Howard Gardner- Developed this theory in its entirety. He was born in 1943 in Scranton, PA. He is trained as a developmental psychologist and later as a neuropsychologist, and is Professor of Cognition and Education at Harvard University. He developed much of his research on brain damaged, regular, and gifted students. His conclusions lead to the idea that eight differing intelligences define how students learn. Gardner’s continued studies, however, have lead to the possibility of additional intelligences.
This theory defines intelligence as “ the ability to gain knowledge, apply knowledge, manipulate one’s environment, and think abstractly.” There are eight different intelligences: -Linguistic: “Ease in using language” -Logical-Mathematical: “ ability to engage in inductive and deductive reasoning.” -Spatial-Visual: “ability to visualize objects and spatial dimensions.” -Body-Kinesthetic: “ability to move your body with skill and control.” -Musical: “ ability to recognize patterns and sounds.” -Interpersonal: “ability to understand and communicate effectively with others.” -Intrapersonal: “ an awareness of oneself, goals, and emotions.” -Naturalist: “ an awareness of the natural world around them.”However, recently a ninth intelligence has been added:*Existential: “ ability and proclivity to pose (and ponder) questions about life, death, and ultimate realities.”
Gardner believes that the theory may take somewhat different forms in different cultures, depending on how each culture shapes and molds the raw talents of growing children › For example, in Western culture, spatial intelligence might be reflected in painting, sculpture or geometry. › However, among the Gikwe bushmen of the Kalahari Desert, it might be reflected in the ability to recognize and remember many specific locations over a large area. Criticisms: › No valid tool is available to measure this theory, making it difficult to prove. It is therefore accused of being ambiguous and subjective, instead of objective. Battle of the Brains BBC (video) start at 4mins 14secs.
What does the teacher do A more balanced curriculum that incorporates the arts, self-awareness, under this theory (with and communication, and physical without technology)? education may be useful in order to leverage the intelligences that some students may have. Teachers must provide a variety of The teacher would incorporate as assessments and activities to cover the many of the eight different wide variety of intelligences children intelligences as possible into the lesson. may incur. A few options that involve technology Teachers may tailor instructional could include a PowerPoint methods for each individual student in Presentation, a Concept Web, or a order to capitalize on each student’s Digital Photostory. Without technology, intellectual strengths. a teacher can use the white board or create a posterboard. As long as the Teachers can make “activity menus” need to incorporate the intelligences, that allow students to choose different and therefore, the different learning activities that suit their learning abilities styles are applied, technology is in order to demonstrate their extremely useful, but not mandatory. understanding of a subject. However, with technology, it would be Teachers must learn to consider all easier to incorporate the different different types of learners and how to types of intelligence due to the wide adapt to those learners. Here Gardner capabilities that technology allows us talks more on his theory and how he to accomplish. thinks it applies to the classroom.
Intelligence Adaptations Keep a journal, Write a book report, Create a slogan,Linguistic Give a speech, Create a word searchMathematic Conduct an experiment, Describe patterns Debate an issue, Deliver a team presentation, InterviewInterpersonal a classmate, Participate in a surveyIntrapersonal Read silently, Write an autobiography, Write a poemKinesthetic Role play, Dramatize a passageEnvironmental Incorporate field trips, Conduct lessons outside Make scrapbooks/posters, Design logo/brochure, DrawVisual a scene, Create a puzzleMusical Create a rap/song, Background music
What do the Take more responsibility for their own learning and students do engage in active learning, under the theory as well as self-efficacy. Under this theory students (with or without will learn to explore different technology)? types of intelligences, and will be likely to discover and embrace abilities that were unknown . Students will work more deeply within their subject areas, exploring in more unique and personalized ways.
The multiple intelligence theory is a great tool for teaching students. It uses many techniques and addresses all areas of children’s strengths and weaknesses. By developing lesson plans that address all eight intelligences, teachers are able to create environments in which children can learn to the best of their abilities. –M. Strandberg The multiple intelligence theory is an important thing to remember in any type of classroom. All students learn in different ways, and by knowing each student’s intellectual strengths, teachers can develop lesson plans and activities that allow students to master the material in the way that suits them best. –N. Sutterby The concept of “Multiple Intelligences” is a highly revolutionary theory to incorporate in the classroom, since it reminds teachers that certain students, that perhaps might not comprehend a particular concept of a lesson, might excel in another area in the curriculum. In this way it broadens the spectrum of what intelligence is, not just categorizing verbal and mathematical abilities as intelligence. –L. Mejia Although there is no specific tool to test Gardner’s Theory, I believe the evidence is obvious once given the opportunity. Every individual does not learn the same way, but with this theory, we can incorporate certain factors that would help ensure each individual’s success. No student is the same as his or her peer, and if we recognize this, and treat every student as individuals by addressing their learning styles, everyone benefits. -S. Bebergal
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence theory is an idea that will really help in the classroom. It will help with seemingly “problem” children who may not get the instruction or who may not be challenged enough by it. –M. Scarlett Using the multiple intelligence theory, teachers are able to adapt a lesson plan to suit the individual learning style of every child. Diverse instructional curriculums allow every student to get the education they deserve. As teachers of tomorrow, it is our responsibility to deliver the appropriate lesson plan and strive to meet each student’s success in the classroom. The multiple intelligence theory opens new doors for different learning styles and a variety of learning menus. – C. Law
About. (n.d.). Howard Gardner | Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education / Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://howardgardner.com/biography/ Battle of the Brains IQ - BBC - YouTube. (n.d.). YouTube. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ikv_NmY3-U Bright Hub Education Provides Teaching Tips & Lesson Plans, Homework Help & Study Guides, Homeschooling Advice & Much More. (n.d.). Bright Hub Education Provides Teaching Tips & Lesson Plans, Homework Help & Study Guides, Homeschooling Advice & Much More. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://brighthubeducation.com Dr. Howard Gardner on Multiple Intelligences Â« I am the eternal studentâ€¦but I am not alone. (n.d.). I am the eternal studentâ€¦but I am not alone. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://greeneyezwinkin2.wordpress.com/2012/01/22/dr- howard-gardner-on-multiple-intelligences/ Gardners Multiple Intelligences - Learning Skills from MindTools.com. (n.d.). Mind Tools - Management Training, Leadership Training and Career Training. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newISS_85.htm Gardner, H. (2011). Promoting Learner Engagement Using Multiple Intelligences and Choice-Based Instruction. Adult Basic Education and Literacy, 5(2), 97-101. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from the ERIC database. Gardner, H. E. (n.d.). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century - Howard E. Gardner - Google Books. Google Books. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://books.google.com/books?id=nOHsjJZB0J8C&lpg=PR9&ots=6pNKY2Yl9n&dq=multiple%20intelligences%20and%20exist ential&lr&pg=PA75#v=onepage&q=multiple%20intelligences%20and%20existential&f=false Great Performances . Educational Resources . Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences Theory . Overview | PBS. (n.d.). PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/education/ed_mi_overview.html Howard Gardner. (n.d.). PZ. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from www.pz.harvard.edu/pis/hg.htm Howard Gardner | About. (n.d.). Howard Gardner | Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education / Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://howardgardner.com/biography/ Howard Gardner of The Multiple Intelligence Theory - YouTube. (n.d.). YouTube. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2QtSbP4FRg Kalahari Map. (n.d.). African Safari Journals. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from www.african-safari- journals.com/images/KalahariMap.jpg McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (20102010). Pearson Custom education: child development and education. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. Multiple Intelligences Revealed!. (n.d.). David Lazear Group | Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://davidlazeargroup.com/Multi-Intell/MI_chart.html Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner) | Learning Theories. (n.d.). Learning Theories. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.learning-theories.com/gardners-multiple-intelligences-theory.html cornerstoneforteachers.com. (n.d.). cornerstoneforteachers.com. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://cornerstoneforteachers.com