Potato sugarcane 2012
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Potato sugarcane 2012 Document Transcript

  • 1. UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Department of Soil SciencesPROGRAMME: MSc of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) by Charles Bwalya. Chisanga Plant NutritionNutrition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Sugar-cane (S. officinarum) 24th September 2012 0
  • 2. 1. IntroductionPlant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for growth. According toWestermann (2005) only relatively few chemical elements are necessary for plant growth. To bean essential chemical element from the perspective of plant nutrition (a) it must be present for theplant to complete its life cycle, (b) its metabolic role cannot be replaced by another chemicalelement, and (c) it is directly involved in a metabolic process within the plant, either having adirect role in the process or as a compound component involved in the process. The 16 chemicalelements that fulfill these criteria are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (0), nitrogen (N),potassium (K), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), manganese(Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), and chloride (Cl). The plant obtainsC, H, and O, from air and water, while the remaining 13 are obtained from soil and fertilizersources. Nitrogen can also be obtained from the air by symbiotic organisms for use by legumesand other plants. This paper discusses the nutrition and water requirements, climatic conditionand soil types of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and sugar cane (Sugar officinarum).2 Potato (Solanum tuberosum)The area of primary domestication for the potato is believed to be South America andspecifically in the high plateau of Bolivia and Peru around Lake Titicaca (Ministry ofAgriculture, Food and Fisheries, 1997). Haifa (2011) reported that the potato (Solanumtuberosum) belongs to the family solanaceae which includes such other plants as tobacco,tomato, eggplant and pepper. It is an herbaceous annual plant that grows up to 100 cm tall andproduces tubers, which are botanically thickened stems that are so rich in starch that they rank asthe worlds fourth most important food crop, after maize, wheat and rice. S. tuberosum is dividedinto two subspecies: andigena, which is adapted to short day conditions and is mainly grown inthe Andes, and tuberosum, the potato now cultivated around the world, which is believed todescend from a small introduction to Europe of andigena potatoes that later adapted to longerday conditions. It is one of the most important starchy foods in Zambia.2.1 Climatic conditions and soilPotato grows best on slightly to moderately acid soils although it can grow successfully in soilswith a wide pH range (Roy et al., 2006). Potato is a cool season crop that can be successfullygrown in all agro-ecological zones of Zambia. The optimum planting time is cool dry season.Rainy season planting is possible, also in hot dry season but the production is low due to pestsand high temperature that inhibit tuberisation. Ideal soil for potato growing is deep, well-drainedand friable. On the other hand, light soils that are rich in humus are preferred for potatoproduction. Bohl and Johnson (2010) reported that potatoes grow well on a wide variety of soils.In some areas where potatoes are commercially grown the soils are acid, whereas, in others theyare alkaline.2.2 Potato nutrient requirementsNutrition of the potato crop is characterized by its shallow rooting habit and rapid growth rate.Therefore, high yields necessitate an adequate supply of nutrients throughout the growth period(Roy et al., 2006). According to Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (1997) potatoes areheavy feeders, requiring large quantities of nutrients, partly on account of their shallow fibrousroot system and because they have to bulk up yields within a short time. The most importantnutrients for optimum growth and maxmizing yields in potatoes are high nitrogen, posphorus and 1
  • 3. potassium (Vander Zaag, 1981 and Dufour et al., 2009) and Mg. These can be met by usingmanures, compost and crop rotations. Bulky organic manures and green manures have animportant place in the nutrient management of potato. Potatoes utilize both ammonium andnitrate N, but show a preference for ammonium, especially in the early stages of growth. Theyadd nutrients and also improve the physical environment for better plant and tuber growth (Royet al., 2006). In spite of their low nutrient content, they help in fertilizer economy. It isrecommended in Zambia to apply compound “C” 2500 kg/ha, compound “V” 2000kg/ha forpoor soils and to top dress with 150 kg/ha in soils rich in phosphate and potassium. Allcompound fertilizers should be applied before planting. Top dressing not exceeding 150 kg/hashould be applied (ibid). Lack of nutrients results in retarded growth and reduced yield.Craighead and Martin (1999) reported that a potato crop has been variously quoted as removingapproximately 3-5 kg nitrogen (N), 0.4-0.8 kg phosphorus (P) and 4-6 kg potassium (K)/tonne oftubers (Allison et al., 1999; Perrenoud, 1983). Roy et al. (2006) reported that in potato, harvestedtubers account for 80, 83–88 and 70–78 percent of total N, P and K absorbed, respectively.Potato plants well supplied with K have been found to withstand frost better than plants low in K(ibid). Yields range from 15-50 t/ha for early season and seed potatoes to 40-80 t/ha for table andprocess potatoes, hence there is a large variation in the nutrient demands of each crop. Lang et al(1981) reported that nitrogen is required in large amounts to maintain optimum shoot and tubergrowth. Nitrogen may be supplied by residual soil nitrogen reserves, mineralized soil nitrogen,nitrogen in irrigation water, and fertilizer application.Haifa (2011) revealed that phosphorus plays a critical role in root development and overall planthealth, which is directly related to yield. However, once phosphorus levels are at concentrationswhich adequately support plant health, large increases in phosphorus application rate to supportincreased yields are unnecessary. For maximum tuber yields, phosphorus should be mixed intothe seed bed prior to planting to support: early shoot and root growth (stage I), tuber initiation(stage II), and tuber bulking (stage III). Plant phosphorus levels in mid- and late-season (stagesIII and IV) may be raised by applications of phosphorus using foliar sprays, application throughirrigation water, or soil applied phosphorus followed by irrigation (ibid). The daily requirementsof potato tubers during the critical bulking stage are 4.5 kg/ha N, 0.3 kg/ha P and 6.0 kg/ha K(ibid). Potassium requirements of potato tubers during the bulking stage are very high as they areconsidered to be luxury consumers of potassium (Haifa, 2011 and Ministry of Agriculture, Foodand Fisheries, 1997). Daily yield increase during the critical tuber bulking stage can reach 1000 -1500 kg/ha/day. Therefore, it is important to supply the required plant nutrients during the tuberbulking stage in right N-P-K ratio and in ample quantities. According to Ministry of Agriculture,Food and Fisheries (1997) the ration of N:P2O5:K2O on normal soils may be 1:1:2 or 1:2:3.Westermann (2005) reported that potassium and nitrogen are found in the largest amounts in apotato plant, followed by Ca and Mg. Most of the phloem-mobile nutrients will be in the tubersat harvest while the immobile nutrients will be in the residual vegetative portions of the plant.Total uptake amounts are site-specific since plants generally take up more nutrients than requiredif available. Nutrient uptake is nearly complete when the majority of tuber growth ends sincelittle additional uptake occurs during the maturation growth stage (Westermann 1993). Potatoesrequire high levels of potassium in concentrations which are comparable to or greater thannitrogen (Tindall, 1992; Tindall and Westermann, 1994; Tindall et al., 1993; Westermann et al.,1994a). Potassium is taken up from the soil solution as the potassium ion (K+) which is 2
  • 4. replenished predominately from the exchange sites on soil colloids. Therefore, soil extracted K+(reported in ppm) provides an index of soil potassium supplying ability.Roy et al. (2006) reported that soil application or foliar sprays are the widely used methods forsupplying micronutrients. The micronutrient needs of potato can also be met simply by soakingthe seed tubers in nutrient solutions. The non-dormant seed tubers are soaked in 0.05-percentmicronutrient salt solutions for three hours. Dipping seed tubers in 2-percent zinc oxidesuspension is also effective for meeting the Zn needs of the crop (Grewal and Sharma, 1993).The high seed rate of potato makes it possible to supply the micronutrient needs of the cropthrough soaking. The deficiencies of Cu and Mn are controllable by soil or foliar application.The storage life of potatoes can be reduced where there is a B deficiency. Potato cultivars candiffer markedly with regard to their sensitivity to micronutrient deficiencies.2.3 Irrigation of potatoHaifa (2011) indicated that water requirements in potatoes vary with different stages of the crop.Planting to emergence is a very sensitive and most risky period for a potato crop. The soil shouldneither be dry nor wet, but just moist. Wet soil conditions lead to tuber decay and dry conditionsmay lead to either delayed/uneven emergence or tuber decay where soil temperature is high(ibid). During bulking up, water requirements rise sharply up to the peak (Ministry ofAgriculture, Food and Fisheries, 1997). Additionally, water requirements during this period varyfrom 25-30 mm every three days on light soils and 35-40 mm every four days on heavy soils. Aday of water stress is a loss in production for good. It has been estimated that the bulking up ratefor a fully grown crop may be as high as 600-700 kg/ha per day (ibid). Insufficient or irregularirrigation during this period leads to loss in production, misshapen tubers and growth cracks.Excess water on the other hand, leads to enlarged lenticels or tuber decay. The waterrequirements of a potato crop tapers off towards maturity. Excess water during this period leadsto poor quality potatoes. It is essential to test water used for irrigation to determine the level ofsoluble salts (Haifa, 2011 and Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, 1997).3 Sugar-cane (S. officinarum)Sugar cane varieties are species and hybrids of the genus Saccharum which in turn is of thefamily Gramineae in the tribe Andropogoneae (Blackbwin, 1984). Sugar cane (Saccharumofficinarum L.) is a tropical, perennial grass that tillers at the base to produce multiple stems,three to four metres high and approximately five centimetres in diameter. Its composition variesdepending upon the climate, soil type, irrigation, fertilizers, insects, disease control, varieties,and the harvest period (Meade and Chen, 1977 and Perez, 1997). Furthermore, Blackbwin (1984)reported that for centuries S. sinense has been grown in China and S. barberi in India, but it wasthe increased planting of the noble cane, S. officinarum, which caused the sugar industry tospread throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is thought that the S. officinarium oringinated inthe South Pacific area, probably in New Guinea.3.1 Climatic condition, soil and water requirementsSugarcane is grown in the world from alatitude 36.7° N and 31.0° S, from sea level to 1000m ofaltitude or little more. It is considered as essentially a tropical plant and is a long duration, highwater and high nutrient-demanding crop. Sugarcane is grown under wide range of climate,ranging from sub-tropical to tropical conditions. Temperatures above 50oC and below 20oC are 3
  • 5. not suitable for its growth. For optimum productivity it requires 750-1200 mm of rainfall duringits entire growth period. Well drained alluvial to medium black cotton soils with neutral pH (6.0– 7.0) and optimum depth (>60 cm) are good for sugarcane growth.Soil is as a medium for plant growth provides nutrients, water and anchorage to the growingplants. Maintenance of proper physical, chemical and biological conditions of the soil isnecessary for realizing higher growth, yield and quality of sugarcane. Sugarcane does not requireany specific type of soil as it can be successfully raised on diverse soil types ranging from sandysoils to clay loams & heavy clays. Sugar cane requires a well-drained, well-aerated, porous soilwith pH range of 4.5 to 8.5 (Roy et al., 2006 and Ethiopian Investment Agency, 2008). A welldrained, deep, loamy soil with a bulk density of 1.1 to 1.2 g/cm3 (1.3-1.4 g/cm3 in sandy soils)and total porosity, with an adequate balance between pores of various sizes, is higher than 50%;ground water table below 1.5 to 2.0 m from soil surface and an available water holding capacityof 15% or more (15 cm per meter depth of soil is considered ideal for sugarcane cultivation).Compacted soils (> 1.6 to 1.7 g/cm3) affect root penetration, water and nutrient uptake. The cropis moderately sensitive to soil salinity (Roy et al., 2006). The planting pattern is dual or pairedrow and spacing adopted (1.4m + 0.4m) is 0.15m under drip irrigated conditions, while sowingdepth is generally 10cm. The crop is grown by vegetative propagation and requires 40,000 two-bud1 or 30,000 three-bud setts 2 per hectare in order to maintain a desired millable stalkpopulation target of 130,000/ha (ibid).3.2 Nutrient Requirements for sugar-caneAccording to Miller and Gilbert (2009) the essential elements for a healthy sugarcane cropinclude carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron,chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulfur and zinc. Silicon, although not strictlyneeded for the sugarcane plant to complete its life cycle, may enhance sugarcane productionsignificantly. Sugar cane suffers growth reduction under conditions of low Si availability (Roy etal., 2006). An over-abundance of one element may cause a deficiency or toxicity of another.Hence, there is a need for a good nutritional balance to produce the healthiest plants. Sincerelatively large quantities of N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca are needed by the plants, these are referredto as macronutrients (Miller and Gilbert (2009). The remainders of the elements are usuallycalled micronutrients. Although nitrogen constitutes only a fraction of one per cent of the totaldry matter of a mature sugarcane plant, it plays an important role as C, H and O, which together,form more than 90 percent of the dry matter. Nitrogen deficiency is common in sandy soils and itis uncommon in organic soils. Nitrogen has the greatest influence on cane ripening of all thenutrient elements. Sugarcane will store a higher percent of sucrose when nitrogen is limited 6 to8 weeks prior to harvest.According to Blackbwin (1984) sugar is a carbohydrate meaning it contains compounds ofcarbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Miller and Gilbert (2009) indicated that N, P and K requirementof sugarcane is quite large – an average of 100, 60 and 225 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per hectare isactually used up by the crop to produce around 100 tonnes of cane yield. Nitrogen is the keynutrient element influencing sugarcane yield and quality. It is required for vegetative growth, i.e.,tillering, foliage formation, stalk formation, stalk growth (internode formation, internodeelongation, increase in stalk girth and weight) and root growth. Since vegetative growth isdirectly related to yield in sugarcane, the role of nitrogen is paramount to build yield. Deficiency 4
  • 6. of nitrogen causes paleness of foliage, early leaf senescence, thinner and shorter stalk, and longerbut thinner roots (Gilbert, 2009 and Blackbwin, 1984). Normal cane development dependsgreatly on the presence of phosphates in soluble, plant absorbable form in the soil. Phosphorusrequirement is relatively less than N and K. According to Anderson (1990) in other areas of theworld, sugarcane production may also be markedly enhanced by the application of Si. Thiselement qualifies as a "functional" or "beneficial" element since, in the absence of Si (Elawad etal., 1982), the plant can still complete its entire life cycle, although production and general vigormay be reduced. Additionally, elements that are of nutritional concern include N, P, K, Mg, B,Cu, Fe, Mn, Si, and Zn. A deficiency or over-abundance of one or more of the above elementsmay limit yields. Growers striving to produce high crop yields should pursue managementstrategies that deliver a balanced supply of nutrients to the plant.Phosphorus plays a very significant role in sugarcane production. It stimulates root growth and isrequired for adequate tillering. It interacts with nitrogen and thus influences ripening. Deficiencyof phosphorus leads to reduced tillering, delay in canopy closure and thus leads to greater weedinfestation and stalk elongation is also affected (Gilbert, 2009). Potasium requirement by thecrop in general is greater than nitrogen or phosphorus. For sugar synthesis and its translocation tothe storage tissue, potassium is highly important. Potassium gives resistance to sugarcane againstpests and disease attack and lodging. It helps sugarcane under moisture stress by maintaining cellturgidity. It has a balancing effect on both nitrogen and phosphorus.Roy et al. (2006) observed that under Brazilian conditions, the nutrient uptake per tonne of caneyield is as follows (IFA, 1992): macronutrients (kg): N 0.8, P2O5 0.30, K2O 1.32, MgO 0.50,CaO 0.42 and S 0.25; micronutrients (g): Zn 4.5, Mn 11, Cu 2.0, B 2.0 and Mo 0.01. UnderIndian conditions, a crop yielding 100 tonnes of cane per hectare absorbed 130 kg N, 50 kg P 2O5and 175 kg K2O. Even on a per-unit cane basis, nutrient uptake varies considerably depending onthe climate, cultivar and available nutrient status even at comparable yields (Hunsigi, 1993).Sugar-cane trash is particularly rich in K (3 percent K2O) (ibid). Deficiencies of Zn, Cu and Mnand lime-induced iron chlorosis can occur in sugar cane. These can be controlled by applicationof deficient elements as their sulphate salts or chelates. Iron chlorosis can be corrected byspraying 2.5 kg of ferrous sulphate in 150 litres of water twice at fortnightly intervals. Sugarcane, like rice, reacts favourably to soluble silicates on some soils, which probably also releasessoil P (Roy et al., 2006). To correct Zn deficiency, soil application of zinc sulphate at a rate of 25kg/ha can be made on coarse-textured soils (Roy et al., 2006).4 ConclusionBoth the potato and sugar-cane require carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Additionally, for thepotato the most important nutrients required for optimum growth and maxmizing yields are highnitrogen, posphorus and potassium and Mg. Potatoes are heavy feeders, requiring large quantitiesof nutrients, partly on account of their shallow fibrous root system and because they have to bulkup yields within a short time. The potato is an annual crop although it can persist in the fieldvegetatively from one season to the next. It is one of the most important starchy foods in Zambia.The essential elements required for a healthy sugarcane crop include nitrogen, phosphorus,potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulfurand zinc. Silicon may enhance sugarcane production significantly. 5
  • 7. ReferencesAllison M. F., Fowler. J. H. and Allen, E. J. (1999). The nutrition of the potato crop. BritishPotato Council Research Report 807/182. 92p.Anderson D. L. (1990). A Review: Soils, nutrition, and fertility practices of the Floridasugarcane industry. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 49:78-87.Blackbwin F. (1984), Sugar-cane. Longman Inc, New YorkBohl W. H. and Johnson S. B. (2010). Commercial Potato Production in North America. ThePotato Association of America HandbookCraighead M. D. and Martin R. J. (1999). Fertiliser responses in potatoes – an overview of pastRavensdown research. Presented to Agronomy Society, Albany, New ZealandDufour R., Hinman T. and Schahczenski J. (2009), Potatoes: Organic Production and Marketing.NCAT Agriculture. Amy Smith, ProductionElawad S. H., Gascho G. J., and J. J. Street (1982). Response of sugarcane to silicate source andrate. I. Growth and yield. Agron. J. 74:481-484.Ethiopian Investment Agency (2008). Investment Opportunity Profile for Sugar Cane Plantationand Processing In Ethiopia (Updated 2008)Grewal, J.S. & Sharma, R.C. 1993. Potato based cropping systems can be profitable. Ind. Farm.,42(90): 11.Haifa (2011). Nutritional recommendations for PotatoHunsigi, G. 1993. Fertiliser management in sugarcane. In H.L.S. Tandon, ed. Fertilisermanagement in commercial crops, pp. 1–25. New Delhi, Fertiliser Development andConsultation Organisation.International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA). 1992. World fertilizer use manual. Paris. 632pp.Lang N. S., Stevens R. G., Thornton R. E., Pan W. L. and Victory S. (1981). Potato NutrientManagement for Central Washington. EB1871Meade G. P. and Chen J. C. (1977). Cane Sugar Hand Book. John Williamson Ltd. NewYork/London pp925Miller J. D. and Gilbert R. A. (2009), Sugarcane Botany: A Brief View. SS-AGR-234Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (1997). Zambia Seed Technology Handbook. Printedin Sweden, Berlings, Arlov 6
  • 8. Naturland E. V. (2001), Organic Farming in the Tropics and Subtropics – Sugar cane. ExemplaryDescription of 20 CropsPerez R. (1997). Feeding pigs in the tropics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UnitedNationsPerrenoud S. (1983). Potato – Fertilisers for yield and quality. International Potash Institute,Bulletin No. 8. Berne, Switzerland. 84p.Roy R. N., Finck A., Blair G. J. and Tandon H. L. S. (2006). Plant nutrition for food security. Aguide for integrated nutrient management. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UnitednationsTindall T. A. (1992). Potassium in potatoes. Proc. Univ. Idaho Winter Commodity Schools24:123–124.Vander Zaag P. (1981). Soil fertility requirement for potato production. Technical InformationBulletin 14. International potato Center (CIP, Lima, PeruWestermann D. T. and Tindall T. A. (1995). Managing potassium in potato production systemsof Idaho. Proc. Idaho Potato School. pages 201–242.Westermann D. T., Tindall T. A., James D. W., and Hurst R. L. (1994a). Nitrogen and potassiumfertilization of potatoes: yield and specific gravity. Amer. Potato J. 71:417–431.Westermann D. T. (1993). Fertility Management. In. RC Rowe (ed), Potato Health Management.APS Press, Minneapolis, MN. pp 77-86.Westermann D. T. (2005). Nutritional Requirements of Potatoes. Amer J of Potato Res (2005)82:301-307 7