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    Lusaka Ecological Sanitation Conference Final report 2004hpm Lusaka Ecological Sanitation Conference Final report 2004hpm Document Transcript

    • Ecological Sanitation Advocacy Workshop ReportHeld at Mulungushi Conference Centre, Lusaka Zambia 21st – 23rd January 2004
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportMr. Werchota,GTZ water sector,NWASCO OFFICES,Lusaka.WASAZANWASCO OFFICESLusaka12th March 2004Dear Mr. Werchota,RE: SUBMISSION OF THE FINAL ECOSAN WORKSHOPSUMMARY REPORTWe hereby submit the final ecosan workshop summary report. Please bare withus for the delay this is due to the fact that we had not taken into account thecontributions from the gtz ecosan team at the time we were estimating the timeneeded for the submission of the report.It is our sincere hope that the report is to your expectations and we hope to workwith you again in future. Mr Braken and Mr Mang contributed to this report byindicating that it needed to capture the discussions that occurred during theQuestion and Answer times. These issues are covered but they are not directlyreported as they were said or presented.With this in mind it is our hope that the summary we have made of these issuesis substantial enough to enable anyone know what occurred at the workshop.Yours in ecosan promotion,Simataa Nakamboa Charles Chisanga____________________ ___________________Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa i
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report By: Simataa Nakamboa and Charles Chisanga © March 2004Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa ii
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportAbbreviationsBMZ -Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentCBNRM -Community Based Natural Resources ManagementCSIR -Council for Scientific and International ResearchDED -Deutsche EntwicklungsdienstDISS -Department of Infrastructure and Support ServicesEcosan -Ecological SanitationGTZ -Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische ZusammenarbeitMEWD -Ministry of Energy and Water DevelopmentMLGH -Ministry of Local Government and HousingNGO -Non-governmental organisationNRM -Natural Resources ManagementONEA -I‟Office National de I‟Eau et de I‟AssainissementSWSC -Southern Water and Sewerage CompanyIUCN -The World Conservation UnionUD -Urine DiversionUTH -University Teaching HospitalWASAZA -Water and Sanitation Association of ZambiaWHO -World Health OrganisationWSP -Water and Sanitation Programme (Worldbank)WSS -Water Supply and SanitationChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa iii
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportAcknowledgmentsThe Authors of this report would like to take this opportunity to thank theorganisations and individuals who helped in ensuring that the 1 st EcologicalSanitation Workshop in Zambia was a success. We would like to offer ourparticular heartfelt thanks to the following:GTZ-Lusaka and GTZ-Eschborn for various forms of financial and logisticalsupport they rendered to the organisation of the workshop.WASTE (The Netherlands) and the World Bank (WSP) for sponsoring resourcepersons and all the financial contributions.CSIR in South Africa for providing some workshop materials.WASAZA for offering the secretarial services and the office space for theorganisation of the workshop and the compilation of this report.Lastly we would like to thank all the participants who were present at theworkshop for their contributions and positive engagement in the workshopdeliberations. This workshop opened the door for ecosan in the country and theball is now in our hands to walk through that door.To you all we would like to express our sincere gratitude.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa iv
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportTABLE OF CONTENTS IVRE: SUBMISSION OF THE FINAL ECOSAN WORKSHOP SUMMARY REPORT ................. IABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................... IIIACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................ IV1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 12 BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................... 23 WORKSHOP DELIBERATIONS............................................................................................ 4 3.1 DAY 1: INTRODUCTION, PILOT CASE STUDIES AND HYGIENE CONSIDERATIONS. ............................................................................................................................................... 4 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 4 3.1.2 OVERVIEW OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION STRATEGY . 5 3.1.3 TOILETS AND URBAN AGRICULTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IN ETHIOPIA ........ 6 3.1.4 WATER BORN ECOLOGICAL SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES/ CLOSING THE LOOP ON-SITE-EXPERIENCES IN LESOTHO............................................................... 7 3.1.5 THE ECOLOGICAL SANITATION CONCEPT ........................................................ 8 3.1.6 OFFICIAL OPPENING SPEECHES ........................................................................ 8 3.1.7 EXPERIENCES IN PILOTING ECOSAN PROJECTS IN ZAMBIA ......................... 9 3.1.8 “CBNRM-MISSING LINK”-PILOTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN BOTSWANA ........................................................................................................................................ 10 3.1.9 INSTITUTIONAL AND IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN OUAGADOUGOU, BURKINA FASO .................................................. 10 3.1.10 DISEASES LINKED TO POOR SANITATION AND THEIR PREVENTION ....... 11 3.1.11 HEALTH ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL SANITYATION .................................... 13 3.2 DAY 2: OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF ECOSAN .................................. 14 3.2.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 14Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa v
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report 3.2.2 URBAN ECOLOGICAL SANITATION EXPERIENCES IN UGANDA ................... 14 3.2.3 EFFECTS OF UBAN EXPANSION ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY .................. 15 3.2.4 URBAN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ................ 15 3.2.5 DESIGN OF FEASIBLE ECOLOGICL SANITATION TOILETS ............................ 15 3.2.6 SELLIING THE IDEAS AND GENDER ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATION ........................................................................................................................................ 17 3.2.7 AGRICULTRE ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATION................................. 17 3.2.8 TECHNICAL COMPONENTS FOR ECOLOGICAL SANITATION SYSTEMS- WORLDWIDE EXAMPLES ............................................................................................. 18 3.2.9 GROUP WORK...................................................................................................... 19 3.3 DAY 3: THE WAY FORWARD FOR ECOLOGICAL SANITATION ............................ 20 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 20 3.3.2 ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN PERI URBAN AREAS-MAIN OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS .............................................................................................................. 20 3.3.3 THE REGULATOR AND ISSUES OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATION .................... 21 3.3.4 THE GENERAL WAY FORWARD FOR ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN ZAMBIA214 WORKSHOP CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION ............................................... 22APPENDICES ......................................................................................................................... 24 APPENDIX 1 THE MINISTER‟S SPEECH.......................................................................... 25 APPENDIX 2 GROUP DISSCUSSION PRESENTATIONS ............................................... 29 APPENDIX 3 REMARKS FROM THE CLOSING SESSION .............................................. 33 APPENDIX 4 LIST OF PARTICIPANTS ............................................................................. 36 APPENDIX 5 REPORT ON THE GTZ-ECOLOGICAL SANITATION MISSION ................ 39 APPENDIX 6 WORKSHOP PROGRAMM .......................................................................... 42Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa vi
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report1. INTRODUCTIONThe Water and Sanitation Association of Zambia (WASAZA) with the support ofthe GTZ-Water Sector, Lusaka in collaboration with the supra-regional GTZecosan sector project, and with additional support from the World Bank-Waterand Sanitation Programme (WSP) for East Africa and WASTE (The Netherlands)organised the Ecological Sanitation (Ecosan) workshop which took place fromthe 21st to the 23rd of January 2004 at the Mulungushi Conference Centre, inLusaka, Zambia. The workshop took two and half days and consisted of anopening remark by the Honourable Minister, Ms Sylvia Masebo (MP), Ministry ofLocal Government and Housing, paper presentations by various speakers anddiscussions on ecosan by all the participants, an ecosan squat pan exhibition anda social event. The program is given as an appendix at the end of this document.WASAZA is a Zambian Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) dedicated to theadvancement of professional knowledge and improvement of water andsanitation management in an environmentally sustainable way.The main objectives of the Association are to provide a forum for the sectorwhere people of different professional backgrounds in government, private sectorand non-governmental organisations can come together and discuss issuesaffecting the sector; and promote best practice generally.The specific objectives of WASAZA are:  To provide a forum for discussion on the management of water and sanitation;  To encourage dialogue between the water and sanitation industry and the public;  To assist in the development of professional competence and the best practice in water and sanitation management;  To facilitate the exchange of information among those working in the water and sanitation sectors;  To present to government and other related bodies the interests of those involved in the water and sanitation industry.The association promotes best practice and exchange of the latest skills,techniques and knowledge on all aspects of water and sanitation managementservices. The organisation seeks to disseminate the above by all possible meansincluding meetings, expert networks, publications and electronic media. Itsmission also includes advocacy and exchange of ideas with major stakeholdersand promoting public awareness. WASAZA therefore provides a means wherebyall the different types of organisations and professions in the water sector canexchange ideas and promote the advancement of the sector. WASAZAmembership is open to a diverse range of professionals with a bearing on waterand sanitation issues. For more information visit the web site:Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 1
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Reporthttp://www.zambia-water.org.zm/wasaza_information.htmWASAZA was supported in its efforts of organising this workshop by, theDeutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH which is acorporation for international co-operation owned by the federal government ofGermany, working with more than 130 partner countries and supportingapproximately 2,700 development projects and programmes. The GTZ‟s aim is toimprove the living conditions and perspectives of people living in developingcountries.In accordance with the Johannesburg declaration on Sustainable Developmentone of the GTZ‟s focus areas is in assisting in the provision of safe andsustainable sanitation to the estimated 2.5 billion people who do not haveadequate sanitary and wastewater treatment facilities.Since May 2001, the GTZ, acting on behalf of the Germany Federal Ministry forEconomic Co-operation and Development (BMZ), has been engaged in aninternational research and development project on “ecosan - ecologically andeconomically sustainable wastewater management and sanitation systems”. Itsmain objective include knowledge management and dissemination on a broadinternational level, the initiation, implementation and monitoring of appropriatepilot projects in co-operation with local and international partners and thedevelopment of concepts for the marketing and safe use of the end products ofthe process.In recent years, the concept of ecological sanitation, as an alternative toexpensive, energy intensive, resource inefficient end of pipe conventionalsanitation, has gained a great deal of recognition in the fields of politics, businessand science from all over the world - especially among groups facing sanitationproblems themselves. The GTZ is currently engaged in a number of internationalco-operation‟s aimed at designing and implementing ecosan pilot projects, aswell as supporting national and international networks, integrating the privatesector into sanitation and embarking on strategic co-operations in this specificarea. Additionally, over the last two years the ecosan project has become a fixedelement in the network of international information and knowledge managementand world-wide lobbying efforts, offering, among others, a bilingual web-site andan electronic newsletter published quarterly in four languages for the readershipof 3,000. For more information visit: www.gtz.de/ecosan2. BACKGROUNDThe idea for this workshop was born at the 2nd International Symposium onEcological Sanitation that was held in Luebeck , Germany from the 7 th to the 11thof April, 2003 when it was said that Zambia was earmarked for ecosan activities,already proposed by a GTZ-KfW-Project Evaluation Team (PVK-Mission H. Lang,G. Specht, F. Kaeser) in January 2002,Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 2
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportThe workshop was organised with the objective of providing decision makers andother organisations involved in santation with information on the ecosan concept.It also aimed to serve as a discussion forum on ecological sanitation and tosensitise various stakeholders to start a process of implementation of ecosanconcepts.The workshop would be used as a starting point for ecosan promotion in Zambia,which could be continued through national events, such as:1) Copperbelt agriculture and commercial show (May)2) The Zambia International Trade Fair (July)3) Lusaka Agriculture and Commercial Show (August)The workshop had the following themes; The Eco-San concept. Perspectives and requirements/framework conditions for projects in urban areas in Zambia. Lessons learnt and perspectives from a national and international point of view. Dissemination of the ecosan approach. Ecosan - networking in Southern Africa and why ecosan nowThe workshop looked at ecosan as comprising: Dry/source separated sanitation. ecosan-water borne systems. Design of feasible ecosan toilets. Rural, urban and peri-urban. Experiences in piloting ecosan toilets in Zambia.The Lusaka workshop was attended by participants from the public and privatesectors; academia; non-governmental organisations (NGOs), civil society and thedonor agencies.This report summarises and highlights the proceedings of the Workshop. It isorganised according to similarity of presentations during the three days:Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 3
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report3. WORKSHOP DELIBERATIONS3.1 Day 1: INTRODUCTION, PILOT CASE STUDIES AND HYGIENE CONSIDERATIONS.3.1.1 INTRODUCTIONChairmen: Mr. O.M.Chanda. The Director of NWASCO, for the morning sessionand Mr L Zulu the Chairman of WASAZA for afternoon session.The chairman saluted everyone and introduced himself before asking all theparticipants to introduce themselves one by one.The first speaker Mr. S. Nakamboa introduced the workshop and stated theworkshop objective which was:To provide a forum for discussion on ecological sanitation among decision/policymakers, organisations and other agencies. The workshop will be used as astarting point for promotion of ecological sanitation in Zambia especially at thethree annual events.1) The Copperbelt Agriculture and Commercial Show (May)2) The Zambia International Trade Fair (July)3) The Lusaka Agriculture and Commercial Show (August)To achieve these objectives a number of themes where discussed including theecosan concept, a description of the Zambian peri urban compounds, Nationaland International experiences with regard to ecosan, dissemination of the ecosanconcept and why ecosan now. Ecosan was described as a sanitation approachbased on the recycling of nutrients in human excreta for agriculture such thatecological integrity is respected; fresh water sources are protected andconserved, while promoting health living by preventing the spread of diseases. Itwas said the case for ecosan was strengthened by the fact that conventionalsanitation systems have failed to solve the sanitation crisis for the world as 2.2million people die each year due to diseases associated with poor sanitation andcontamination of drinking water.Mr Nakamboa also stated that even though ecosan appears to be a new conceptit‟s principal of nutrient recycling has been in practice for many years in countrieslike China and Vietnam. However, this principal of recycling has not been thereason for it evolving in some countries. For example in Sweden environmentalconcerns where the reason for people adopting it, in India it was conveniencewhile in Mexico the main reason was water conservation. For this reason thepromoters of ecological sanitation should be aware that the motivating factors forpeople to adopt ecological sanitation are different for different regions.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 4
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report3.1.2. OVERVIEW OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION STRATEGYMr. C. Mulambo from the Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH)gave the first power point presentation on the „Overview of the NationalEnvironmental Sanitation Strategy.‟The national environmental sanitation strategy defines sanitation as a process ofcollection, treatment and disposal of human excreta and domestic waste in a safeand hygienic manner (behaviour) which is affordable and sustainable, andenvironmental sanitation as a set of interdependent factors, such as hygienepractices, faecal and solid waste disposal, safe water use and management andmaintenance of a healthy community, which reduce health risks and increasewell-being.The national environmental sanitation strategy‟s objective is to create an enablingenvironment with support mechanisms to facilitate individuals, households andcommunities to effectively improve their environmental sanitation conditions andhygiene practices to prevent the transmission of disease.The relevant legal framework governing sanitation in Zambia are: Environmental Control 1990: pollution of water and air, solid waste Local Government Act 1991: rubbish removal, environmental health, sewerage and drainage and provision of public sanitation Public Health Act 1935 and National Health Services Act 1995: regulation relating to new/rehabilitated houses having a latrine, siting of latrines, outbreaks of infectious/ preventable diseases. Village Development Act: Chiefs power to instruct community to build latrines. Local Government Act 1974: Regularising of shanty compoundsMr. Mulambo was asked if there was a deliberate policy on ecosan and heresponded saying that there was none other than the National EnvironmentalSanitation Strategy. Among other issues raised during the questions and answertime was what penalty measures are there to punish residents in peri urbanareas who do not have a toilet on their plot. The fact is that Laws/Regulations arethere that compel each household to have a toilet but they are not enforced dueto lack of capacity. Another issue that Mr Mulambo stated was that the strategywas done in 1997 by the government and gives advice on appropriate technologyon toilets which if acceptable can be used. This also applies to ecosan toilets.Even though the strategy does not mention ecosan per say if the ecosan toilet isappropriate technology, it can be used.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 5
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportComment: There is need for government to come up with a deliberate policy onthe implementation and promotion of ecosan in the country so that projects canbe guided by them.3.1.3. TOILETS AND URBAN AGRICULTURE INFRASTRUCTURE IN ETHIOPIAAfter Mr. Mulambo, Mr. Gunder Edström from SUDEA in Ethiopia gave apresentation on Toilets and Urban Agriculture Infrastructure in Ethiopia. Heexplained how residents have accepted the urine diverting toilets and are using avariety of materials for the super structure like poles, reed mats, mud bricks andiron sheets. Residents collect the urine in plastic containers and apply it directlyto the soil after making a small furrow into which to pour the urine. The urine isdiluted with water if applied on a planted field. If the field is not planted then theurine can be applied without diluting. Mr. Edström explained how easy it is toapply the urine since all you have to do is to take a deep breath before pouringthe urine into the furrow. It is important to cover the urine immediately to reducelose of nitrogen. The fertilising effect of urine is similar to that of a nitrogen richfertiliser and urine should be used similarly. For this reason urine should be usedfor nitrogen demanding crops and vegetables.When it comes to faeces the composting process can be hastened by coveringthe compost with a plastic cover to prevent the loss of moisture. Themaintenance of moist conditions in the compost increases the degradation of theorganic matter as the microbial activities are encouraged. Gunder also stated thaturban agriculture could be integrated with ecosan to make it more sustainable.During the question and answer time Mr Edström explained how at one Muslimhouse he tried to introduce a urinal and the man of that household refusedentirely. However, at another Muslim household the man agreed and was happythat the urinal would ensure that the urine did not wet his feet when urinating in astanding position. From this example we can see that it is important to be awareof cultural issues when promoting ecosan, but also that cultural views are neitherfixed nor constant in a society, and so we should never completely rule outcertain options.Comment: The experiences from Ethiopia teach us that ecological sanitation canbe an acceptable sanitation system in any culture everywhere in the world if theright approach is used in promoting it.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 6
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report3.1.4. WATER BORNE ECOLOGICAL SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES/ CLOSING THE LOOP ON-SITE-EXPERIENCES IN LESOTHOMs Mantopi Lebofa from DED Lesotho gave the last presentation before teabreak, entitled Water Borne Ecological Sanitation Technologies/closing the loopon-site-experiences in Lesotho. Ms Lebofa explained how the conventional septictanks wastes nutrients by storing them in tanks and soaking them away into thesoil ending up polluting ground water. These nutrients are supposed to bereturned to the soil where they originally came from. In Lesotho people arechanging from using septic tanks as a way of treating their wastewater to usingbiogas digesters.During the question and answer time it was established that the motivatingreason for this change is that biogas digesters are cheaper, as they do not needto be emptied. People also have the additional benefits of reusing the nutrientsfound in the effluent from the digester in their gardens and the gas produced intheir kitchens. This is really encouraging many residents to adopt the biogassystem as they cannot afford the cost of hiring a vacuum tanker to empty theseptic tanks. Another issue that was raised was, „what is fed into the biogasdigester?‟ Ms Lebofa explained that the biogas digester can take all the organicwaste from the household including the effluent wastewater. This means thebrownwater, yellowwater and greywater, including organic kitchen waste, yardwaste and animal dung. The biogas digester also makes use of plastic bottlesthat are used to provide a surface area for bacteria to stick on that purify theeffluent at the outlet.In her presentation Ms Lebofa also explained how the issue of nutrient recyclinghas become so wide spread that her organisation members move around withplastic bottles and pass it on to any man they find urinating on the road sideinforming him that he is wasting nutrients in his urine and he should collect it.Apparently, some residents have accepted to collect urine in plastic bottles eventhough it has to be noted that women have to use a funnel to properly collect theurine. This urine is used after diluting it with water in a 1:1 ratio.For a better management of wastewater and to overcome the problems ofemptying the septic tanks the current situation in Lesotho is changing. Ecologicalsanitation principles designed to support natural cycles of plant nutrient and othernatural components of excreta treatment are being implemented. Closed-loopwastewater and excreta management help preserve soil fertility and safe guardlong-term food security hence they are being taken into consideration. Thebiogas technology is one such approach. It‟s objective is to break down organicmaterial to its optimum uses, which are gas as an energy source and sludge indifferent viscosities as soil conditioner or fertilisers. Besides energy and fertiliser,other benefits of biogas technology are improved sanitation and environmentalprotection.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 7
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportComment: From Ms Lebofa‟s presentation it can be seen that what we consideras waste most of the time is actually a resource capable of earning us additionalincome.3.1.5. THE ECOLOGICAL SANITATION CONCEPTAfter tea break Heinz-Peter Mang from the GTZ-ecosan team in Eschborn,Germany gave a presentation on the ecological sanitation concept. Mr Mangexplained the shortcomings of the conventional waste water systems in that theypollute surface water by discharging untreated wastewater in them. Word-wideonly between 5-10% of the sewage wastewater is correctly treated. This resultsin the pollution of the rivers by pharmaceuticals, hormones, organics, bacteriaand nutrients. He then gave the advantages of ecological sanitation in that therewill be reuse of the grey water in irrigation as well as immediate reuse forpurposes of toilet flushing, car washing, cooling etc after purification by root zonetreatment, stabilisation ponds, or technical treatment. The urine will be used as afertiliser for agriculture/forestry after hygienisation while the faeces and otherorganic waste can be used to produce biogas or compost. The presentationshowed that the commonly applied ecosan strategy of separately collecting andtreating faeces, urine, and grey water minimises the consumption of valuabledrinking water and enables the treatment of the separate waste water treatmentflows at a much lower cost.During the question and answer time the participants indicated that there is apotential avenue for economic gain. People/communities can use the treatedexcreta to produce food and hence ensure food security. Also it was pointed outthat there already is a serious problem of vandalism because people know thenutrient value of sewerage wastewater.Comment: Most if not all wastewater treatment technologies are complicated bythe practice of mixing different wastewater flow streams (i.e. urine and excreta,wash water from houses, industrial wastewater, storm run-off etc.).Adopting a “nomix” or “source separating” approach can therefore greatly simplify treatmentprocesses, making it less expensive, more efficient, and easier to recoverproductive resources. However, even in the case where some of the flow streamsare mixed it may still be possible to recover and use the resources if the rightapproach is adopted.3.1.6 OFFICIAL OPENING SPEECHESMr Mang‟s presentation had to be stopped for a few minutes due to the arrival ofthe Honourable Minister Silvia Masebo (MP). The chairman of WASAZA Mr. LeviZulu welcomed and introduced the Minister. He also introduced Ms MartinaBergschneider the GTZ Country Director. To entertain the Minister there was aperformance by an arts group that did some traditional dancing and „fire eating‟acts.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 8
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportMr. L. Zulu gave the official opening address in which he talked about theobjectives of WASAZA. He was followed by Ms M. Bergschneider who talkedabout the activities of GTZ in Zambia and it‟s efforts to support the Water andSanitation Sector Review Programme. Lastly the Honourable Minister MsMasebo gave the final opening address in which she talked about the Zambiangovernment‟s commitment to improving the sanitation situation in the country.(see appendix)3.1.7. EXPERIENCES IN PILOTING ECOSAN PROJECTS IN ZAMBIAAfter Lunch Mr Ernest Hamalila from Water Aid Zambia gave a presentation onExperiences in Piloting Ecosan Projects in Zambia. He explained how the peopleof Siavonga are adopting ecosan approaches of using the compost from theirtoilets in their gardens. Siavonga is a very rocky area and the digging of pits forpit latrines is very tedious and the residents have adopted the „fossa alterna‟because the pits are permanent and are used alternately. Ash is added to thetoilet contents after every visit so as to help reduce smell and prevent flies. Theyhave accepted the use of the „compost‟ in their gardens as after one year thecontents are just like soil and are happy with the results. Mr. Hamalila alsoshowed us a video where a resident was appreciating the works of Water Aid inbringing these new toilets to them.However during the question and answer time Mr Hamalila‟s presentation wasquestioned as to how the system is different from the simple pit latrine as theurine and faeces are mixed. If the pit is not lined there still the possibility ofgroundwater pollution, and if it is lined it may fill rapidly due to the collection ofurine. One participant responded by saying that what qualifies this system, asecosan is the deliberate aim to reuse the contents of the toilet. In the traditionalpit latrine there usually is no deliberate aim to reuse the contents as the pits areusually dug into deep. Also it was pointed out that the use of ash in pit latrines isan old traditional practice and should be respected that traditional knowledge isvery important. The participants also wanted to know how wide the operationalarea for Mr Hamalila was to which he responded by saying they were currentlyoperating in the peri-urban areas of Siavonga but will soon move to Choma aswell.Comment: One of the reasons that qualifies a sanitation system to be ecosan isthe deliberate aim to reuse the contents of the toilet as fertiliser and/or as soilconditioner and hence contribute to closing the loop. However, ecologicalsanitation aims to recover these nutrients with as little loss as possible in amanner that is socially, economically and environmentally acceptable to both theusers of the sanitation systems and the recovered products. The fossa alterna,due to its relatively inefficient resource recovery, and potential for groundwaterpollution was therefore seen by some of the participants as being a step in theright direction, but not yet ecosan.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 9
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report3.1.8. “CBNRM-MISSING LINK”-PILOTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN BOTSWANAAfter Mr. Hamalila‟s presentation Ms Cathrine Wirbelauer from IUCN in Botswanawas next with a presentation on “CBNRM-Missing Link”-Piloting EcologicalSanitation in Botswana. She gave the background to the project as being long-term environmental sustainability, the need to get a better handle on howhouseholds and communities utilise their environment and identify the resourcesused at household and community level, and integrated management ofresources.The aspects taken on board with a lot of community participation during theexecution of this project are, “living” natural resources (e.g. veld products,forestry, agriculture, gardening, animal husbandry etc.),“non-living” naturalresources (e.g. water, waste) and “ecological sanitation” (conservation/reuse -link).The goal of the project is “to develop, test and demonstrate a holistic/integratedapproach to environmental management, sanitation and waste management athousehold and community level in selected communities”To achieve this goal the main activities of the project are: Assess past and present natural resources management (NRM) and environmental management practices. Pilot and develop environmental management approaches at household Level. Pilot and develop environmental management approaches at community level. Document project approach, methodology and experiences.3.1.9. INSTITUTIONAL AND IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN OUAGADOUGOU, BURKINA FASOAfter Cathrine, Patrick Bracken from the GTZ ecosan team gave the Institutionaland Implementation aspects of ecological sanitation in Ouagadougou, BurkinaFaso. Mr. Bracken stated that, ecological sanitation requires an interdisciplinaryapproach; sanitation, health, socio-economic aspects, agriculture, energy, andwater supply should be considered together. It also involves a multitude ofstakeholders - governments (local and national), sanitation users, users of theproducts, private sector etc. for suitable institutional arrangements toaccommodate this interaction. In Burkina Faso there are a wide range of nationaland communal bodies with an official mandate for sanitation.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 10
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportAt Ministerial level more than 9 ministries have an official mandate for sanitation;Ministry for Water; Ministry for Health and Social Action; Ministry of theEnvironment and Tourism; Ministry for Equipment; Ministry for PrimaryEducation; Ministry for Secondary and Tertiary Education and ScientificResearch; Ministry for Territorial Administration; Ministry for Communication;Ministry for Plans and Co-operation.Ministries work through executive agencies for sanitation and these include: ONEA (for the Ministry of Water). The direction for pollution prevention and the improvement of living conditions. The direction of preventative medicine. The direction for sanitary action.The need for improved sanitary facilities and to protect scarce water resources;active agricultural sector; possibility of creation of income generating activitieshas created a great deal of interest in an ecosan system among the population.During the discussions one important issue that was raised was who played thelead role in the implementation of sanitation in Bukina Faso. As explained abovemore than 9 ministries have an official mandate for sanitation. This createsconfusion, as there might be duplication of work by the various ministries.Comment: It is very important for the successful implementation of ecosan thatthe relevant ministries and institutions are identified so that works can be co-ordinated effectively.3.1.10. DISEASES LINKED TO POOR SANITATION AND THEIR PREVENTIONDr Mbewe from UTH gave a talk on Diseases linked to poor sanitation and theirprevention after tea break. Presentations like this one are what could kill or sellthe idea of using human excreta as a fertiliser. Dr Mbewe pointed out that urinecould be infectious as Salmonella and Schistosomiasis are some of the parasitesthat are passed in urine. However, it has to be pointed out that only 20% of allinfections from human excreta are found in urine the majority of all infections(80%) are transmitted through faecal matter. Among the diseases transmittedthrough faecal matter are cholera, dysentery, diarrhoea and hepatitis A. Anumber of protozoa are passed through faeces and cause several diarrhoealdiseases e.g. cryptosporidium, giardia, entamoeba, and histolitic. There are alsomany bacterial forms that are transmitted through faeces and these aresalmonella, compylobacter, e-coli, and enterohaemorrhagic.During the question and answer time some of the issues raised where how safeis urine to be used for irrigating vegetables. The fact is that differentbacteria/protozoa/viruses take varying die off times. There is a correlationChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 11
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Reportbetween climate/temperature and time for pathogens to die off. In the case ofurine a relatively high pH (9) as well as temperature, dilution and storage time arefactors that are considered to affect the concentration and survival of pathogensin a urine solution.A study by L.T. Jorgensen et al from The Royal Veterinary and AgriculturalUniversity in Denmark on the „Survival of faecal indicators and bacterial andparasitic pathogens in source separated human urine‟ resulted in the followingconclusions;  Three numbers of enterococci were reduced to below the detection limit (<10 per ml) in the urine tank after 3 to 4 months storage.  A small increase in numbers of total viable counts at 37degrees centigrade and enterococci after 4-5 months storage, suggests bacteria re-growth in the tanks.  Viable and infective C. parvum oocysts appear to survive in urine storage tanks even after prolonged storage.  In laboratory experimental survival studies, the numbers of all bacterial pathogens tested were reduced to below the detection limits of 10 bacteria per ml within a 20-days period. (Source: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on ecological sanitation. p 424)With regard to faeces thermophilic composting effectively reduces the numbersof faecal bacterial indicators and pathogens. Most studies indicate that 6 Monthsshould be the minimum period for storage of both urine and faeces to ensureadequate sanitisation. Most pathogens cannot survive the harsh conditions outside the human body and die off quickly. Worm eggs survive longer out side thehuman body than the worms themselves so care should be taken to ensure thatthey have died before the excreta can be used as fertiliser or compost. Dr.Mbewe also pointed out, after being queried, that it is not possible for HIV to betransmitted through human excreta. For more information on the above topicreferee to the Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on ecologicalsanitation on page 397. Yet another participant also asked if bilharzia could betransmited through fertilising food crops with infected urine. To which she said itis not possible as bilharzia germs has to enter the blood stream and not the gut.It was in the middle of the questions and answer time that one participant whohad just arrived cautioned the participants to ask „real question’ that address „realissues’. He said that we should be more concerned with the pathogen die offtimes as we all know that bacteria can not move or be absorbed by the plantroots. It is the pathogen die off times that matter and ensure that the productsfrom ecological sanitation are safe for use in agriculture.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 12
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportComment: Whatever the stigma with regard to the handling of human excreta,ecosan offers the most sustainable, economical and ecologically friendly optionof sanitising human excreta before being released into the environment.3.1.11. HEALTH ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATIONAussie Austin from CSIR in South Africa was the last presenter of the day with apresentation entitled, „Health Aspects of Ecological Sanitation.‟ He raised thefollowing points with regard to sanitation. Safe disposal of human excreta alone does not necessarily mean the creation of a healthy environment. Sanitation goes hand in hand with an effective health care programme. Sanitation is not just a matter of building toilets. Technology by itself cannot break the cycle of disease transmission if hygiene awareness in a community is at a low level.Aussie stated that pathogenic organisms cause diseases and there are fourgroups of pathogens that are found mainly in faeces, as urine is virtually sterile:  Bacteria  Viruses  Protozoa  Helminths (worms).Aussie noted that good sanitation prevents excreta from entering the domesticenvironment and getting into water and that good hygiene prevents thetransmission of microbes from the environment into the human body via hands.Adequate excreta disposal and safe hygiene practices together effectivelyprevent almost all gastro-intestinal infections.Certain environmental conditions are favourable for survival of pathogens andthese are a cool temperature, adequate moisture content and a neutral pH.Therefore, to kill the pathogen we must create unfavourable/ hostile conditions inthe vault. This implies good design & management that will result in hot dryconditions with an elevated pH.He concluded by saying that appropriate treatment of faeces is important forpeople‟s health and that people need to be convinced that additional time andeffort are warranted. It is also essential that an educational strategy must includeawareness of health/hygiene issues and finally we should keep handling ofexcreta simple and easy.Mr. Austin was asked if the reuse of excreta was accepted in South Africa towhich he said there was no culture of excreta reuse in South Africa and peopleare using ecosan for the convenience of an inside toilet, and the absence of badsmells in urine diverting toilets when managed correctly. The dried excreta isChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 13
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Reportsometimes thrown into the field or incinerated. The urine is simply soaked intothe soil. He also noted during the discussions that people should have a basicunderstanding of ecosan before any promotion activities are carried out. Peopleshould be made aware that ecosan offers a basic pathogen transmission barrierbecause there no flies. Also it is easy to build a simple hand washing facility evenin areas were there is no running water.Comment: Ecological sanitation if properly applied is by far more healthy thanthe conventional sanitation in that it ensures that excreta is sanitised as close aspossible to the source of generation before release into the environment.3.2 Day 2: OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF ECOSAN3.2.1. INTRODUCTIONChairmen: Mr Patrick Bracken from the GTZ ecosan team for the morningsession and Mr S. Nakamboa, an environmental sanitation consultant with GKW-Consult for the afternoon session.Mr Nakamboa gave a summary of the previous day‟s presentations and that ofthe present days presentations.3.2.2. URBAN ECOLOGICAL SANITATION EXPERIENCES IN UGANDAMr Austin Ali Tushabe of the Directorate of Water Development in Uganda gavethe first presentation of the day entitled „Urban ecological sanitation experiencesin Uganda.‟ Mr Tushabe explained how some communities in Uganda are sitingon top of their water supply and end up contaminating it and hence the need forecosan in these areas. He explained how initially it was difficult to get people onboard but slowly they started to accept ecosan due to the fact that the toiletsproduced no smell if properly used. Mr Tushabe stated that human excretabelong to the soil and hence the Ministry of Agriculture should be a major playerin the promotion of ecosan.During the question and answer time Mr. Tushabi explained how difficult it was toconvince people. The first time the vault of one toilet was opened the peoplearound stepped back quickly but however they slowly started to come backtowards the vault to see what was inside as they could not smell anything. Heexplained how his boss was against ecosan but slowly convinced him that theyhave an ecosan toilet built in their office. He showed slides of several examplesof existing ecosan toilets at public places such as markets, collages and officeblocksComment: Convincing people to change is not easy and practical ecosanexamples are needed for the success of any ecosan project in Zambia.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 14
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report3.2.3. EFFECTS OF UBAN EXPANSION ON GROUNDWATER QUALITYAfter Mr Tushabe, Mr. H. Mpamba from MEWD gave the second presentation ofthe day called „Effects of urban expansion on groundwater quality.‟ Mr. Mpambashowed us disturbing pictures of the pathetic situation as regards solid wastemanagement in the city of Lusaka. He explained that these heaps of solid wastecoupled with other activities like illegal quarrying contribute to the contaminationof groundwater. He also pointed out that the emergence of squatter communitiesand the uncontrolled use of pit latrines also contributes to the contamination ofgroundwater by faecal coli forms.During the question and answer time Mr.Mpamba was asked what the deliberateZambian strategy is towards the management of solid waste. To this heresponded by saying that at the moment the government is trying to decentraliseand commercialise the management of solid waste through private sectorparticipation as the councils are incapacitated.Comment: The fact is that our groundwater resources are greatly under pressureof contamination and efforts should be made to check the situation.3.2.4. URBAN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE MANAGEMENTMr Gert de Bruinje from WASTE in the Netherlands was the first to present aftertea break with a presentation entitled Urban Integrated Sustainable ResourceManagement. Mr. Gert pointed out that knowing the problem is already half thesolution. We now know that wastewater is a mess therefore we should avoid it asmuch as possible. But how do we avoid wastewater? The treatment ofwastewater involves an element of separation so why mix the constituents ofwastewater only to separate them later. To achieve this there should be sourceseparation (no mixing) of the waste components. The organic part of the wasteshould be composted and recycled in agriculture while some of the inorganiccomponents should be reused or recycled where possible. Another tactic is toreduce generation at source by avoiding disposal. In other words the solid wastehierarchy should be observed of Reduce-Reuse-Recycle. Whatever falls throughthis hierarchy should then be taken to the landfill as a last resort.Comment: The solid waste hierarchy if correctly applied can reduce the amountof materials that we have to actually dispose off as waste is a resource therebyreducing transportation costs in waste management.3.2.5. DESIGN OF FEASIBLE ECOLOGICL SANITATION TOILETSMr. Aussie Austin from CSIR in South Africa gave his second presentation in theworkshop with a title, „Design of Feasible Ecological Sanitation Toilets.‟ Mr.Austin gave five main criteria for a good sanitation structure and these areChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 15
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Reportreliability, appropriateness, sustainability, acceptability and affordability. He alsogave a sixth one in that it should not collapse. A sanitation facility should be ofsimple design so that local crafts men can build or repair it. It should be easy tooperate and maintain by the household members using it. It should be built bylocally available traditional materials and should have a simple hand washingfacility. To put his points across he showed several designs and explained theirweaknesses and strengths.He further stated that the sanitation systems should: - be compatible with the social, cultural and economic conditions of the target area; - be comprehensible to the users; - exploit locally available resources; - be simple and easy to operate and maintain.Aussie listed the characteristics of a well-designed UD toilet to be; No pit - can be indoors No odours Very low operating cost Suitable for high-density settlements Easy to recycle excretaAdditionally he said the main criteria for a good ecosan toilet are; Systems must isolate or destroy faecal pathogens. Systems must protect the environment. Systems must be robust and easy to use and maintain.To build the toilets various superstructures and materials are used ranging from,brick, wood, thatch, wattle & daub, mud block and pre-cast concrete.He concluded by stating simplicity of design is important thus; easy to operateand maintain, use of local/traditional materials, and availability of hand washingfacilities.The important points to note during the discussions where that we should keepthe toilet simple and easy to operate by the end users. We should avoid designsthat make handling of excreta difficult. Another important query that was raisedwas, „what was the cost on an ecosan toilet‟. It was explained that the cost ofconstructing an ecosan toilet can be the same as that for a pit latrine or evencheaper in the long term because it is permanent. To reduce the cost it isrecommended that locally available materials are used that do not have to beimported from other countries. The use of local artisans is also recommended sothat they can easily repair/maintain the toilets.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 16
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportComment; No technological formula is appropriate for all situations ecosantoilets should be modified to suit culture/customs, and environmental/climaticconditions while being affordable by the local people.3.2.6. SELLIING THE IDEAS AND GENDER ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATION„Selling the ideas and gender aspects of ecological sanitation‟ was presented byMs Almaz Terrefe from SUDEA in Ethiopia as the last presentation before lunch.She started her presentation with two questions. The first one was-„is there anyone opposed to the practice of no mixing of urine and faeces‟. Apparently no onein the house was opposed. The second question was „do we accept urine andfaeces as a fertiliser.‟ Only three people out of about fifty participants raised theirhands confirming that they would not accept. Ms Terrefe explained that ecosanhas empowered families in Ethiopia as they are able to produce food on theirsmall plots without the need to buy artificial fertilisers. She explained that inselling the ideas of ecosan we need to be well informed about the whole aspectof ecological sanitation and the possible questions that people may pose. Wealso need to be humble and respectful in the way we approach communities andbe prepared for a challenge. Promoters of ecological sanitation should begenerous when sharing their tricks with regard to ecosan while being honest andgenuine. We need to explain to the communities how to close the loop from thetoilet to agro-forestry to composting to energy production to nutrition then finallyto the toilet again.Ms Almaz Terrefe explained how they have managed to convince communities toadopt ecosan. Both women and men are agreeable to the idea of collecting theurine in jelly cans and using the urine in their gardens.Comment: The right argument should be used when promoting ecosan asdifferent communities will be motivated by different reasons to adopt a new idea.3.2.7. AGRICULTRE ASPECTS OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATIONAfter lunch Mr Heinz-Peter Mang gave two presentation in a row. The first onewas to do with the Agriculture aspects of ecological sanitation. In thispresentation Mr Mang explained how minerals are exported from the agriculturefield to the cities and towns when crops are harvested. Therefore ecologicalsanitation tries to bring or take these minerals back to the soil where they belongand not in our water bodies. He also pointed out that a human being can fertilisehis own food requirements. More of this information can be found in thedocument by Aussie Austin and Louiza Duncker of CSIR entitled “Urine-diversionecological sanitation systems in South Africa” on page 12. Mr. Mang alsoexplained how the „Triple Win‟ is achieved through ecosan thus waterconservation and protection, agricultural reuse of nutrients in human excreta andChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 17
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Reportthe hygiene benefit through the sanitised human excreta before being releasedinto the environment. Mr. Mang also explained that the current reserves ofphosphorus that can economically be extracted will be exhausted within the next100 years.During the discussions one participant wanted to know the fertilising effect ofurine from a drunken person. It was explained that it is the fertilising effect ismore or less the same. Another participant wanted to know the best way to useurine. It was explained that urine needs to be diluted with water if applied to afield with growing crops. However, the urine must be worked into the soil toreduce the loss of nitrogen.Comment: Ecological sanitation offers the best means of reusing the nutrients inhuman excreta for food production after adequately being sanitised.3.2.8. TECHNICAL COMPONENTS FOR ECOLOGICAL SANITATION SYSTEMS-WORLDWIDE EXAMPLESMr. Mang continued with his second presentation of the day entitled, „TechnicalComponents for Ecological Sanitation Systems-world-wide examples.‟ In thispresentation Mr. Mang showed the participants examples of ecological sanitationsystems the world over. Examples from Afghanistan, Sweden, Ecuador, Vietnam,El Salvador, Mexico, Bolivia, China, South Africa, Uganda, Botswana andGermany where shown. What was evident from Mr Mang‟s presentation was thefact that ecological sanitation offers a wide range of options from simple low techto highly sophisticated and mechanised systems like the vacuum sewers and theincinerating toilets.During the discussions it was established that some ecosan technologies areactually water borne with water saving devices incorporated in the design.Comment: There are a wide variety of ecosan toilet models to suite differentregions and economies in the world and this should be born in mind whenpromoting ecosan.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 18
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report3.2.9. GROUP WORKAfter Mr Mang‟s presentation, before the participants went for tea break MrPatrick Bracken introduced the group work which was derived from theparticipants observations on what they thought was missing in the workshop.Their observations were grouped under three topics namely:Group-1 Financing of Ecosan - Facilitated by Mr. P. Bracken.Group-2 What would be the ideal Sanitation System - Facilitated by Ms. C. Wirbelauer.Group-3 How to get from the idea of ecosan to large scale implementation - Facilitated by Mr. S. Nakamboa.After tea break the participants re-organised themselves into three groupsaccording to the topic they had chosen to discuss. The results of the group workcan be found in Appendix 2.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 19
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report3.3. Day 3: THE WAY FORWARD FOR ECOLOGICAL SANITATION3.3.1. INTRODUCTIONChairman: Mr. I. N. Banda the Vice-Chairman of WASAZA.The chairman for the day Mr. Banda greeted everyone and summarised thepresentations for the day before introducing the summariser of the each day‟spresentation Mr. Nakamboa who gave a recap of the previous dayspresentations.3.3.2. ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN PERI URBAN AREAS - MAIN OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTSMr Brian Hangoma of SWSC gave the first presentation of the day entitledEcological Sanitation in Peri urban Areas-main Opportunities and Constraints. Inhis presentation Mr Hangoma noted the experiences he and his teamencountered in the duty of promoting ecosan. Among the serious issues thatwhere discussed where: How people do not regard sanitation a priority and that agreater percentage of them regard water a priority. The criteria used to came upwith this conclusion was questioned by the house and this fact was rejected.Another issue that came out of the presentation was that one participant felt thatecosan would not be accepted by the people due to the fact that the peri-urbanresidents are not farmers and farming is not their priority. However, it wasestablished that in fact peri-urban residents though not necessarily farmers dopractice some form of gardening or farming. It was also pointed out by oneparticipant that currently both in Lusaka and on the Copperbelt water companiesare experiencing vandalism to their pipes due to residents deliberately breakingthem to obtain nutrient rich wastewater for irrigating their farming plots. For thisreason it was thought that ecosan was the way forward as it would reducevandalism since people would have properly sanitised excreta for fertilising andimproving the soil structure. One participant also pointed out that ecosan shouldbe seen as a way of life and as a way of living with our environment. Another yetalso pointed out that it would be foolish for us as „leaders‟ to stop promotingsomething that is good for people just because we meet a few who are refusing.We should try by all means using different approaches to convince people thatecosan is the only solution for sanitation now and for the future.Comment: The sanitation situation in most peri-urban areas is pathetic but illpromoted and implemented ecosan projects by ill qualified facilitators/socialworkers will only worsen the situation.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 20
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report3.3.3. THE REGULATOR AND ISSUES OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATIONAfter tea break Mr. O. M. Chanda gave a presentation on „The Regulator andIssues of Ecological Sanitation.‟ Mr. Chanda pointed out that NWASCO was theregulator of water supply and sanitation service delivery. It is mandated by law todevelop guidelines, establish and enforce standards for efficient and sustainableservice delivery. All the water supply and sanitation service providers arerequired by law to obtain an operator‟s licence from NWASCO. According to MrChanda there are ten Commercial Utilities in the country. Four of them servicealmost entire provinces while two service towns thus Lusaka and Chipata. TheCopperbelt has four water utility companies operating in it. Central and LuapulaProvince have no Commercial water utility yet.Mr. Chanda‟s presentation received no questions at all.Comment: The presence of a regulator would ensure that all sanitation projectsare implemented acceding to the Water and Sanitation Act and the NationalEnvironmental Sanitation Strategy.3.3.4. THE GENERAL WAY FORWARD FOR ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN ZAMBIAAfter Mr. Chanda‟s presentation, Ms Pamela Chisanga with the assistance of theChairman for the day, Mr. Banda chaired the next two sessions which weremerged into one. The group presentations and recommendations from the workgroups where given to define the general way forward for ecological sanitation inZambia.The first group to present was group 3, the second group was group 2 and thethird group was group 1. (See Appendix 2)Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 21
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report4. WORKSHOP CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONIt can be concluded from the workshop deliberations that ecosan offers anextremely promising sanitation option for now and the future as it is economicallyaffordable and environmentally sustainable. It represents a holistic approachtowards the issue of sanitation with the aim of closing the nutrient and watercycles with as little loss of nutrients and energy as possible. Ecosan is a systemicapproach and an attitude whose technologies are not an end in themselves butare a means to an end. These technologies may range from near-naturalwastewater treatment techniques to composting toilets, simple householdinstallations to complex, mainly decentralised systems.Ecosan systems are more than just technical infrastructure as they addressseveral issues such as agriculture, environmental issues, landscaping and urbanplanning, hygiene and health. In the promotion of these systems we have to bearin mind that the closed loop approach to sanitation is still relatively unknown, notonly amongst the general public, but also among the professionals; planners,engineers, consultants, politicians, and local and regional authorities. The publichas to be informed about the possible options when it come to sanitation so thatthey can make an informed decision. People should be made aware of the factthat the quality and quantity of water resources is greatly being compromised bythe current sanitation systems. Indications are that the situation is getting worseand we are facing a serious world water crisis that will affect us all.We should all realise that even though the act of attending to the call of nature isa private thing, where it is done and what happens to the excreta once depositedis of public concern. Gone are the days when we assumed nature would purifywhatever we dispose off in the environment. We should take pride in ensuringthat we do not deliberately contaminate the environment hoping that things willtake care of themselves. We have to adopt a kind of living that is ecologicallyfriendly and does not put unnecessary pressure on the environment. This callsfor us to try and mimic the laws of nature of recycling. In the natural environmentorganisms and the excreta they release are recycled into the environment.Civilisation and urbanisation has destroyed this cycle of recycling that existed innature. It is thus time we put up deliberate measure to mimic the recycling ofmatter that existed in nature before we disturbed it. Ecological sanitation is onepractice that tries to bring back that order of recycling in the lives of civilised manso that he can live humbly with his environment. It ensures that the nutrientsfound in human excreta are returned to the soil where they belong and initiallycame from instead of being deposited in our water bodies where they cause allsorts of complications associated with eutrophication.Ecosan is the sanitation solution for the present and the future as it is asustainable system that recognises ecological integrity and respects humanChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 22
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Reportdignity. It should not be seen as an option but as the only way to proceed interms of sanitation from now onwards. Ecosan has the potential of not onlyimproving the sanitation situation the world over but also of improving foodsecurity as the nutrients in human excreta can be used in agriculture.The workshop recommendation can be summarized into one paragraph to be:The establishment of a task force to push the promotion of ecosan furtherthrough awareness raising/advocacy on ecosan, and the establishment of legaland institutional arrangement to guide the implementation of pilot projects in thecountry.For further remarks from the closing session of the workshop see Appendix 3Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 23
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report APPENDICESChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 24
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportAPPENDIX 1THE MINISTER’S SPEECH-THE PERMANENT SECRETARY-OFFICIALS FROM THE MINISTRY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT HOSING-OFFICIALS FROM THE WATER UTILITIES-REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS ORGANISATIONS AND MINISTRIESINVITED-INVITED SPEAKERS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES-OFFICIALS FROM GTZ-LUSAKA AND GTZ-ESCHBORN-MEMBERS OF WASAZA-INVITED GUESTS-LADIES AND GENTLEMENIT IS MY HONOUR AND PRIVILEGE TO OFFICIATE AT THIS IMPORTANTTWO AND HALF DAYS ECOLOGICAL SANITATION ADVOCACY WORKSHOP.AS YOU MAY BE AWARE, ZAMBIA IS UNDERGOING MAJOR REFORMS INVARIOUS MINISTRIES INCLUDING THE MINISTRY OF ENERGY ANDWATER DEVELOPMENT AND THE MINISTRY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTAND HOUSING. THE WATER SECTOR THEREFORE HAS UNDERGONEMAJOR CHANGES IN RECENT YEARS STARTING WITH APPROVAL OF THENATIONAL WATER POLICY IN 1994 WHICH ADOPTED AN INTEGRATEDAPPROACH AND RECOGNISED WATER AS AN ECONOMIC GOOD, ANDSEPARATED THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENTFROM SUPPLY AND DEVOLUTION OF SUPPLY FROM CENTRALGOVERNMENT TO LOCAL AUTHORITIES. UNDER THE CURRENTARRANGEMENTS, THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR DEVELOPING WATERRESOURCES IN THE COUNTRY LIES WITH MEWD. THE MLGH ISTHEREFORE RESPONSIBLE FOR DEVELOPING AND RUNNING URBANWATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION SCHEMES THROUGH LOCALAUTHORITIES, WATER COMMERCIAL UTILITIES AND OTHER PRIVATEOPERATORS. IN THIS VEIN, THE DEPARTMENT FOR INFRASTRUCTUREAND SUPPORT SERVICES (DISS) IN MY MINISTRY IS BEINGSTRENGTHENED TO CAPACITATE IT TO NOT ONLY MEANINGFULLYUNDERTAKE THE RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION ROLE BUT TOEQUALLY SPEARHEAD THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR DEVELOPING THEURBAN WATER SUPPLY SUB-SECTOR.LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, IT IS NOT MY INTENTION TO BELABOUR THESIGNIFICANCE OF WATER IN VIEW OF THE FACT THAT THIS WORKSHOPIS MAINLY DIRECTED TO THE ISSUE OF SANITATIONAT THIS JUNCTURE, I WISH TO NOTE THAT ZAMBIA IS ONE OF THE MOSTRAPIDLY URBANISING COUNTRIES IN AFRICA, WITH ABOUT 40% OF ITSPOPULATION LIVING IN URBAN AREAS. LUSAKA, THE COUNTRY‟SChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 25
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportCAPITAL CITY, HAS EXPERIECED ONE OF THE MOST RAPID GROWTHS,AVERAGING ABOUT 4% PER ANNUM. ABOUT 60-70% OF THISPOPULATION LIVE IN HIGH-DENSITY, LOW-INCOME SETTLEMENTS,WHICH ARE CHARECTERISED BY A HIGH POPULATION DENSITY,OVERCROWDING, HAPHAZARDLY-DEVELOPED FORMS OF HOUSINGINFRASTRUCTURE AND POOR WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONSERVICES.ALTHOUGH THESE AREAS INITIALLY DEVELOPED AS SQUATTER(ILLEGAL) SETTLEMENTS ON THE PERIPHERY OF THE CONVENTIONALURBAN SETTLEMENTS, CITY GROWTH HAS NOW BROUGHT THEM WITHINTHE LOCAL AUTHORITY BOUNDARY.ALMOST ALL THE LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS USE PIT LATRINES TODISPOSE OF THEIR EXCREMENT, WHILE WASTEWATER IS MADE TOFLOW INTO OPEN CHANNELS BECAUSE OF INADEQUATE OR COMPLETELACK OF PLUMBING NETWORKS.IN SPITE OF THIS SCENARIO, MOST OF THESE COMMUNITIES RELYEXCLUSIVELY ON GROUNDWATER FROM WELLS, BOREHOLES, ANDSHALLOW HAND-DUG WELLS. UNFORTUNATELY MOST OF THESE WATERSOURCES ARE INADEQUATELY PROTECTED FROM CONTAMINANTS,THEREBY RESULTING IN THIS WATER BEING OF POORMICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY.ALTHOUGH WATER SECTOR REFORMS, WHICH STIPULATE POLICIESAND PRINCIPLES FOR THE WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION (WSS)SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM, HAVE BEEN IN EXISTENCE SINCE 1993,SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LOW-INCOME SETTLEMENTS HAVEREMAINED UN-ADDRESSED. THE NOTICEABLE EFFORTS THAT HAVEBEEN MADE TO WARDS THE IMPROVEMENT IN THE DELIVERY OF WATERSERVICES TO LOW-INCOME SETTLEMENTS HAVE EMANATED FROMSOME PERTINENT NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOS0, BUTTHESE EFFORTS HAVE ONLY BEEN SUCCESSFUL TO A LIMITED EXTENT.AN ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT SITUATION IN THE CITY HAS REVEALEDTHAT WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION SERVICES IN THE LOW-INCOMESETTLEMENTS ARE POOR, INADEQUATE, AND UNRELIABLE. AVAILABLESTATISTICS INDICATE THAT ONLY ABOUT 55% OF THE LOW-INCOMEPOPULATION HAVE ACCESS TO SAFE WATER SUPPLY, WHILE MORETHAN 90% HAVE NO ACCESS TO SATISFACTORY SANITATION FACILITIES.THEREFORE THERE IS NEED TO INTRODUCE, WITHOUT UNDUE DELAY,SOME INTERVENTIONARY MEASURES THET ARE AIMED AT ARRESTINGTHIS WORRISOME SITUATION.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 26
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportIT IS WORTH NOTING THAT THE DEMAND FOR IMPROVED FACILITIESTENDS TO VARY AMONGST VAROUS COMMUNITIES IN VIEW OF THEDIFFERENCESIN THE CUSTOMARY BEHAVOUR OF DAFECATIONANDLEVELS OF ACCESSIBILITY TO SOME FORM OF WATER SUPPLY.THEREFORE, IN ORDER TO MATCH THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY OFWATER AND SANITATION FACILITIES, IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT ALLSTAKEHOLDERS SHARE A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMSAND POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS. THE OVERALL GOAL OF THE STRATEGY ISTHEREFORE TO ENSURE THAT LOW-INCOME AREAS, IN GENERAL, ANDTHE DEMONSTRATION AREA IN PARTICULAR, HAVE ACCESS TOADEQUATE AND SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONSERVICES THAT WILL ACCRUE TO IMPROVED QUALITY OF LIFE FOR THERESIDENTS.THE DEVELOPED STRATEGY SETS FORTH A FRAMEWORK FOREFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT PLANNING, SYSTEMATIC IMPLEMENTATION,AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WSS SERVICES IN LOW-INCOMEAREAS.ECOLOGICAL SANITATION, WHICH IS THE THRUST THIS WORKSHOP, ISALL ABOUT STRIVING TO PROTECT OUR WATER SOURCES FROMCONTAMINATION BY POOR SANITATION PRACTICES. MANY OF US AREAWARE OF THE CONVETIOINAL FLUSH AND DISCHARGE TOILETS WHICHINEVITABLY POLLUTE SURFACE WATER BODIES IF CONNECTED TO ASEWER NETWORK AND POLLUTE GROUND WATER SOURCES IFCONNECTED TO A SEPTIC TANK. THE TRADITIONAL PIT LATRINE DOESNOT EQUALLY SPARE WATER SOURCES FROM CONTAMINATION.AGAINST THIS BACKGROUND, THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS WORKSHOP ISTO PROVIDE A FORUM FOR DISCUSSION ON ECOLOGICAL SANITATIONAMONG DECISION/POLICY MAKERS, ORGANISATIONS AND OTHERDONOR AGENCIES. THE WORKSHOP DELIBERATIONS SHOULDTHERFORE BE USED AS A STARTING POINT FOR PROMOTION OFECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN ZAMBIA, ESPECIALLY AT THE COUNTRY,SMAIN ANNUAL EXHIBITIONS, NAMELY:THE COPPERBELT AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCIAL SHOW (MAY 2004)THE ZAMBIA INTERNATIONAL TRADE FAIR (JULY 2004)LUSAKA AGRICULTURAL AND COMMERCIAL SHOW (AUGUST 2004)ADDITIONALLY, THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT POLICY ON WATER ANDSANITATION SERVICES IS AIMED AT ENSURING THAT THE MLLENNIUMDEVELOPMENT GOALS ARE ACHIEVED.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 27
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportIT IS A WELL KNOWN FACT THAT THE CATALOGUE OF DISTURBINGFACTS ABOUT THE CURRENT WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION STATUSIN THE COUNTRY IS ENDLESS. WE THEREFOR ENEED TO FOCUS ONHOW BEST TO CORRECT THIS SITUATION?LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, IT IS IN VIEW OF THIS REALISATION THAT THISWORKSHOP IS HELD, ADDITIONALLY, I AM AWARE THAT THE WORKSHOPDELIBERATIONS WILL ALSO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE FACT THAT THEGTZ- ECOSAN PROJECT STRIVES TO CONTRIBUTE TO THEDEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL DISSEMINATION AND APPLICATION OFECOSAN APPROACHES AND ESTABLISH THESE INTERNATIONALLY ASSTATE -OF -THE ART TECHNOLOGIES.IT IS THEREFORE INCUMBENT UPON US TO SUPPLEMENT THEIREFFORTS IN WHATEVER WAY POSSIBLE SO THAT THE LOCAL AS WELLAS THE GLOBAL SITUATION WITH REGARD TO WATER SUPPLY ANDSANITATION CHANGES FOR THE BETTER.I HAVE TO REPORT THAT OVER THE PAST 2 TO 3 MONTHS THE GTZ –ECOSAN PROJECT HAS BEEN WORKING WITH THEIR LOCAL GTZ OFFICEAND WASAZA TO SEE THIS WORKSHOP TAKE PLACE. IT HAS NOT BEENEASY TO CO-ORDINATE ACTIVITIES ESPECIALLY THAT ECOSAN ISVIRTUALLY UNKNOWN IN ZAMBIA. MANY THANKS TO THEM.LADIES AND GENTLEMENI AM GLAD TO LEARN THAT A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF TIME HASBEEN EXPENDED BY GTZ-ECOSAN PROJECT AND THE WATER SUPPLYAND SANITATION ASSOCIATION OF ZAMBIA (WASAZA) IN PREPARINGTHIS WORKSHOP. I HAVE BEEN IMFORMED THAT THESE PREPARATIONSHAVE NOT BEEN EASY TO CO-ORDINATE BECAUSE ECOSAN IS NOT YETPOPULAR IN ZAMBIA. THEY INDEED DESERVE OUR APPLAUSE. IN THESAME VEIN, I WISH TO THANK GTZ ESCHBORN, GTZ LUSAKA AND THEWATER AND SANITATION ASSOCIATION OF ZAMBIA (WASAZA) AND THEMULUNGUSHI CONFERENCE CENTRE FOR THE VARIOUS FORMS OFFINANCIAL AND LOGISTICAL SUPPORT THAT THEY HAVE RENDEREDTOWARDS THE HOSTING OF THIS WORKSHOP. ABOVE ALL, I WISH TOTHANK ALL OF YOU IN PRESENT HERE FORFINDING TIME TO ATTENDTHIS WORKSHOP.LASTLY, I HOPE YOU WILL HAVE FRUITFUL DELIBERATIONS AND TO OURFOREIGN PARTICIPANTS, I WISH YOU A JOYOUS STAY IN LUSAKA. WITHTHESE REMARKS, IT IS NOW MY HONOUR AND PRIVILAGE TO DECLARETHIS WORKSHOP OFFICIALLY OPENED.THANK YOU AND MAY GOD BLESS YOU ALL.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 28
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportAPPENDIX 2GROUP DISSCUSSION PRESENTATIONSGroup 3: HOW CAN WE GET FROM THE IDEA OF ECOSAN TO LARGE SCALE IMPLEMENTATIONSTEP 1Formation of task force to formulate;a)Terms of reference for the national workshop.b)Identifying key stakeholders. e.g. Ministry of Local Government and Housing. Ministry of Health Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives Ministry of Energy and Water Development Ministry of Tourism Environment and Natural Resources NGOs/CBOs Community Representatives The Private SectorThe time frame for this to be done was set at eight weeks from the date of theworkshop.STEP 2a)Conducting follow up workshops for lead Ministry/Institution.b)Carry out ecological sanitation demonstrations.STEP 3a)Conducting Provincial Workshops.b)Conducting District workshops.STEP 4Creating awareness through; a)Drama b)Radio c)Media coverage and d)LeafletsSTEP 5Training of trainers at all levels starting from step 1Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 29
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportGroup 2: WHAT WOULD BE THE IDEAL SANITATION SYSTEM?An ideal sanitation system is a system that is;* User friendly* Cost effective* Has no long term effects on the environment* Low maintainance costs* Durable* Socially acceptable* Confortable* One that promotes health and is safe to use* One that is accessible, durable and affordable* One with little or no water/enegy use* A system with end product resource value* Produces safe reusable end products* Appropriate for the circumstancesWHY NOT THE CONVETIONAL SANITATION SYSTEM?Although chosen as ideal it poses a number of challenges:-* It is not dynamic and does not grow with the growing population. The Nationalpopulation growth rate is 2.7% on average and that for Lusaka is 3.5%.* Rapid urbanisation causes pressure on the social system thus, water supply,sanitation system, and the health aspects.* It lacks capacity/room for expansion.* The proliferation of unplanned settlements depends on pit latrines which are amain source of ground water contamination.Therefore, new city developments and new settlements have no choice but to gofor ecological sanitation.WHY CHOOSE ECOSAN?* Ecosan is a win-win situation* There is no waste* It is environmentally friendly* Added nutrient value* Ecosan solves three main problems:food shortage, environmental degradationand sanitation.RECCOMENDATIONThe group made the following reccomendation;* Establishment of a task force to push the promotion of ecosan further-Awareness raising / advocacy on ecosanChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 30
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report-Establishment of legal and institutional arrangement-Pilot projectsChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 31
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportGroup 1: FINANCING OF ECOSANMr Gert de Bruinje gave a power point presentation of what the financial aspectsof an ecosan project:-It was pointed out that for it to be sustainable the users must be willing to pay forthe services the toilet is offering.-Ecosan can create market for the agriculture products that may came about dueto the use of excrement as a fertiliser and thereby sustaining the maintenanceand operations of the sanitation system.The possible means of financing where listed as;1)Direct stakeholder investment2)Commercial financing3)Non-commercial through credit and loan programmes4)Through revenue from selling composted/dehydrated toilet products5)Special national development funds eg DTF6)International financing institutions eg ADBWhen coming up with a sanitation program we should consider-People‟s willingness to pay for the services to be offered-The community‟s average income-Affordability of the sanitation system-Cost; lifecycle cost / Investment cost-Economic viabilityIt is important to also consider environmental performance in terms ofacceptability, efficiency in returning nutrients to the soil, pollution threat, effect onpublic health, ecological balance, agreement with national guidelines andcompliance with national lawsChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 32
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportAPPENDIX 3REMARKS FROM THE CLOSING SESSIONSome final remarks from the floor:Mr. Mali: The workshop has raised the profile of ecosan, now we have to thinkhow we can move it forward. For example WASAZA could act as a facilitator tohelp us bring ecosan forward and to introduce it at grass root level.Aussie Austin: Considering the costs to organise such a workshop it would be agreat pity if after it nothing was to happen. In South Africa they have installed4000 urine diversion toilets in 6 years – driven through by the commitment of twoindividuals.Geoffrey Chama: Would like to believe that now ecosan has been broadlyaccepted. He has been working with ecosan alone for 3 years and appreciatessupport.Closing remarks from the organisers:Heinz-Peter Mang: Thanks to WASAZA and Simataa for their work as well asthe other organisers. All the other participants were also thanked for a fruitfuldiscussion. GTZ is happy to have been able to be involved. We would also bewilling to help, but we need a Zambian motor to drive the initiative and decide ona strategy. Many issues may prove to be decisive (such as the internal rate ofreturn as demonstrated from the Lesotho presentation). The basis is definitely inplace to be able to do something. The GTZ ecosan team is working to promoteecosan and will be willing to work with anyone working to promote ecosan.Gert de Bruinje: Thanks for the very warm welcome and for being allowed tocontribute to such a splendid event. Having had no expectations of what mighthappen, I was very pleased with the discussions and the openness of all, andalso with the large audience that remained throughout the workshop. I do notthink this workshop has been a waste of time (agreement from the floor), but nowa phase has ended and its time to start things. Its an obligation to society and toour children.T.C. Chanda (standing in for Mr. Lubambo): I‟ve always worked in the privatesector – mainly in mining before coming to water. Miners have a saying – “actionmatters”, so now we have to change our good intentions to action. Earnings arefalling, our population is increasing – we have problems. So we must be open toinnovation, and even if I do not understand all technical aspects I have to uselogic to help me make a decision, trusting professionals who can help. Thisworkshop has introduced an innovation which can help solve our sanitationproblems, relieve poverty and generate income. We know that people are alreadyChisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 33
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Reportbreaking up our sewer pipe to access untreated sewage for irrigation, and we allknow that is easier to swim with the current than against, so rather than fight this(which costs millions) we can make sure it is performed as safely as possible. Wehave to consider the possibilities offered by ecosan. We should let the workshoprecommendations be turned into something feasible and implementable. There isneed to convert the workshop resolutions into action/results. This workshop hasaddressed the problems faced by the majority of the Zambian community throughbetter sanitation. The knowledge gained from this workshop is very important andwe should use it for the betterment of the nationZambia does not seem to be able to reach its Millennium Development Goals,and any advances are based on donor aid. Ecosan will let us take charge andplan for ourselves to improve sanitation. This may not be easy as it maychallenge existing values, but it is possible.This workshop has been the starting pistol and we are all in the race. It would bea shame to let this die here. We need to lobby to make ecosan legal, as itcontradicts existing laws, and even if at first we only have one pilot project, wehave a success. We need to acknowledge the benefits offered by ecosansystems and think how we can reap them. We have had many workshops for thewater sector, but none of them have addressed providing a solution for themajority – this one has. I would like to thank all the foreigners for their presenceand assistance, but now it is our responsibility.Simataa Nakamboa: I would like to thank the chairman and all the sponsors ofthis workshop. I am overwhelmed with excitement and appreciate all thecontributions we have had over the last 3 days. We are in a real water crisis – asour water sources are contaminated. If we look at the Kafue river from whichLusaka City draws it‟s water we can see that it is polluted all the way from itssource. The mines on the Copperbelt and all the residential areas aredischarging wastewater into it. I challenge all those with boreholes to have theirwater tested as it is true that some of them might actually be contaminated byfaecal matter. In our work we have found bore holes contaminated up to a depthof 20 meters.Traditionally urine and faeces were not mixed as the pit toilet was separate fromthe bathing structure. The toilet was only used for defecation while the bathingstructure was used for both bathing and urinating. The urine and grey water wasusually directed to a plant like a banana or sugar cane but this has all changed.We cannot solve problems by using the same thinking that created them. Ecosancan allow us to return the nutrients back to the soil where they belong. The flushtoilet is ecologically mindless and the pit toilet is not sustainable in most peri-urban areas due to space limitation. Also the traditional principles over which thepit toilet was built are ignored. In most peri-urban areas it is common practice tobath in pit toilets which is not the case traditionally.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 34
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportFinally it is important that the promoters of ecosan are knowledgeable aboutecosan and they should us the right argument as situations are different indifferent countries/cultures.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 35
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report APPENDIX 4 LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 1ST NATIONAL ECOLOGICAL SANITATION CONGRESS MULUGUSHI CONFERENCE CENTRE- LUSAKA/ REGISTRATION OF NAMES First date Organization/No Name Positions Tel/cell No E-mail Country attended Address Environmental1 21.01.2004 Allan Dauchi MTENR 095 758092 Dnchi45@yahoo.com Zambia officer Almas2 21.22.2004 Country Director SUDEA Ethiopia Terrefe3 21.01.2004 Angela Chisimba Reporter Daily mail 097 802837 Zambia4 21.01.2004 Arnot S. Chiluwesa M.D NWWSC 08821330 nwwater@zamnet.zm Zambia5 22.01.2004 Augustine Mukuka Coordinator Box 160 Zambia CSIR South6 21.01.2004 Aussie Austin Engineer 27 12 8412568 Laustin@CSIR.co.za South Africa Africa 293156/7 21.01.2004 B.K Aluurahia Project Manager Rankin Eng rankin@zamnet.zm Zambia 096785094 UNZA School 295421/0978 21.01.2004 Benson H.Chishala Senior Lect. bchishala@agric.unza.zm Zambia of Agriculture. 8890769 21.01.2004 Bernard Miti Chairman COPATHAZ 097 754543 bernardmiti@yahoo.com Zambia Community10 21.01.2004 Brian Haangoma SWSC 032-20002 Zambia Relations Officer11 21.01.2004 Bruno Hamsonde Assistant Director MLGH DISS 097 847527 Zambia 00267 112 21.01.2004 Cathrine Wirbelauer Coordinator IUCN / DED Cathrine.Wirbelauer@iucn.org Botswana 393188513 21.01.2004 Chama Lupupa Coordinator FOCE 096-724055 chipupa@yahoo.co.uk Zambia14 23.01.2004 Chibesa Pensulo Student UNZA 095 888065 cpensulo@yahoo.com Zambia Tasie Team 243543/09515 21.01.2004 Chila Kashinga WRAP ckashinga@yahoo.com Zambia Leader 90929616 21.01.2004 Chileshe Mwiko Health officer KCC 097-816888 cmwiko@:yahoo.co.uk Zambia Executive17 21.01.2004 Chisanga Charles WASAZA 095 885667 wasaza@zamnet.zm Zambia Secretary18 23.01.2004 Chris Kachinga TTL WRAP 243543 Zambia19 21.01.2004 Daniel Mukonde Coordinator Waste Institute 095 855071 Zambia20 21.01.2004 Danstan Kunda Journalist MISA-Zambia 292096/7 Zambia21 21.01.2004 David M Silondwa NWSC 02 224091 Zambia22 21.01.2003 Dirk Schaefer Associate Export GTZ 229281 gtz@zamnet.zm Zambia23 22.01.2004 DM Silondwa NWSC 224091 Zambia24 21.01.2004 Stefan Dörner Project Manager GKW consult 097 847837 stefanD@gkw.co.zm Germany25 21.01.2004 Doreen Nakapzye Camera person ZIS 097 795333 Zambia26 21.01.2004 Doris Kajoba Accountant WASAZA 238439 wasaza@zamnet.zm Zambia27 21.01.2004 Elias Shilangwa Journalist B + L news 234584 Zambia28 21.01.2004 Emmanuel Chipulu Head Maintenance AHC- MMS 245088 chipulue@coppernet.zm Zambia29 21.01.2004 Enerst Hamalila Program Advisor Water Aid 290698 Zambia Specialist30 21.01.2004 Etambuyu Siwale MLGH 221128 Zambia sociologist31 21.01.2004 Evans Sinbela Journalist Radio QFM 221441/42 Zambia32 21.01.2004 Friday V.Banda Treasure COPATHAZ 097 754543 Zambia33 21.01.2004 G.Kantumoyo Reporter ZANA 095 752276 alpek@yahoo.com Zambia34 21.01.2004 Geoffrey Chama Technical officer Agriculture 095 780507 chamagn@yahoo.co.uk Zambia The35 21.01.2004 Gert de Bruijne Program Manager WASTE Netherlands36 21.01.2004 Gunder Edstrom Project Manager Sweden Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 36
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report First date Organization/No Name Positions Tel/cell No E-mail Country attended Address The37 23.01.2004 Han Seur Engineer GKW 097 762136 Netherlands38 21.01.2004 Heinz-Peter Mang Advisor GTZ-ecosan 097 706036 heinz-peter.mang@gtz.de Germany Senior Program Care39 21.01.2004 Henery Loongo 02 620112/3 loongo@zamnet.zm Zambia Manager International Vice chairman40 21.01.2004 Ian Banda WASAZA 095 885865 msinje@zamtel.zm Zambia WASAZA irenewakunyambo@41 21.01.2004 Irene Wakunyamba N/A 097-865242 Zambia yahoo.co.uk42 21.01.2004 J.Mulenga Water Engineer KWSC 095 959390 kafubuws@zamnet.co Zambia43 22.01.2004 Jackson Mulya Water Engineer KWSC 095 959390 Zambia44 21.01.2004 Jawan Nkhosi Engineer Rankin 293156 rankin@zamnet.zm Zambia Community45 21.01.2004 Johnson Phiri development GKW 097-751225 Zambia officer Manager Water46 21.01.2004 Joseph Musukwa Chipata W.S.C 095 916062 joseph-musukwa@yahoo.com Zambia works Specialist47 21.01.2004 Katoka Oswell MLGH 221128 okatooka@lwsc.com.zm Zambia sociologist48 21.01.2004 Katrin Bruebach Civil Engineer GKW Consult 095-950543 Germany49 22.01.2004 L.Siwale Student UNZA 238156 lensiw@yahoo.com Zambia50 21.01.2004 Laura Sustersic GTZ Advisor Box RW 37X 243748 Zambia51 21.01.2004 Laurence Chisesa Branch Manager MWSC 096-947965 smwater@zamtel.zm Zambia52 21.01.2004 Levi Zulu Director Zulu Barrow Zambia53 21.01.2004 Lillian Lwenje Member LWWG 095 887285 N/A Zambia54 21.01.2004 Liteta Martin Prison Officer Box 30133 097 716433 Zambia55 21.01.2004 Lushi Muyambango Managing Director MWSCO 07-221019 Zambia56 22.01.2004 M.M Kanyemba MACO 097 780754 kanyembam@hotmail.com Zambia57 21.01.2004 M.Mubiana Mbewe Medical Officer UTH 095 883075 Mwagelwam@yahoo.co.uk Zambia58 22.01.2004 Mantopi Lebofa Project manager DED Lesotho 266 22313301 mantopi@yahoo.com Lesotho National UPLIFT59 21.01.2004 Marriot Nyangu 097-787198 Uplift zambia@yahoo.co.uk Zambia coordinator ZAMBIA60 21.01.2004 Mbilima Z.Chonde Member LWWG 226941/2 Zambia61 21.01.2004 McDonald Chipenzi Reporter 097 874198 Zambia62 21.01.2004 Michael Musenga WASAZA 03-323790 mmusenga@yahoo.com Zambia63 21.01.2004 Micheal Matakata Reporter Africa Review 292096 Zambia Technical Care64 21.01.2004 Moses Mumba 221382 Zambia Coordinator International65 21.01.2004 Moses Nkhata Engineer BCHOD 228 460 monkhata@hotmail.com Zambia Information66 21.01.2004 Moses Zeggetti Desk officer 097 764214 Zambia Center67 21.01.2004 Mr Mukuka Coordinator Box 160 097 774737 Zambia Head Research 2810085/09668 21.01.2004 Mucheleng’anga C.G NISIR awinisir@coppernet.zm Zambia Coordinator 729573 Box 5028869 21.01.2004 N.H Mpamba Principal Manager 097 829150 mpamba@hotmail.com Zambia Lusaka Chainama70 21.01.2004 Nason Mofya Kunda Lecture 096952976 Zambia College 095/09771 21.01.2004 Ngabo Muleba member WASAZA Zambia 783411 Senior ED STDS72 21.01.2004 Noah H.Banda M.O.E 01-250340 Zambia Officer73 21.01.2004 Nsondo Hamunuka Board Member FOCE 097 894715 nsoham@11@yahoo.co.uk Zambia Manager74 21.01.2004 Nundwe C.D DCI 291124 Ireland coordinator75 21.01.2004 O.Kawanga Statistician CSO 01 253455 okawanga2001@yahoo.com Zambia76 21.01.2004 O.M.Chanda Director NWASCO 226941 ochanda@zamnet.za Zambia Senior Water77 21.01.2004 Oscar M Silembo Box 30530 095 863089 Zambia Quality officer78 21.01.2004 Owen Siyeto student UNZA 097 833154 Zambia ACG Country79 21.01.2004 Pamela Chisanga Water aid 097 777226 Pamelachisanga@wateraid.org.zm Zambia Representative Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 37
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report First date Organization/No Name Positions Tel/cell No E-mail Country attended Address Media Enviro80 21.01.2004 Paschalina Phiri Journalist 097 761421 chandale@yahoo.co.uk Zambia forum81 21.01.2004 Patrick Bracken GTZ ECOSAN GTZ ECOSAN pocb123@yahoo.com Ireland82 21.01.2004 Patrick Shawa Educator Officer WECSZ 097 780770 shawapatric@gmail.com Zambia Community83 21.01.2004 Precious Simasiku SWSC ltd 032-20001 Zambia Relation Officer84 21.01.2004 Reuben Chisanga CWSC 097-713428 cwsc@zamnet.com Zambia85 21.01.2004 Roland Werchota Sector Coordinator GTZ 229281 gtzwater@zamnet.zm Germany86 21.01.2004 S.Musumba Journalist ZIS 095 431244 Zambia 095 WASAZA87 21.01.2004 S.Mwale NWSC Kitwe 814918/096 Stevenmwale@yahoo.com Zambia publicity Sec. 73403088 21.01.2004 Simataa Nakamboa Forestry GKW consult Zambia89 21.01.2004 Somanje Matilder Journalist ZIS 097 795333 Zambia90 21.01.2004 Stephan Kata Journalist ZIMA 096 905920 Zambia91 21.01.2004 Steven Mulambo Senior Engineer MLGH 252385 cmulambo@yahoo.com Zambia Community Dept92 21.01.2004 Steven Phiri MCDSS 097 894715 Nsoham11@yahoo.co.uk Zambia Officer93 21.01.2004 Stubbs Malambo ASAIO MACO 095 887252 Zambia94 21.01.2004 Sundford Mweene Managing Director SWSC ltd 032-20433 Zambia95 21.01.2004 Talent Ng’andwe NCZ Zambia Box 2008 097 895020 Zambia96 23.01.2004 Tommy Mwamba ATM Journalist BOX 33611 232666 Zambia 02 245005/09797 21.01.2004 Tanecisio C.Chanda Manager AHA LTD chanda@coppernet.zm Zambia 787523 PEP DWD98 21.01.2004 Tushabe A.A Uganda 077443308 tushabe@dwd.co.org Uganda Uganda99 21.01.2004 W.M Mwanza STD WRDC W/Eng Zambia Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 38
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportAPPENDIX 5Report on the GTZ-ecological sanitation missionReporters: Patrick Bracken and Heinz-Peter Mang th thDate of Trip: 15 – 29 January 2004Destination: Lusaka and Choma, Zambia Objective and Expectations stPurpose of trip: Organisation (with local partners) and attendance at the 1 National st rd Congress on ecological sanitation in Lusaka from the 21 – 23 January 2004 – an advocacy workshop for ecosan; Visit sites for which demands have been received since 2002 for the implementation of an ecological sanitation pilot system and discuss the possible ways forward for such activities  Identify, and exchange with,Knowledge or the actors currently involved in sanitation / ecological sanitation inLearning Target: Zambia and establish the current level of awareness of ecosan concepts among these groups  Identify the willingness among decision makers in the water supply and sanitation commercial utilities to consider and adopt more sustainable approaches to sanitation  Obtain an initial impression of the sanitary situation, particularly in peri-urban areas  Establish the possibility of introducing ecological sanitation in these areas in response to demands that had already been received for such pilot activities Short SummaryMost import  The workshop was attended by 100 participants from a wide range of organisations and fields (including private companies,aspects (gtz governmental and non-governmental organisations, professionalrelevant), most organisations and international donors). To most of the participantsimportant follow- the concept behind ecological sanitation was new, however by theups: third day, a rather large number of participants were extremely vocal in expressing their belief that it could prove to be the solution for poor sanitary conditions in many areas where conventional solutions have failed.  To date issues of sanitation have been rather overlooked by the relatively newly formed water and sanitation commercial utilities and the international donor community, however recent outbreaks of cholera in Lusaka and several areas of the southern province have served to highlight its importance. Sanitation will be a major theme at the next donor meeting, currently planned for march 2004. A national sanitation strategy may also be developed over the coming year, with ecosan included in it as an appropriate solution.Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 39
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report  There is a great deal of interest in launching ecosan pilot activities. Before the conference, 5 requests for assistance with pilot activities had been received (in southern, north western and central province), and more are expected to follow. Financial assistance may be needed for some of these activities. This may become available through the Devolution Trust Fund (managed by NWASCO), through bilateral co-operation, or possibly through the EU Water Facility when it has been established. - The visit to Choma, in the southern province, and discussions with Clemens Mauel of GTZ/RODECO, and Mr. Brian Haangoma and Ms. Precious Simasiku, the Community Relations Officers of the Southern Water and Sanitation Company (SWSC), led to a direct request for assistance in carrying out a baseline study for ecological sanitation in the 4 peri-urban compounds surrounding Choma (i.e. Chandamary – approx. 2000 inhabitants, Zambia – the largest with 6000 inhabitants, Mapona and Kamunza). Procedure, Basic condition/framework, and TopicsTopics, 15.01: Arrival in Lusaka; Meeting with local organisers of the conference Simataa Nakamboa (freelancer) and Charles Chisanga (WASAZA)Programm andLectures: 16.01 – 20.01: Preparation of workshop; Evaluation of project proposals received; organisation of visit to the southern province after the workshop 21.01 – 23.01: See “congress programme” attached 24.01: Feedback meeting on the 3 day workshop with Roland Werchota, GTZ Water Sector, Simataa Nakamboa, Heinz-Peter Mang (G–Z - ecosan), Patrick Bracken (G–Z - ecosan), Cathrine Wirbelauer (DED / IUCN), Aussie Austin (CSIR), Gert de Bruijne (WASTE) 25.01: Travel to Choma, southern province, via: Soloboni - peri-urban compound where residents association – 120 members - has built a piggery for 150 pigs, a hen house, a fish pond and a fossa alterna (non-functional) on a plot of land, surrounded by gardens. Have submitted a demand to the government for assistance with sanitation which has to date not been forthcoming. Mazabuka – very densely populated peri-urban area near to a large sugar plantation. Monze, Zambia and Freedom Compounds – less densely populated area, with large amount of agriculture practised, where Southern Water and Sewage Company have begun the pilot implementation of a series of water kiosks (selling water for 18 Kwacha for 20 Litres = 0.18 Euro per m³). 26.01: Visit to Choma and surrounding peri-urban compounds, including Chandamary, Zambia, Mapona and Kamunza; Visit to the local GTZ project working with agriculturists in rural areas, to make initial contacts should any pilot activities begin. An interest was expressed in receiving more information regarding ecosan with the possibility of their participation in a local workshop, possibly with the participation of local or regional experts in ecosan; Visit to the garden of Mr. George Chama,Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 40
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report an ecosan practitioner identified during the course of the workshop; Evening – meeting with Clemens Mauel, RODECO/SWSC 27.01: Visit to the headquarters of SWSC and discussions with Clemens Mauel, Brian Haangoma, Precious Simasiku, Johnson Phiri. Outline for a possible support of ecosan activities in the area from the GTZ ecosan sector project (see initial suggestion above); Return to Lusaka 28.01: Visit to Zimbabwe compound, Chisamba, central province. Classed as peri urban but with a very rural appearance, with houses widely spaced from one another, and with maize as the main crop. Had been suggested as an ecosan pilot area in a feasibility study for central province carried out by GKW on behalf of the ADB. A total of US$49 800 has been foreseen in the implementation phase for sanitary measures in the central province; Evening, final meeting with Roland Werchota to discuss possible ways forward in the light of recent budgetary adjustments. 29.01: Departure of Patrick Bracken; Meeting at GKW between Heinz- Pete Mang and the GKW team in Lusaka (Stephen Dollery, GKW- Büroleiter, Han Seur, Katrin Bruebach, Simataa Nakamboa)Participant: See “List of participants” attached Knowledge and learning experience  Sanitation in Zambia would appear to rely on a combination of centralProfessional: sewage treatment plants, septic tanks and pit latrines. Pit latrines are by far the most common form of sanitation in rapidly growing peri-urban areas.  Vandalism of sewage pipes is costing commercial water utilities millions every year as people break open pipes to access raw sewage for agricultural purposes and there is recognition of the benefits of the use of sewage in agriculture. People often say that the best sugar cane is produced in areas where raw sewage has been used to irrigate the crops. Additionally sewage sludge is sold in Lusaka to householders who use it on their lawns.  Current sanitary systems seen by many decision makers as being insufficient and inappropriate to the needs of users and the geological conditions (rocky underground, high groundwater levels).Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 41
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final ReportAPPENDIX 6 st WORKSHOP PROGRAMME Final PROGRAMME1 National Workshop ON ECOLOGICAL sanitation, lusaka, zaMbia January 21st – 23rd, 2004Venue: Mulungushi Conference CentreOrganiser: Organised by GTZ-Lusaka and WASAZA, sponsored by GTZ-ecosanwith additional support from the World Bank - Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP) for East Africaand WASTE (The Netherlands)Contact persons: Charles Chisanga WASAZA, P.O. Box 33493, Lusaka. Zambia(Zambia) Tel: +260-1-238439; +260-95-885667 Email: wasaza@zamnet.zm www.zambia-water.org.zm/wasaza_information.htm Or Simataa Nakamboa GKW Consult, Postnet 333, Private Bag E891, Lusaka. Zambia Tel/Fax: +260-1-225768; +260-96-854033 Email: simataa@eudoramail.com Or Roland Werchota GTZ Water Programme, C/O NWASCO, P.O. Box 34358, Lusaka. Zambia. Tel: +260-1-226941/2, 238438/9, Fax: + 226904 Email: gtzwater@zamnet.zm(Germany) Heinz-Peter Mang Ecological Sanitation Project Team Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Postfach 5180, D-65726 Eschborn, Germany Tel: +49-6196-79-4222; +260-97-706636, Fax: +49-6196-79-80 4222 Email: heinz-peter.mang@gtz.de www.gtz.de/ecosanWorkshop themes: 1. The ecological sanitation concept. 2. Perspectives and requirements/framework conditions in urban areas in Zambia. 3. Lessons learnt and perspectives from a national and international point of view. 4. Dissemination of the ecological sanitation approach. 5. Ecosan – networking in Eastern and Southern Africa and why ecological sanitation now The workshop will look at ecological sanitation comprising:  Dry/source separated sanitation.  Ecological sanitation-water borne systems.  Design of feasible ecological sanitation toilets.  Rural, urban and peri-urban.  Experiences in piloting ecological sanitation systems in Zambia.Workshop objective: To provide a forum for discussion on ecological sanitation among decision/policy makers,Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 42
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report organisations and other donor agencies. The workshop will be the starting point for the promotion of ecological sanitation in Zambia. Future promotional activities are planned to take place at the following three events: 1) Copperbelt Agriculture and Commercial Show (May) 2) The Zambia International Trade Fair (July) 3) Lusaka Agriculture and Commercial Show (August)Day 1: Wednesday, 21st of January 2004 – Introduction, Official opening, pilot case studies, hygiene considerations08:00 – 09:00 Registration09:00 – 09:15 Introductions Simataa Nakamboa GKW Consult Overview of the National Environmental Sanitation09:15 – 10:00 C. Mulambo MLGH/DISS Strategy10:00 – 10:45 Toilets and Urban Agriculture infrastructure / Ethiopia Gunder Edström SUDEA - Ethiopia Water borne ecological sanitation technologies/ closing10:45 – 11:30 Mantopi Lebofa DED - Lesotho the loop on-site – experience in Lesotho11:30 – 12:00 Tea / Coffee break12:00 – 12:25 Ecological sanitation concept – an introduction Heinz-Peter Mang GTZ-ecosan Levi Zulu WASAZA Chairman Martina Bergschneider GTZ Country Director12:30 – 13:00 Official Opening Address Sylvia Masebo Minister of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) Ecological sanitation concept – an introduction cont’d13:00-13:15 Heinz-Peter Mang GTZ-ecosan after the speeches13:15 - 14:15 Lunch14:15 – 15:00 Experiences in piloting ecosan projects in Zambia Ernest Hamalila WaterAid Zambia “CBNRM-missing link”-piloting ecological sanitation in15:00 – 15:45 Botswana Catherine Wirbelauer IUCN Botswana Institutional and implementation aspects of ecological15:45 – 16:30 Patrick Bracken GTZ-ecosan sanitation in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso16:30 – 17:00 Tea / Coffee Break17:00 – 17:45 Diseases linked to poor sanitation and their prevention Dr. M. Mbewe UTH - Zambia17:45 – 18:30 Health aspect of ecological sanitation Aussie Austin CSIR South Africa Cocktails, discussion and open market space for18:30 – 20:00 ecological sanitation components – with invited companiesDay 2: Thursday, 22nd of January 2004 – Overview of different aspects of ecosan Summary of the previous day and presentation of the08:30 – 08:45 Simataa Nakamboa GKW Consult present day Directorate of Water08:45 – 09:30 Urban ecological sanitation experiences in Uganda Austin Ali Tushabe Develop. Uganda09:30 – 10:15 Effects of urban expansion on groundwater quality. H. Mpamba DWA10:15 – 10:45 Tea / Coffee break10:45 – 11:30 Urban Integrated Sustainable Resource Management Gert de Bruinje WASTE (NL)11:30 – 12:15 Design of feasible ecological sanitation toilets Aussie Austin CSIR South Africa12:15 – 13:00 Selling the ideas and gender aspect of ecosan Almaz Terrefe SUDEA - Ethiopia13:00 – 14:00 Lunch14:00 – 14:30 Agricultural aspects of ecological sanitation Heinz-Peter Mang GTZ-ecosan Technical components for ecological sanitation systems -14:30 – 15:30 Heinz-Peter Mang GTZ-ecosan world-wide examples Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 43
    • WASAZA/GTZ Final Report Simataa Nakamboa GKW Consult15:30 – 15:45 Introduction in group work Patrick Bracken, GTZ-ecosan Catherine Wirbelauer IUCN Botswana15:45 – 16:15 Tea / Coffee Break16:15 – 18:00 Group discussions – Three themesDay 3: Friday, 23rd of January 2004 – The way forward for ecosan in Zambia Summary of the previous day and presentation of the09:00 – 09:30 Simataa Nakamboa GKW Consult present day Ecological sanitation in peri-urban areas – main09:30 – 10:15 Brian Hangoma, SWSC opportunities and constraints10:15 – 10:45 Tea / Coffee break10:45 – 11:30 The Regulator and issues of ecological sanitation O. M. Chanda NWASCO The General Way Forward for ecological sanitation in11:30 – 12:15 Pamela Chisanga WaterAid Zambia Zambia Group presentation and Recommendations from12:15 – 13:00 workshop participants on ecological sanitation development in Zambia Heinz-Peter Mang GTZ Ecosan Gert de Bruinje WASTE (NL)13:00 – 14:00 Closing remarks T. C. Chanda stood in MLGH/DISS for P. Lubambo Simataa Nakamboa GKW Consult14:00 – 15:00 Lunch Chisanga Charles and Simataa Nakamboa 44