAN CANDY, DURIAN CAKE, DURIAN JUICE, DURIAN ICECREAM, etc.
EXAMPLE # 3Faculty: sense of sight. I see some people wearing uniform. Sensation: The sight arouses my sensation or power to see.
Sense image: I now see an image of people in uniform of differentcolours and stylesImagination: I make vivid pictures of these young people in myimaginationPhantasm: the product of my imagination is a sense of knowledge ofparticular person in uniform.
Abstraction: My intellect disregards and draws/extractsfrom the physical features of those persons in uniform.
Term: I express this idea orally or in writing. So, I say orwrite “PRIEST”Predicability: The term “PRIEST” can be predicated orrelated to other terms like diocesan priests, Benedictinemonk, religious priest, Franciscan friar.