WATER CONSERVATION GUIDELINES             AND        PLANS IN ZAMBIAWritten and Compiled by Charles Bwalya Chisanga, BSc N...
Water Conservation
Chapter 1                                      Introduction “Water Conservation” means the preservation, control and devel...
Catchment Council: It shall be the duty of the catchment council or board in exercisingthe functions conferred on or trans...
interest, subject to compensation for actual damage, such compensation being either inmoney or in water.Construction of Ne...
Chapter 2                                      Water SupplyProvision of water for domestic use: Water undertakers shall pr...
Chapter 3                              Use of Water in Agriculture Irrigation: Of major significance for the consideration...
Changing Plant Varieties and Reusing of water   Switching to crops with lower irrigation requirements and minimising irri...
1. Adjustable flow controls valves on circuit remote control valves. Pressure regulationcomponent(s) shall be required whe...
Water Conservation Plan Guidelines
CONTENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE WATER CONSERVATION PLANSPECIFY CONSERVATION PLANNING GOALS List of conservation planning goals ...
INTEGRATE RESOURCES AND MODIFY FORECASTS Modification of water demand and supply capacity forecasts to reflect anticipate...
SPECIFY CONSERVATION PLANNING GOALSPlanning GoalsThe planning goals can be developed from different perspective. The plann...
can help maintain and build support for achieving conservation goals and „get the wordout‟ about conservation effort. Part...
DEVELOP A WATER SYSTEM PROFILESystem ProfileTaking inventory of existing resources and conditions is an important step in ...
Worksheet 1 WATER SYSTEM PROFILEA    SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS                                        Number1    Estimated s...
WORKSHEET 2 OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM CONDITIONS                                        Increasing need for conservation         ...
WORKSHEET 3 CURRENT WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIESSummarize the system‟s current water conservation activities:………………………………...
PREPARE A DEMAND FORECASTDemand ForecastingForecasting water use or water demand is a critical part of the planning proces...
Worksheet 4 Preliminary Water Demand Forecast [a]Line   Item                                        Current       5-year  ...
[c]   Explanatory variable other than employees or jobs can be used as appropriate. The forecast should      be disaggrega...
DESCRIBE PLANNED FACILITIESSupply ForecastingIn this conservation plan, planners are asked to prepare an estimate of suppl...
If no capital improvements and additions are planned, ‘0’ values can be entered and theestimate of supply costs can be bas...
Table 1: Relationship of Water Demand to Supply FacilitiesType of Water Demand                             Type of Water S...
Worksheet 5: Anticipated Improvements and AdditionsDescribe the planned improvements and additions: …………………………………………………….…...
Worksheet 6: Cost of Supply-Side FacilitiesLine   Item                Facilities                                          ...
[b]   The plan should indicate whether purchases are needed to meet average-day or maximum-day      demand or both.[c]   P...
Worksheet 7: Preliminary Supply-Capacity ForecastYear            Additions (+)       Retirements (-)   Total supply capaci...
IDENTIFY CONSERVATION MEASURESLevels and MeasuresMeasures include both supply-side and demand-side management techniques f...
Worksheet 8: Checklist of Conservation Measures [a]                                                 Al        Pla         ...
Worksheet 8 (continued)                                            Al   Pla                                            re ...
Water-use regulation [B]Water-use standards and regulations                        ……………………………………………Requirements for new d...
incremental cost of supply. The difference between the per-litre cost of conservation andthe per-litre cost of supply is a...
[a]       This analysis is used to aid the comparison and selection of measures. Planners will       estimate actual effec...
SELECT CONSERVATION MEASURESSelection CriteriaDescribe the process by which conservations were selected for implementation...
Worksheet 11: Selection of Conservation Measures and Estimate of Water SavingsLine                                 S      ...
INTEGRATE RESOURCES AND MODIFY FORECASTSModify water demand and supply-capacity forecasts to reflect the anticipated effec...
line 2)[b]    3   Average-day demand after conservation    4   Maximum-day demand before conservation [a]    5   Reduction...
4       Downsized project5       Savings from downsizing (line 3 less line 4)C       CAPITAL PROJECT POSTPONED6       Pres...
7      Total cost of implementing selected       conservation measures [e][a]    From Worksheet 7.[b]    Based on Workshee...
Worksheet 15: Implementation Schedule for Measures                 Measure       Required   Beginning   Completion   Line ...
11      12Worksheet 16: Implementation StrategyA. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENTDescribe plan for public involvement:B. MONITORING AND...
Date plan completed:      ……………………………………………………………………………Date plan approved:       …………………………………………………………………………...Approved b...
Water-use audits; Retrofits; Pressure management; Landscape effeicient                                          Level 3 me...
[P]                                                       Selective irrigation sub-         renovation                   ...
connection meters should be read at the same relative time in order to facilitate accuratecomparison and analysis.Meter ac...
[B]              User charges                 Metered ratesCost-of-service accounting: Water systems should use cost-of-...
customers change their water-use habits. These saving can be difficult to estimate. Alsopublic education may not produce t...
Water-use or end-use audits can provide water systems and their customers withinvaluable information about how water is us...
Retrofit kit available: A basic retrofit kit may include low-flow faucet aerators, low-flowshowerheads, leak detection tab...
Water conservation guidelines and plans
Water conservation guidelines and plans
Water conservation guidelines and plans
Water conservation guidelines and plans
Water conservation guidelines and plans
Water conservation guidelines and plans
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Water conservation guidelines and plans

  1. 1. WATER CONSERVATION GUIDELINES AND PLANS IN ZAMBIAWritten and Compiled by Charles Bwalya Chisanga, BSc Natural Resources ©March 2003
  2. 2. Water Conservation
  3. 3. Chapter 1 Introduction “Water Conservation” means the preservation, control and development of waterresources (surface and groundwater) whether by storage, including natural groundstorage, prevention of pollution or other means so as to ensure that adequate and reliablefor all purposes in the most suitable and economic way against whilst safeguardinglegitimate interests. Water Conservation Guidelines can be developed for Agriculture,Commercial, Industrial, Municipal, Residential and Landscaping.Water conservation measures include such things as metering, improved wateraccounting, leak detection, water-use audits, retrofits, reuse and recycling, and landscapeimprovements, reducing evaporation through mulching, delaying runoff, recirculatingcooling or other water, water to enable it to be re-used, reducing waste water to enable itto be re-used, rainwater harvesting, changing crop varieties, changing farming methodsand irrigation type.Surface Storage: Both impounding and storage reservoirs are filled as required whenriver flow exceeds a minimum which must be allowed to continue downstream. There isno discrimination on the type of runoff collected. Runoff has two components, direct run-off (surface) and indirect runoff (springs).Water for Cooling Purposes: The Minister may grant licenses to water users for coolingpurposes from groundwater provided the same is returned ton the aquifer after use.Water Pollution: the law should govern the pollution of water. In practice, the law isvery difficult to operate. The power to make bylaws for the protection of the source frompollution within defined area should be given, whether on the surface or groundwater.The section should also make it an offence to be “guilty of any act or neglect wherebyany springs, well or audit the water from which is used or likely to be used for humanconsumption or domestic purposes or manufacturing food or drink for humanconsumption, is polluted or likely to be contaminated”Water quality conservation: Various measures are being undertaken for conservation ofwater quality on bodies of inland water such as rivers and lakes, including theestablishment of environmental quality standards, effluent control at factories and otherplaces of work, construction of sewerage systems and implementation of purificationmeasures on rivers.Power of the Minister to enforce conservation: Sections of the Water Act should givepower to the Minister {MEWD) the duty to promote the conservation and proper use ofwater resources and the provision of water supplies and to ensure the effective executionby water undertakers under his control and direction, of a national policy relating towater.
  4. 4. Catchment Council: It shall be the duty of the catchment council or board in exercisingthe functions conferred on or transferred to them by or under this Act, to conserve so faras practicable the water resources of their area.Measurement of precipitation: Precipitation measurements shall be made to determinethe level of water use in a given year. The Minister shall have power to direct that thisshall be so.Groundwater - Public property: Until recently, underground water was regarded as theabsolute property of the land owner on which was situated a well or borehole from whichit was obtained, a land could use it to any extent and manner, limited only by the quantityone could get, not withstanding any effect it had on his neighbours.As regards surface water including water flowing in a known and defined channel thecommon law, as generally understood is that a “riparian owner”, that is the one owningland abutting on a river, is entitled, subject to any prescriptive rights which may havebeen acquired, to receive the natural flow of the river and he must pass this on, togetherwith any accretion there may be on his land, to his neighbours downstream. He has,however, the right to use the water of the river to a reasonable extent for the purposes ofhis property. What may be “reasonable” in any particular case may be a matter for thecourts.In the absence of prescriptive rights, therefore, no one can abstract water from a river orstream or materially alter the conditions of flow except by statutory authority and ingranting this authority Parliament or the appropriate Government Department will haveregard to all existing uses and the character of the river and will prescribe limits ofabstraction and if that is substantial in relation to the particular river, a minimum quantitybellow which the flow shall not be reduced.Compensation: If a river is impounded the abstracting authority will come under theobligation of discharging from the reservoir a specified daily quantity known asCompensation Water, which usually has to be accepted all persons interested as “fullcompensation for all water impounded by the authorized works”The undertakers shall make full compensation to all parties interested for all damagesustained by them through construction works on the water source.In any case where no express provision with respect to the compensation is made by thespecial Act, the undertakers shall pay to the owners and occupiers of, and other personsinterested in any lands or streams taken or used for the purposes of that Act, orinjuriously affected. Compensation for the value of the lands or streams so taken or used,and for all damage sustained by the owners, etc.Parliament has, therefore, always had regard to existing rights in rivers but neverthelessrecognized that they must under certain circumstances be subordinated to the public
  5. 5. interest, subject to compensation for actual damage, such compensation being either inmoney or in water.Construction of New Boreholes: A provision to control the introduction of newboreholes and wells and to some extent further abstraction from existing ones should bemade. The provision applies only in an area generally known as a “conservation area”within which the Minister is satisfied that “special measures are necessary in the publicinterest” and has made an order defining the area in question.License: Within such an area, no person shall, without first obtaining from the Minister alicense which can and usually does contain limitations and conditions –a) Construct any well, borehole or other work for the purpose of abstracting underground water, or,b) Extend any existing well, borehole or other work for the purpose of abstracting additional quantities of additional water,Unlessc) The water is required solely and to the extent necessary for the domestic requirements of his household,d) The construction or extension is expressly authorized by any enactment, or,e) The boring, etc., is experimental.The section should also make it an offence within such an area to cause or allowunderground water to run to waste or to abstract water in excess of reasonablerequirements.“Conservation Orders” should be made, defining most areas in which they may beconsidered necessary at the present time, and within these areas the previous unlimitedright of the owner of the land to abstract water has gone.The general types of conservation pricing options are: Repeal of volume discounts;increasing block rates; seasonal rates; and excess loading or excess use charges.
  6. 6. Chapter 2 Water SupplyProvision of water for domestic use: Water undertakers shall provide in their mains andcommunication pipes a supply of wholesome water sufficient for domestic purposes of allowners and occupiers of premises within the limits of supply who under the special Actare entitled to demand a supply for those purposes. Domestic preference shall be given todomestic water use. The user shall have the right to apply to the concerned Ministerwhere a supply for non-domestic purposes is refused or is offered on unacceptable terms.Water undertakers have a statutory liability to provide water for domestic purposes withthe liability to financial penalties if in default also a liability to supply water for non-domestic purposes subject to the direction of the appropriate central authority in cases ofdispute.Additional water requirements: In general terms and irrespective of the procedureadopted, proposals by Water Undertakers to develop additional sources of supply oracquire further water rights are subject to the giving of statutory and public notices sothat any interested parties who may consider themselves prejudiced by the proposals mayenter objections. In the cases of procedure by Ministerial Order objections are heard atpublic inquiries and under parliamentary committees. Any order proposed by the Ministeris subject to confirmation by parliament if objections are sustained after a public enquiryhas been held and a provision order made. Protective measures to surf-guard reservoirs against pollution should be carefullychosen. Water must be treated to meet the acceptable World Health Organisation (WHO)standards for drinking water.The public water suppliers should be prepared to take appropriate action in a timelymanner, whenever the monthly or bi-monthly records indicate that a water conservationproblem needs to be addressed. It is anticipated that many water utilities will want to gobeyond this level of detail and closely examine daily and even hourly water use figures.The water utility should prepare separate subsections for long-term water conservationpractices related to each of the following three areas: (a) education, (b) management and(c) regulation. For each of these three water conservation areas, the water utility should:(a) prepare a summary of historical and current water use efficiency practices undertakenby the water utility, with special attention to the specific water use efficiency practices;(b) provide a list of specific water use efficiency practices that the water utility will bedoing on a long-term basis; and (c) indicate the target date for beginning each specificwater use efficiency practice listed by the water utility.
  7. 7. Chapter 3 Use of Water in Agriculture Irrigation: Of major significance for the consideration of water conservation is the needfor water usage in irrigation particularly the irrigation of crops grown on a farm scale.The judicious use of irrigation in agriculture and horticulture should be encouragedbecause of a number of benefits which result especially in lowering of the unit cost ofproduction and stabilization of crop yields. Water in agriculture is used for livestockwatering, aquaculture and irrigation. Development of reservoirs: Some consideration will be provided to the development ofreservoirs and economic aspects; farmers will be assisted by government grants toconserve water in small private reservoirs. Small user groups of farms combining inprivate conservation works would also be considered. If resources are to be developed asfar as is practicable, this development will require co-ordination and wider methods ofconservations will need to be considered.Wastewater Reusing: Wastewater comes in two forms, graywater, which comes fromshowers laundry machines, and dishwashers; and blackwater, which is the sewage fromtoilets. Reusing graywater for flush toilets and landscaping can provide enormous savingsof potable water. Buildings can be designed or retrofitted to allow for separate drain linesto accommodate this strategy.Increasing wastewater is seen as a resource, and it is often reused for productive usessince it contains nutrients that have the potential for use in agriculture, aquaculture, andother activities. The water and nutrient content in particular can be very useful foragriculture purposes - for example through irrigation of fodder, fibre and other seed cropsand, to a limited extent for the irrigation of orchards, vineyards, and other crops. Thewastewater can be treated and reused for irrigation in potable purposes through biologicalwastewater treatment such as wetlands. This serves two purposes, it serves water, and itrecycles the pollutants in the waste as food for biological treatment systems.Water Harvesting: It is defined as the collection of runoff for its productive use. Waterharvesting supports a flourishing agriculture in many dry areas where rainfall is erratic indistribution. It is practiced in the drier areas where crops cannot grow depending only onrainfall.Rainwater Collection: It is a technology used for the collection and storing rainwater forhuman use from rooftops, land surfaces or rock catchments using simple techniques suchas jars and pots as well as engineered technique. Collected rainwater from cisterns andcatch basins can be used to provide for landscaping needs and can be treated and used aspotable water.
  8. 8. Changing Plant Varieties and Reusing of water Switching to crops with lower irrigation requirements and minimising irrigation demand (require support from extension services, access to capital and to markets); Reuse of drainage water (require awareness by farmers and minor investment in building bunds and digging diversion channels); Mulching to retain soil moisture (require awareness by farmers and availability of plant material); Running irrigation systems at their maximum designed capacity to reduce water stealing and simplify operations; Storm-water Retention is a system provides a more environmental and aesthetic alternative to conventional drainage system. The storm water can be retained in a „pond‟ for reuse in the dry season.Water conservation can also be achieved by carrying out specific water Conservationprojects. “Water conservation projects” are those projects that reduce water loss or waterconsumption through activities such as, but not limited to, the following: Canal lining Improving/rehabilitating canals or waterways Piping of canals Constructing control structures Improving/rehabilitating structures (pump stations) Installing pressurized irrigation systems Repairing sprinkler systems Installing moisture barriers Reducing water consumption through changes in irrigation practices (drip irrigation, aspersion, micro-aspersion, etc.) Constructing facilities for desalination, water reclamation and recharge Improving/rehabilitating structures (lining of regulating reservoir) Installing/improving metering systems/devices (metering) Installing/improving control and distribution structures and the operation of these devices (automation, new installation, improvements to operational roads) Land compaction and land levelling for purposes of water conservation Installing fertilizer application systems (in pressured systems) Improving operations that reduce the time and complexity of irrigation Installing plot remote moisture sensors.Irrigation RequirementsAutomatic irrigation systems should comply with the following guidelines. Theseguidelines should be noted on a plan drawn by the Government (Ministry of Agricultureand Cooperatives).
  9. 9. 1. Adjustable flow controls valves on circuit remote control valves. Pressure regulationcomponent(s) shall be required where static pressure exceeds manufacturer‟srecommended operating range (30-60 psi).2. Valves and circuits shall be separated based on water use, (hydro-zoned) so that turfand shrub areas, sun and shade areas, as well as high and low runoff areas may bewatered separately.3. The minimum precipitation rate that can be applied by any zone of conventionalirrigation should be in accordance with Conservation Plans. Sprinkler heads shall havematched precipitation rates within each control valve circuit.4. Serviceable check valves shall be required where elevation differential may cause lowhead drainage adjacent to paving areas.5. Sprinkler head spacing shall be designed for head-to-head coverage or heads shall bespaced as per manufacturer‟s recommendations and adjusted for prevailing winds. Thesystem shall be designed for minimum run-off. There shall be no direct over spray ontoimpervious areas.6. All automatic irrigation systems shall be equipped with a controller capable of dual ormultiple programming. Controllers should have multiple cycles start capacity and flexiblecalendar program, including the capability of day of week or day interval watering. Allautomatic irrigation systems shall be equipped with a rain sensor shut-off device.7. Irrigation construction plans shall include a water budget. A water budget shouldinclude:a) Estimated monthly water use (in litre or cubic meters per application) and the area (insquare meters or hectare) irrigated.b) Precipitation rates for each valve circuit.c) Monthly irrigation schedule for the plant establishment period (first three months) andrecommended yearly watering schedule, including seasonal adjustments.d) Location of emergency irrigation system shut-off valve.8. All in-ground irrigation systems shall have backflow prevention device installed thatmeet local code. Where available, reclaimed water will be used for all purposes allowed by rulesestablished by the Government of Zambia, if the reclaimed water is less costly thanpotable water or other water currently being used by the purposes that reclaimed watercan be use.
  10. 10. Water Conservation Plan Guidelines
  11. 11. CONTENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE WATER CONSERVATION PLANSPECIFY CONSERVATION PLANNING GOALS List of conservation planning goals and their relationship to supply-side planning Description of community involvement in the goals-development processDEVELOP A WATER SYSTEM PROFILE Inventory of existing facilities, production characteristics, and water use Overview of conditions that might affect the water system and conservation planningPREPARE A DEMAND FORECAST Forecast of anticipated water demand for future time periods Adjustments to demand based on known and measurable factors Discussion of uncertainties and “what if” (sensitivity) analysisDESCRIBE PLANNED FACILITIES Improvements planned for the water system over a reasonable planning horizon Estimates of the total, annualised, and unit cost (per litre) of planned supply-side improvements and additions Preliminary forecast of total installed water capacity over the planning period based on anticipated improvements and additionsIDENTIFY WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES Review of conservation measures that have been implemented or that are planned for implementation Discussion of legal or other barriers to implementing recommended measures Identification of measures for further analysisANALYZE BENEFITS AND COSTS Estimate of total implementation costs and anticipated water savings Cost effectiveness assessment for recommended conservation measures Comparison of implementation costs to avoided supply-side costsSELECT CONSERVATION MEASURES Selection criteria for choosing conservation measures Identification of selected measures Explanation for why recommended measures will not be implemented Strategy and timetable for implementing conservation measures
  12. 12. INTEGRATE RESOURCES AND MODIFY FORECASTS Modification of water demand and supply capacity forecasts to reflect anticipated effects of conservation Discussion of the effects of conservation on planned water purchases, improvements, and additions Discussion of the effects of planned conservation measures on water utility revenuesPRESENT IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION STRATEGY
  13. 13. SPECIFY CONSERVATION PLANNING GOALSPlanning GoalsThe planning goals can be developed from different perspective. The planning guidelinesinclude the analysis of the benefits and cost of conservation activities. Specifyconservation planning goals in terms of anticipated benefits for the water system and itscustomers. To the extent practical, involve affected members of the community in thedevelopment of conservation planning goals and throughout the implementation process.The value of conservation is defined in terms of avoiding supply-side costs to the watersystem. Lowering the level of water demand can help water suppliers avoid, downsize, orpostpone the construction and operation of costly supply side facilities.Planner should plan on revisiting the goals section before finalizing the conservation planand periodically thereafter, because goals and the means to achieving them will evolve.As the water system accomplishes certain conservation goals, new objectives may comeinto focus.Community Involvement in water ConservationThe process of developing goals can involve representatives of various groups in thecommunity or stakeholders who may be concerned about water system and its future.Modern resources planning (such as integrated resources planning) emphasizes as anopen process that involves all affected groups so that they can have an opportunity toexpress their interests and concerns. Involving the community in goal development servesan important public education function. Moreover, it is widely believed that involving thecommunity in developing goals, as well as in the implementation process, can greatlyenhance the success of conservation programmes.Members of the community who mighty be interested in water conservation include:  Residential water consumers;  Commercial water consumers;  Industrial water consumers;  Wholesale consumers;  Environmental groups;  Civil right groups;  Business and commerce group;  Recreational water users;  Agricultural users;  Education institutions;  Government agencies or ministries;  Labour groups.In addition assisting the water system specify planning goals, community participantsalso can have an ongoing role in a system‟s conservation system. Ongoing involvement
  14. 14. can help maintain and build support for achieving conservation goals and „get the wordout‟ about conservation effort. Participants can act as a focus group for exploring specificconservation measures. Participants also provide valuable linkages to key groups –consumers, business and institutions-who might be involved in implementing certainconservation measures.For many water systems, involving the community in water-system planning will be anew experience. However, most system managers will find that involving members of thecommunity in developing goals, implementing programmes, and evaluating results in avery worthwhile investment.
  15. 15. DEVELOP A WATER SYSTEM PROFILESystem ProfileTaking inventory of existing resources and conditions is an important step in the planningprocess. A water system profile can help systems assess their present circumstances anddesign strategies to meet emerging needs. Most water systems should maintain the dataand information necessary for building a system profile Summarize the services and operating characteristics of the water system. Provide an overview of conditions and a description of climate, water availability, or other factors that might affect water conservation planning.System ConditionsThe checklist provided suggests the need for water conservation planning. While allwater systems can benefit from efficient improvements, water conservation can beespecially beneficial for systems experiencing water shortages or rapid increases indemand. For example, water system facing one or more of the following conditions arestrongly urged to consider the fullest range of conservation measures available to them inaccordance with the guidelines:  Systems in state-designated critical water or stressed areas;  Systems experiencing frequent droughts, emergencies, or safe yield problem;  Systems with excessive unaccounted-for water or water losses;  Systems anticipating rapid growth in water demand;  Systems entering into major construction cycles.In addition to the summary worksheet, planners should prepare a brief written discussionof the significant conditions affecting their systems. Particular attention can be paid toclimate and water availability, but other factors affecting the system can be considered aswell. This information can be used to help systems identify problems and opportunitiesthrough the planning process.Current Conservation effortsWorksheet 3 is provided so that water systems can describe their current waterconservation activities and programme. For each conservation measure implemented,planner can indicate the approximate annual water savings achieved, whenimplementation for the measure began, and whether continued implementation isplanned. Any other pertinent information on current efforts and their effectiveness can beprovided in the plan as well.
  16. 16. Worksheet 1 WATER SYSTEM PROFILEA SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS Number1 Estimated service population2 Estimated service area (Square Kilometres)3 Kilometres of mains4 Number of treatment plants5 Number of separate water systems6 Interconnection with other systemsB ANNUAL WATER SUPPLY Annual volume Number of Percent intakes or metered sources points7 Groundwater %8 Surface water %9 Purchases: raw %10 Purchases: treated %11 Total annual water supply %C SERVICE CONNECTIONS Connections Water sales Percent metered12 Residential single-family %13 Residential multi-family %14 Commercial %15 Industrial %16 Public or government %17 Wholesale %18 Other %19 Total connections %D WATER DEMAND Annual volume Percent total Per connection20 Residential sale21 Non-residential sale22 Wholesale sale23 Other sales24 Non-account water: authorized uses25 Non-account water unauthorized uses26 Total system demandE AVERAGE & PEAK DEMAND Volume Total supply Percent of capacity total capacity27 Average-day demand %28 Maximum-day demand %29 Maximum-hour demand %F PRICING Rate structure Metering Billing frequency frequency30 Residential rate31 Non-residential rate32 Other rateG PLANNING Prepared a plan Date Filed with government33 Capital, facility, or supply plan34 Drought or emergency rate35 Water conservation plan
  17. 17. WORKSHEET 2 OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM CONDITIONS Increasing need for conservation Don’t KnowLine (Tick) Conditions Check applicable description (Tick)A CLIMATE AND WATER AVAILABILITY1 Average precipitation High Moderate Low2 Average temperature Low Moderate High3 Critical supply areas No At risk Yes4 Competing water users No Possibly Yes5 Environmental constraint No Possibly Yes6 Quality/quantity concern No Possibly Yes7 Seasonal variation in climate Low Moderate High8 Instream flow problems Low Moderate High9 Shortage or emergence frequency Low Moderate HighB INFRASTRUCTURE CONDITIONS10 Age of system Newer Middle Older11 General condition of system Good Fair Poor12 Water losses and leaks Low Moderate High13 Uncounted-for water Low Moderate High14 Safe yield of supply exceeded No At risk Yes15 Wastewater discharge exceeded No At risk Yes16 Wastewater capacity exceeded No At risk yes17 Potential for recycling and reuse Low Moderate High18 Improvement plans Low Moderate High19 Anticipated investment Low Moderate HighC SYSTEM DEMOGRAPHICS20 Rate of population growth per year Low Moderate High21 Rate of demand growth per year Low Moderate High22 Rate of economic growth per year Low Moderate High23 Per capita water use (by class) Low Moderate High24 Ration of peak of average demand Low Moderate High25 Presence of large-volume users Low Moderate HighD OTHER FACTORS26272829
  18. 18. WORKSHEET 3 CURRENT WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIESSummarize the system‟s current water conservation activities:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Water conservation measures Approximate Implemented Is continued annual water since (Date) implementatio saving (if known) n planned?
  19. 19. PREPARE A DEMAND FORECASTDemand ForecastingForecasting water use or water demand is a critical part of the planning process.Forecasting can range from simple projections based on anticipated growth in thepopulation to complex models using several variables to explain variation in water use.Forecasting can either be made for a water system as a whole or forecasts can beconsidered more accurately for separate classification of water use or sectors. Prepare a forecast of anticipated water demand for selected time periods. To the extent practical, the planner should take into account variations in demand based on type of water usage, as well as perform a ‘what if’ analysis.The guidelines suggest that planners prepare forecasts for 5-year, 10-year and 20-yearintervals. The longer the forecast the greater the uncertainty and forecasts should berevisited and updated on a regular basis. The forecast should recognize the effects ofconservation measures already implemented or being implemented.Forecasting methodWorksheet 4 separates (at a minimum) residential and non-residential customers. Theforecast can be made per capita or per connection basis. For non-residential sector,planners should use employees, jobs, or another appropriate explanatory variable.
  20. 20. Worksheet 4 Preliminary Water Demand Forecast [a]Line Item Current 5-year 10-year 20-year year forecast forecast forecastA RESIDENTIAL DEMAND1 Current annual water residential sales (total litres)2 Current population served [b]3 Residential sales per capita (line 1 divided by line 2) [b]4 Projected population [b]5 Projected annual residential water demand (line 3 multiplied by line 3)B NONRESISENTIAL DEMAND (C)6 Current annual water non-residential sales (total litres)7 Current number of employees or jobs [c]8 Water use per employee or job (line 6 divided by line 7)9 Projected number of employees or jobs10 Projected annual non-residential water demand (line 8 multiplied by line 9)C NON-ACCOUNT WATER (WATER NOT SOLD TO CUSTOMERS11 Current and forecast amount [d]D WATER SYSTEM TOTAL DEMAND12 Current total annual water demand (add lines 1, 6, and 11)13 Projected total annual water demand (add lines 5, 10, and 11)14 Adjustment to forecast (+ or -)15 Current (line 12) and adjusted total annual water demand forecast (add line13 and 14)16 Current and projected annual supply capacity [f]17 Difference between total use and total supply capacity (+ or -) (subtract line 12 from line 15)E AVERAGE-DAY AND MAXIMUM-DAY DEMAND18 Average-day demand (line 15 divided by 365)19 Current maximum-day demand20 Maximum-day to average-day demand ratio (line 20 divided by line 19)21 Projected maximum-day demand (line 18 multiplied by line 20 for all forecast years)22 Adjustment to maximum-day demand forecast [e]23 Current (line 19) and adjusted maximum-day demand forecast (add lines 21 and 22)24 Daily supply capacity (divide line 16 by 365)25 Ration of maximum-day demand to daily supply capacity (divide line 23 by line 24)[a] Separate forecasts should be prepared for large-volume users.[b] Planners can choose to use serve connections or households instead of population and per- connection water use instead of per-capita water use.
  21. 21. [c] Explanatory variable other than employees or jobs can be used as appropriate. The forecast should be disaggregated by sector of water use to the greatest extent possible (for example, commercial and industrial water use and non-account water) and a qualitative sensitivity analysis („what if‟) should be performed for each sector‟s forecast.[d] Please provide an explanation of the forecast of non-account water, including all relevant assumptions.[e] Please provide an explanation of adjustment to your forecasts, including all relevant assumptions.[f] Supply capacity should take into account available supplies (permits), treatment capacity, and distribution system capacity and reflect the practical total supply capacity of the system, including purchased water.
  22. 22. DESCRIBE PLANNED FACILITIESSupply ForecastingIn this conservation plan, planners are asked to prepare an estimate of supply costs basedon meeting the level of water demand specified in the unadjusted demand forecast. Thisis a critical part of the analysis because it establishes the anticipated cost of supply-sideimprovements and additions and this cost estimate will be used to represent the value ofconservation or demand-side activities. Describe improvements planned for the water system over a reasonable planning horizon; identify the types of improvements proposed, and unit cost of the improvements. Prepare a preliminary forecast of installed capacity.The benefits of conservation extend into the future it is important to take a forward-looking approach to supply costs. The concept of marginal or incremental cost capturesthe idea that the “true” value of a supply resource can be measured in terms of the cost ofthe next increment of supply. If only high-cost supplies are available, the marginal orincremental cost will be high. For many communities, future increments of supply willbe very costly. The value of a conserved amount of water at a future point, because thatis the supply option being displaced by conservation.Cost AnalysisA reasonable accounting of anticipated supply costs is needed in order to compare thecost of supply-side measures to the cost of demand –side or conservation measures (on acost-per-gallon basis). Planners should choose an appropriate time horizon; a twenty-year or other suitable period can be used. The choice of time frame should be consistentwith the demand forecast, as well as the other planning considerations.Planners should begin by preparing an estimate of major improvements and additions thatwill be required over the planning horizon in order to meet anticipated demand (includinga safe reserve margin). Detailed cost estimates may be available from facility plans orother planning documents. Worksheet 5 can be used to summarize improvements andadditions, which are disaggregated into three categories: source of supply, transmissionand treatment, and distribution. (Additional categories can be used as needed.)Planners should consider all capital facility improvements and additions. Improvementsinclude renovations and expansions needed to maintain or enhance safety or reliabilitywithin existing facilities. Additions consist of new facilities. Routine maintenanceimprovements should not be included. Anticipated water purchases and costs also shouldbe recorded on Worksheet 5. For this part of the analysis, the effects of conservationmeasures currently being implemented should be considered, but the effects of newconservation measures on the need for supply capacity or water purchases should beexcluded.
  23. 23. If no capital improvements and additions are planned, ‘0’ values can be entered and theestimate of supply costs can be based on operating costs (including the cost of energy,chemicals, and purchased water).Estimating Incremental Supply CostsWorksheet 6 provides a method for placing a value on supply-side improvements andadditions. Improvements and additions are separated into categories: source of supply,water treatment facilities, treated water storage, and major transmission lines. Waterpurchases are separately recorded. Capital costs over the useful life of the anticipatedprojects (including financing costs) are annualised and reported on a per-gallon basis.Financing costs can be incorporated into the calculation of annualised cost by using theexpected interest rate for financing the project(s) or the system‟s overall cost of capital.Supply-side facilities are designed to meet different types of water demand (assummarized in Table below; similarly, different conservation measures affect differenttypes of water demand. Planners should identify, as reasonably possible, the extent towhich improvements and additions are needed to meet average and/or peak demand.Capital-cost reductions associated with conservation will depend on the extent to whichsupply-side facilities can be eliminated, postponed, or downsized. The effect ofconservation on the need for facilities will depend on the demand pattern of theindividual utility, as well as its construction cycle (that is, the timing of facilitiescurrently under development). Conservation can be particularly beneficial for systemsthat have a sufficient planning horizon to integrate conservation with conventionalresource options. In some cases, capital costs cannot be avoided but conservation canstill yield savings in operating expenditures. A degree of analyst judgment is required inorder to evaluate incremental costs and to integrate supply-side and demand-sideresources.
  24. 24. Table 1: Relationship of Water Demand to Supply FacilitiesType of Water Demand Type of Water Supply FacilityAverage-day Source of supply facilities, including raw water Storage facilities such as reservoirsMaximum-day (peak) Water treatment plants Major transmission linesMaximum-hour [a] Treated water storage facilities Distribution mains [b] Pumping stations [b]Source: Adapted from Charles W. Howe and F. Linaweaver, „The Impact of price on Residential WaterDemand and its Relationship to system Design and price Structure, Water Resources Research 3 (FirstQuarter 1967): 13-32[a] Maximum-day demand plus fire-flow requirements.[b] These facilities should be considered in the analysis if they could be affected by such conservation measures as leak detection and repair, pressure management, or integrated resources management.This approach produces a very rough estimate of the value of supply-side options. Costs are not escalated(to account for the increasing value of water-supply resources over time), discounted (to account for thetime and value of money), or adjusted for inflation.Preliminary Supply-Capacity ForecastBased on the anticipated improvements and additions, planners also can present apreliminary forecast of total supply capacity over the planning period. Worksheet 4-7 isprovided for this purpose. The forecast, which can be presented in a table or graph, canbe used to indicate when changes to capacity are expected to occur. The total supplyforecast should reflect both additions to capacity and retirements. Improvements thatallow the system to maintain capacity can be indicated with entries under both additions(to reflect the improvement) and retirements (to reflect the facilities taken out of service).A similar analysis can be used for wastewater facilities.The supply forecast is preliminary because it can and will be revised later in the plan toreflect the effect of conservation on water supply needs.
  25. 25. Worksheet 5: Anticipated Improvements and AdditionsDescribe the planned improvements and additions: …………………………………………………….………...…………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………Describe time frame for planned improvements and additions: ………………………………………………...………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………… Improve-Type of project [a] ment Addition State date End dateSource of supply ……………… ……………Water treatment facilities ……………… ……………Treated water storage ……………… ……………Major transmission lines ……………… ……………Others …………………... ……………… …………… NotesNeeds for Project (s) (check all that apply)Enhance compliance with regulations ………………….……………Replace older equipment or facilities ………………………..…………Meet average-day demand ……………………………………Meet maximum-day demand ……………………………………Meet future growth needs ……………………………………Others …………………... ……………………………………Funding Interest rateCost of financingOverall cost of capital (if known)Water purchaseAnticipated future water purchase ………………………………. (Litres per year)Cost of water purchase ………………………………. (Kwachas per year)[a] Comprehensive plans can include wastewater facilities.
  26. 26. Worksheet 6: Cost of Supply-Side FacilitiesLine Item Facilities Water Estimate of for purchases simple metering needed to incremental average-day meet supply cost demand demand (K/litre) Sources of Water Treated Major [b] supply treatment water transmission facilities storage linesA SUPPLY CAPACITY IN ANNUAL LITRES [C]1 Current installed capacity or water purchases2 Planned improvements and additions3 Planned retirements4 Future installed capacity or purchases (line 1 plus line 2 less line 3)B COST OF PLANNED IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS5 Approximate total cost of planned improvements and additions identified in line 2 (including financing costs)6 Expected life of new facilities (years)7 Estimated annual operating costs [d]8 Estimated annual operating costs [d]9 Estimated total annual cost (line 7 plus line 8) [e]10 Per unit cost of new facilities (line 9 divided by line 2)11 Simple incremental supply cost (add all entries from line 10)[a] Additional facilities or capital equipment can be included as appropriate.
  27. 27. [b] The plan should indicate whether purchases are needed to meet average-day or maximum-day demand or both.[c] Planners should select a reasonable planning horizon for supply facilities and use the same time frame for all facilities[d] Annual variable operating cost (including energy, chemicals, and water purchase).[e] This calculation of simplified value does not include a discount rate, an escalation rate, or an adjustment for inflation. This analysis also can be extended to include the incremental cost of wastewater collection and treatment.
  28. 28. Worksheet 7: Preliminary Supply-Capacity ForecastYear Additions (+) Retirements (-) Total supply capacity for the system (annual or daily)01234567891011121314151617181920
  29. 29. IDENTIFY CONSERVATION MEASURESLevels and MeasuresMeasures include both supply-side and demand-side management techniques for savingwater and range from relatively simple educational tools to the promotion of advancedwater-efficiency technologies. Use of any particular measure depends on whether it meetscost-effectiveness and other planning criteria and whether its use complies withapplicable laws and regulations, including state and plumbing principles.Identifying Conservation MeasuresWorksheet 8 summarizes all measures and highlights the minimum set of measuresrecommended for consideration in the Intermediate Guidelines. Systems should use thechecklist to review and summarize the measures that are currently implemented, planned,or not planned at this time. Planners also can identify additional measures and practicesas they develop their conservation plans.Water systems following the Intermediate Guidelines are expected to implement the veryfundamental and widely accepted practices highlighted under Level 1. if Level 1measures are not in place and not planned for implementation, planners should submit astrong justification, including a cost-effectiveness analysis if it is the basis for notimplementing the measure.Planners can screen the measures in terms of general feasibility. In some cases, it maynot be possible for a system to implement a measure because of legal restrictions or forother compelling reasons. The conservation plan should provide an explanation if ameasure cannot be implemented for the period of time covered by the plan. It is notnecessary to prepare a cost effectiveness analysis for measures that cannot beimplemented.
  30. 30. Worksheet 8: Checklist of Conservation Measures [a] Al Pla re n ad to y im i ple m me pl ntMeasure [a] e (Ti Comment [b] m ck) en te d (T ic k)LEVEL MEASURESUniversal metering [B]Source-water meteringService-connection meteringMeter public-use waterFixed-interval meter readingMeter-accuracy analysisTest, calibrate, repair, and replace metersWater accounting and loss control [A]Account for waterRepair known leaksAnalysis of nonaccount waterWater system auditLeak detection and repair strategyAutomated sensors/telemetryLoss-prevention programmeCosting and pricing [B]Cost-of-service accountingUser chargesMetered ratesCost analysisNonpromotional ratesAdvanced pricing methodsInformation and education [B]Understandable water billInformation availableInformative billWater-bill insertsSchool programPublic-education programWorkshopsAdvisory committee[Worksheet continue. See footnotes at end of worksheet.]
  31. 31. Worksheet 8 (continued) Al Pla re n ad to y im i ple m me pl ntMeasure [a] e (Ti Comment [b] m ck) en te d (T ic k)LEVEL 2 MEASURESWater-use audits [B]Audits of large-volume users ……………………………………………Large-landscape audits ……………………………………………Selective end-use audits ……………………………………………Retrofits [B]Retrofit kits available ……………………………………………Distribution of retrofit kits ……………………………………………Targeted programs …………………………………………… ……………………………………………Pressure management [A]System-wide pressure regulation ……………………………………………Selective use of pressure-reducing valves ……………………………………………Landscape efficiency [P]Promotion of landscape efficiency ……………………………………………Landscape planning and renovation ……………………………………………Selective irrigation sub-metering ……………………………………………Irrigation management …………………………………………… ……………………………………………LEVEL 3 MEASURES ……………………………………………Replacements and promotion [B]Rebates and incentives {non-residential} ……………………………………………Rebates and incentives {residential} ……………………………………………Promotion of new technologies ……………………………………………Reuse and recycling [B]Industrial applications ……………………………………………Large-volume irrigation applications ……………………………………………Selective residential applications ……………………………………………
  32. 32. Water-use regulation [B]Water-use standards and regulations ……………………………………………Requirements for new developments ……………………………………………Integrated resource management [B]Supply-side technologies ……………………………………………Demand-side technologies ……………………………………………[a] For more information about measures see Appendix A. Non-italicized measures should be considered at a minimum[b] Note special issues related to the measure, including legal or other obstacles precluding implementation.Note: Measures can affect average-day demand [A], maximum-day {peak} demand [p], or both [B], asindicated.Water SavingsWorksheet 9 should be completed for each conservation measure identifies. In somecases planners may want to combine measures based on the conservation program theyenvision. All interrelated measures that are expected to result in an identifiable amountof water savings should be combined and treated as one measure in order to avoidcounting the planned water savings more than once in the analysisThe worksheet begins with an open-ended description of the measure and an estimate ofwater savings. The anticipated life span for the measure should be indicated. Plannersalso should indicate whether the measure is targeted toward reduction in average-daydemand, maximum-day demand, or both. Estimates of potential water savings should beas realistic as possible, based on system and regional considerations. For some measures,particularly those dependent on customer responses (such as information and educationprograms), the estimation will reflect a high degree of uncertainty. Planners can chooseto use a range of estimates under these circumstances.The plan should indicate typical water savings from the measure, the number of plannedinstallations, and the anticipated life span for the measure, as well as whether the measureis expected to reduce average-day or maximum-day demand (or both)Implementation CostsWorksheet 9 includes a method for summing the total costs of implementing themeasures. All costs associated with implementation should be included. Planner shouldobtain reasonable cost estimates and these include: Materials, labour, rebates or otherpayments, marketing and advertising, administration, consulting or contracting andothers. A realistic implementation schedule should be considered.Cost-EffectivenessThe analysis of cost-effectiveness for each measure builds on the identification of supply-side costs. Using this analysis, the cost of conservation can be compared to the simple
  33. 33. incremental cost of supply. The difference between the per-litre cost of conservation andthe per-litre cost of supply is a simple indicator of the potential benefits (or cost savings)from conservation.Net BenefitsThe net benefit from implementing the measure is shown by subtracting total programmecosts from total programme benefits. When benefits exceed costs, a measure isconsidered reasonably efficient and a good candidate for implementation.Worksheet 9: Analysis of Each Conservation Measure or Group MeasuresDescribe conservation measure: ………………………………………………………Typical water savings from the measure: …………………………per ……………Number of planned installations: ……………………………..Anticipated life span for the measure: ……………………..YearsThe measure is designed to reduce: Average-day demand Maximum-day demand Both average-day and maximum-day demandLine Item Amount AmountA COST OF THE CONSERVATION MEASURE Per unit [b] Total cost of measure1 Materials Kwacha Kwacha2 Labour3 Rebates or other payments4 Marketing and advertising5 Administration6 Consulting or contracting7 Other8 Total programme costs for the life of the measure K (Add line 1 through 7) [c]B ESTIMATE SAVINGS9 Number of units to be installed [d]10 Estimated annual water savings for the measure in litres [e]11 Total estimated annual savings for the measure in litres (multiply line 9 by line 10)12 Expected life span for the measure in years13 Total life span estimated savings for the measure in litres (multiply line 11 by line 12)C ANALYSIS OF COST EFFECTIVENESS Amount14 Cost of water saved by the measure (line 8 divided by line 13) /litre15 Simple incremental cost of water supply [f] /litre16 Cost comparison (line 15 less line 14) /litreD NET BENEFIT OF CONSERVATION Amount17 Estimated value of water saved by the measure based on incremental K supply cost (line 13 multiplied by line 15)18 Net value of water saved by each measure (line 17 less line 18) K
  34. 34. [a] This analysis is used to aid the comparison and selection of measures. Planners will estimate actual effects of conservation on planned capital facilities. A separate analysis should be performed for each conservation measure, but measures can be combined if they jointly produce water savings.[b] Examples of a unit are a toilet, a retrofit kit, and an audit. A unit estimate may not be appropriate for each measure, in which can total programme water savings and costs for the measure can be used.[c] Include all recurring operation and maintenances costs over the life of the measure.[d] Units can be individual product units (such as toilet) or groups of products (such as household retrofits), as long as the analysis is consistent. Leave blank if values do not apply.[e] Foe example, water savings per retrofit. Leave blank if unit values do not apply.[f] From Worksheet 6, line 11Worksheet 10: Comparison of Benefits and Costs of the Conservation MeasuresLine Conservation measure Total programme Anticipated Cost of water Net benefit of [a] cost for the annual water saved by the implementing measure savings in litres measure the measure [b] [c] (K/Litre) [e] [d]1234567891011121314151617181920…[a] = Combines measures that produce joint conservation savings should be treated as one measure to avoid duplicate counting.[b] = From Worksheet 9 line 8[c] = From Worksheet 9 line 11.[d] = From Worksheet 9 line 14.[e] = From Worksheet 9 line 18. This estimate of net benefit does not consider societal benefit and costs.
  35. 35. SELECT CONSERVATION MEASURESSelection CriteriaDescribe the process by which conservations were selected for implementation, includingidentification of the selection criteria. Summarise the selected measure and totalanticipated programme costs for implementation.Criteria that can be used in selecting conservation measures for implementation include: Programme cost Cost-effectiveness Ease of implementation Budgetary consideration Staff resources and capability Ratepayer impacts Environmental and social justice Water right and permits Legal issues or constraints Regulatory approvals Public acceptance Timelines of savings Consistency with other programmesWorksheet 11 provides a simple format for summarising the selection of measures. Foreach measure, planners should indicate whether the measure was selected forimplementation. Planners also should identify the primary reason or reasons for selectingor rejecting the measure. Special conditions or actions that are required before selectionmeasure can be implemented (such as an approval from regulator) should be noted.The selected conservation measures should allow the planners to estimate the expectedreductions in average-day and maximum-day demand.
  36. 36. Worksheet 11: Selection of Conservation Measures and Estimate of Water SavingsLine S Primary criteria for Estimated reduction in demand for e selecting or rejecting selected measures (Cubic Meters per l the conservation day) e measure for [a] c implementation t Average-day Maximum-day Measure e demand demand d ( T i c k )1234567891011121314151617181920…Total[a] Based on Worksheet 9 line 11. Planners will need to convert estimates of annual water savings toestimates of reductions in average-day and maximum-day demand for each measure or group of measures.
  37. 37. INTEGRATE RESOURCES AND MODIFY FORECASTSModify water demand and supply-capacity forecasts to reflect the anticipated effects ofconservation. Indicate whether and how water savings from conservation will allowsystems to eliminate, downsize, or postpone supply-side projects or water purchases.Planners should use Worksheet 12 to collate information from previous worksheets andanalyses in order to revise the demand forecasts made in Worksheet 4. Revisions shouldreflect changes based on the introduction of new conservation measures. The effects ofmeasures already being implemented should be included in the original demand forecast.Planners should identify the anticipated effects of conservation on planned supply-sideimprovements and additions. Worksheet 13 is provided for this purpose.The supply-capacity forecast is revised in Worksheet 14. The revision to the supply-capacity forecast should be based on Worksheet 13 and consistent with accepted supply-capacity planning practices. Worksheet 14 also provides a method of summarisingsavings in capital and operating costs, based on reductions in supply capacity. Plannersshould also estimates reductions operating costs at existing facilities that will occur withdemand reduction. The total programme cost of conservation can be compared with thesavings in total capital and annual operating costs.Worksheet 12: Modified Demand ForecastLine Item Current Year 5 Year 10 Year 20 year 1 Average-day demand before conservation [a] 2 Reduction in average-day demand (line 1 less
  38. 38. line 2)[b] 3 Average-day demand after conservation 4 Maximum-day demand before conservation [a] 5 Reduction in maximum-day demand (line4 less line 5) [b] 6 Maximum-day demand after conservation 7 Ratio maximum-day to average-day demand before conservation (line 4 divided by line 1) 8 Ratio maximum-day to average-day demand after conservation (line 6 divided by line 3)[a] From Worksheet 4, line 6.[b] Based on Worksheet 11Worksheet 13: Project-Specific SavingsDESCRIPTION OF PROJECT [a]Describe the supply-side project(s): ………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Project was scheduled to begin: …………………………………………………………………………….Purpose of the project:  Improvement  AdditionThe project is designed to meet:  Average-day demand  Maximum-day demandType of project  Source of supply  Water treatment facilities  Treated water storage  Major transmission lines  Purchase water  Other ……………………………………………CHANGES TO PROJECT [b]Line Item Project supply Project costs capacity (daily) Total capital Annual costs (K) operating costs (K) CAPITAL PROJECT IS ELIMINATEDA1 Original project2 Savings from elimination (equal line 1)B CAPITAL PROJECT DOWN SIZED3 Original project
  39. 39. 4 Downsized project5 Savings from downsizing (line 3 less line 4)C CAPITAL PROJECT POSTPONED6 Present value of original project7 Present value of postponed project8 Savings from postponement (line 6 less line 7)D NEED FOR PURCAHSE WATER IS REDUCED [c]9 Original estimates of purchases10 Revised estimate of purchases (can be „0‟)11 Savings from reduced purchases (line 9 less line 10)[a] Comprehensive plans can include wastewater facilities.[b] Based on Worksheet 12 estimates of reduction in demand.[c] For purchased water, report only annual operating costs and include costs associated with take-or- pay contract provisions. Transmission facilities needed to transport purchased water should include capital and operating costs associated with such facilities and reported as capital projects.Worksheet 14: Modified Supply Forecast and Estimated Total SavingMODIFIED SUPPLY FORECASTLine Item Current year Year 5 Year 10 Year 20A Forecast Supply Capacity (daily)123B Capacity Reserve4ESTIMATED TOTAL SAVINGS Supply Capacity Project cost (daily) Total Annual capital operating costsLine Item costs (K) (K)C Total Estimated Savings from Changes to Supply Projects [c]1 Cost of supply projects before conservation2 Cost of supply projects after conservation3 Savings (line 1 less line 2)D Total Estimated Savings from Reduced Operating Costs at Existing Facilities [d]4 Operating costs before conservation5 Operating costs after conservation6 Savings (line4 less line 4) Conservation Programme Costs TotalE programme cost (K)
  40. 40. 7 Total cost of implementing selected conservation measures [e][a] From Worksheet 7.[b] Based on Worksheet(s) 13.[c] Based on Worksheet(s) 13[d] Based on annual variable operating cost (including energy, chemicals, and water purchase).[e] Based on Worksheet 10PRESENT IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION STRATEGYImplementationHere present a strategy and timetable for implementing conservation measures and otherelements of the conservation plan. Describe proposed approaches for implementing andevaluating planned conservation measures.Implementation MeasuresWorksheet 15 is a simple template for summarising the water system‟s implementationand evaluation schedule for the conservation measures. For instance, the schedule canidentify significant implementation actions, a beginning date and a completion date.Implementation and evaluationWorksheet 16 provides a very summary of the water system‟s general implementationand evaluation strategy for the conservation plan. There areas are highlighted and theseare, public involvement, monitoring and evaluation and updates and revisions.
  41. 41. Worksheet 15: Implementation Schedule for Measures Measure Required Beginning Completion Line action date date Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  42. 42. 11 12Worksheet 16: Implementation StrategyA. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENTDescribe plan for public involvement:B. MONITORING AND EVALUATIONDescribe plan for monitoring and evaluation:Describe plan to collect water demand data:C. PLAN UPDATESDescribe plan for updates and revisions:D. ADOPTION OF THE PLAN
  43. 43. Date plan completed: ……………………………………………………………………………Date plan approved: …………………………………………………………………………...Approved by [governing body]: …………………………………………………………………………..Signature: …………………………………………………………………………... APPENDIX WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES Level 1 measure Universal metering; water accounting and loss control; costing and pricing; information and education Level 2 measures
  44. 44. Water-use audits; Retrofits; Pressure management; Landscape effeicient Level 3 measure Replacement and promotion; Reuse and Recycling; Water-use regulation; integrated resources managementTable 1: Guidelines and Associated Conservation Measures [a]Measures Advanced guidelines  Intermediate Guidelines  Basic Guidelines LEVEL 1 MEASURESUniversal metering  Source-water metering  Fixed-interval meter  Test, calibrate, repair, and[B]  Service-connection reading replace meters metering and reading  Meter-accuracy analysis  Meter public-use waterWater accounting  Account for water  Analyse nonaccount water  Loss-prevention programand loss control  Repair known leaks  Water system audit[A]  Leak detection and repair strategyCosting and pricing  Cost-of-service  Cost analysis  Advanced pricing methods[B] accounting  Nonpromotional rates  User charges  Metered ratesInformation and  Understandable water  Informative water bill  Workshopseducation bill  Water-bill inserts  Advisory committee[B]  Information available  School program  Public-education programLEVEL 2 MEASURESWater-use audits  Audits of large-volume  Selective end-use audits[B] users  Large-landscape auditsRetrofits  Retrofit kits available  Distribution of retrofit kits[A]  Targeted programsPressure  System wide pressure  Selective use of pressure-management management reducing valves[A]Landscape  Promotion of landscapeefficiency efficiency  Landscape planning and
  45. 45. [P]  Selective irrigation sub- renovation metering  Irrigation managementLEVEL 3 MEASURESReplacements and  Rebates and incentives (non-promotions residential)[B]  Rebates and incentives (residential)  Promotion of new technologiesReuse and recycling  Industrial applications[B]  Large-volume irrigation applications  Selective residential applicationsWater-use  Water-use standards andregulation regulations[B]  Requirements for new developmentsIntegrated resource  Supply-side technologiesmanagement  Demand-side technologies[B][a] See Appendix A for a description of the measures. Water systems should consider at least the measures listed under the guidelines applying to them.[A] Measure affects average-day demand[P] Measure affects maximum-day (peak) demand)[B] Measure affects both average and peak demandUniversal Metering [B] Advanced guidelines  Intermediate Guidelines Measures Basic Guidelines Universal metering  Source-water  Fixed-interval meter  Test, calibrate, repair, and[B] metering reading replace meters  Service-connection  Meter-accuracy analysis metering and reading  Meter public-use waterMetering is a very fundamental tool of water system management and conservation.Source-water metering: Both the supplier and the customer benefit from metering.Source metering is essential for water accounting purposes.Service connection metering: Service-connection metering is needed to informcustomers about how much water they are using; suppliers use metering data to moreaccurately track water usage and bill customers for the usage.Public-use water metering: All water provided free of charge for public use should bemetered and read at regular intervals. This will allow the utility to more accuratelyaccount for water. Lack of control undermines loss control, costing and pricing, and otherconservation measures.Fixed-interval water metering: A programme of fixed-interval meter reading is essentialto determine the amount of nonrevenue-producing water. Sources meters and service
  46. 46. connection meters should be read at the same relative time in order to facilitate accuratecomparison and analysis.Meter accuracy: Water meters can be damages and deteriorate with age, thus producinginaccurate readings.Water Accounting and Loss control [A] Advanced guidelines  Intermediate Guidelines Measures Basic Guidelines Water  Account for water  Analyse nonaccount water  Loss-prevention programaccounting and  Repair known  Water system auditloss control leaks  Leak detection and repair strategy[A]All water systems may benefit from a water accounting system. The first step inimplementing a water accounting is by developing strategies for loss control.Account for water: All water systems, even smaller systems, should implement a basicsystem of water accounting.Repair known leaks: The cost of water leakages in terms of operating costs associatedwith water supply, treatment, and delivery; water lost produces no revenues for theutility. Repairing larger leaks can be costly, but it also can produce substantial savings inwater and expenditure over the long run.Analysis of nonaccount water: Nonaccount water use should be analyzed to identifypotential revenue-producing opportunities, as well as recoverable losses and leaks.System audit: A system audit can provide information needed to make a more accurateanalysis of nonaccount water.Leak detection and repair strategy: Systems should also institute a comprehensive leakdetection and repair strategy. Divers can be used to inspect and clean storage tankinteriors.Loss-prevention programme: This may include pipe inspection, cleaning, lining andother maintenance efforts to improve the distribution system and prevent leaks andruptures from occurring.Costing and Pricing [B] Advanced guidelines  Intermediate Guidelines Measures Basic Guidelines Costing and  Cost-of-service  Cost analysis  Advanced pricing methodspricing accounting  Nonpromotional rates
  47. 47. [B]  User charges  Metered ratesCost-of-service accounting: Water systems should use cost-of-service accounting,consistent with generally accepted practicesUser charges: Once costs are established, systems can develop more accurate usercharges.Metered rates: Metered rates should be used so that the customer‟s water billcorresponds to their water usage. The regulator must approve change of rates. It isimportant for water systems to communicate with the regulator about the costs and needfor cost-based pricing.Cost analysis; Systems should conduct a cost analysis to understand what types of usagedrive system costs.Non-promotional rates: Systems also should consider whether their current ratesstructures promote water usage over conservation, nonpromotion rates should beimplemented whenever possible in order to enhance the conservation signal rates.Systems seeking to encourage conservation through their rates should consider variousissues: the allocation between fixed and variable charges, usage blocks and breakpoints,minimum bills and whether water is provided in the minimum bill, seasonal pricingoptions, and pricing by customer class.Advanced pricing methods: Advanced pricing methods generally allocate costs bycustomer class and/ or type of water use. Advanced pricing might consider seasonalvariation or other methods for pricing indoor and outdoor usage based on differingcontributions to system peaks. Considering the elasticity factors for different classes ofwater use can enhance the conservation orientation of the rate structure. Marginal-costpricing, which considers the value of water relative to the cost of the next increment ofsupply, can be considered as well. Systems also consider special ratemaking provisions(such as cost-recovery or lost-revenue mechanisms). Potential revenue instability can beaddressed with additional rate structure modifications (such as revenue-adjustmentmechanisms).Information and Education [B] Advanced guidelines  Intermediate Guidelines Measures Basic Guidelines Information  Understandable water  Informative water bill  Workshopsand bill  Water-bill inserts  Advisory committeeeducation  Information available  School program  Public-education programInformation and education are critical to the success of any conservation programme.Information and education measures can directly produce water conservations, as when
  48. 48. customers change their water-use habits. These saving can be difficult to estimate. Alsopublic education may not produce the same amount of sustained water savings as other,more direct approaches (such as leak repair and retrofits). But education measures alsocan enhance the effectiveness of other conservation measures.Understandable water bill: Customers should be able to read and understand their waterbills. An understandable water bill should identify volume of usage, rates and charges,and other relevant information.Information available: Water systems should be prepared provides informationpamphlets to customers on request. Public information and education are importantcomponents of every water conservation plan. Customers are willing to participate insound water management practices if provided with accurate information.Information water bill: Comparison to previous bills and tips on water conservation canhelp consumers make informed choices about water use.Water bill insert: Systems can include inserts in their customers‟ water bills that canprovide information on water use and costs. Insert also can be used to disseminate tips forhome water conservation.School programme: Systems can provide information on water conservation andencourage the of water conservation practices through a variety of school programmes.Contacts through schools can help socialise young people about the value of waterconservation techniques.Public education programme: Utilities can use a variety of methods to disseminateinformation and educate the public on water conservation. Outreach methods includethings such as posters etc.Workshops: Utilities can hold workshops for industries that might contribute to waterconservation efforts. This might include workshops for plumbers, plumbing fixturesuppliers and builders for landscape and irrigation service providers.Advisory committee: This may involve the public in the conservation process; potentialcommittee members include elected officials, local business people, interested citizens,agency representatives, and representatives of concerned local groups. The committeecan provide feedback to the utility concerning its conservation plan and develop materialand ideas about public information and support for conservation in the community.Water-Use Audit Advanced guidelines  Intermediate Guidelines Measures Basic Guidelines Water-use  Audit of large-volume users  Selective end-use auditaudit  Large-landscape audits
  49. 49. Water-use or end-use audits can provide water systems and their customers withinvaluable information about how water is used and how usage might be reduced throughspecific conservation strategies.Audit of large-volume users: Utilities can facilitate water audits for large-volume users,both commercial and industrial. Water audits should begin by identifying the categoriesof water use for large-volume user. These may include process, sanitary, domestic,heating, cooling, outdoor, and other water uses. Second, a water audit should identifyareas in which overall water use efficiency can be improved through alternativetechnologies or practices.Large-landscape audits: Water audits can be used for outdoor usage, as well as forindoor processes. Audits of irrigation practices can provide large-volume commercial,industrial, and public users with information about usage-reduction techniques. Theseaudits can be used in conjunction with irrigation sub-metering and other landscapingefficiency practices.Selective end-user audit: Water audits can be widened to include selective end-use auditsby customer class, focusing on typical water-use practices within each class. An auditprogramme can be selective in terms of targeting customer groups that have particularneeds or for which water conservation could be particularly beneficial. Audits targeted toolder housing, for example, can be particularly beneficial in terms of identifying andfixing plumbing leaks.End-use audits also can be tailored to the usage practices within user groups. Forexample, residential water audit may focus on plumbing fixtures, lawn and garden waterpractices, and customer behaviour. Residential water audits can be used to makeimmediate repairs and retrofits.Worksheet 6 summarizes the components of a residential water audit. All water auditsshould include written report to the customer that includes specific ideas forconservation. Water audits can be planned and implemented in conjunction with electricpower companies or others interested in promoting conservation practices.Retrofits Advanced guidelines  Intermediate Guidelines Measures Basic Guidelines Retrofits  Retrofit kit available  Distribution of kits  Targeted programmesWater systems can promote conservation through a retrofit programme. Retrofittinginvolves making an improvement to an existing fixture or appliance (versus replacement)in order to increase water-use efficiency. Retrofit programmes usually target-plumbingfixtures.
  50. 50. Retrofit kit available: A basic retrofit kit may include low-flow faucet aerators, low-flowshowerheads, leak detection tablets, and replacement flapper valves. Retrofit kite may bemade available free or at a cost.Calculating the savings from a retrofit programme requires planners to make a number ofassumptions about water use and savings.Distribution of retrofit kits: Water systems can actively distribute retrofit kits directly orthrough community organizations e.g. CBOs, RDCs etc. retrofit kits can be distributed inconjunction with audit programmes.Targeted programmes: Utilities might institute target programmes for differentcustomers classes (residential, commercial, industrial, public buildings and so on).Retrofits of industrial premises can include facilities used by the public and employees,as well facilities used for production purposes. A programme to retrofit low-incomehousing units may conserve considerable water in older residential housing units withinefficient plumbing fixtures. Targeted programmes also could be designed incooperation with community organizations. An active retrofit programme might be partof a residential water-use audit programme. It is important that planners ensure thatretrofit programme conform to local plumbing guidelines and ordinances.Pressure Management Advanced guidelines  Intermediate Guidelines Measures Basic Guidelines Pressure  System-wide pressure  Selective use of pressure-management management reducing valvesReducing excessive pressure in the distribution system can save a significant quantity ofwater. Reducing water pressure can decrease leakage, amount of flow through opentapes/faucets, and stresses on pipes and joints, which may result in leaks. Lower waterpressure may also decrease deteriorations, reducing the need for repairs and extending thelife span of existing facilities. Furthermore, lower pressures can help reduce wear onend-use fixtures and appliances.System-wide pressure management: For residential areas, pressure exceeding 80 psishould be assessed for reduction. Pressure management and reduction strategies must beconsistent with government and local regulations and standards, as well as take intoaccount system conditions and needs. Obviously, reduction in pressure should notcompromise the integrity of the water system or service quality for customers.Pressure-reducing valves: A more aggressive plan may include the purchase andinstallation of pressure-reducing in individual buildings. Utilities might also insert flowrestrictors on services at the meter. Restrictor can be sized to allow for service length,system pressure, and site elevation. Utilities can consider providing technical assistanceto customers to address their pressure problems and install pressure-reducing valves to

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