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  • CEFRIEL-DEI_DellaValle-Facca_SWE-ET

    1. 1. S EMANTIC W EB E ENGINEERING -E ENVIRONMENT & T OOLS MODEL-DRIVEN SEMANTIC WEB SERVICE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>TEAM </li></ul><ul><li>M. Brambilla, A. Carenini, I. Celino, S. Ceri, D. Cerizza, E. Della Valle, F. M. Facca and A. Turati </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca Emanuele Della Valle CEFRIEL – Politecnico di Milano email: [email_address] web: http://swa.cefriel.it Federico M. Facca Politecnico di Milano email: [email_address] web: http://www.webml.org LECTURERS
    2. 2. IT should be responsive to change! IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Today’s IT architectures, arcane as they may be, are the biggest roadblocks most companies face when making strategic moves . --- McKinsey “ Flexible IT, Better Strategy” “ It is not necessarily the strongest of the species that survives nor the most intelligent , but the one that is most responsive to change .” --- Charles Darwin
    3. 3. Two roads: SOA or Web 2.0? IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    4. 4. SOA unique selling points IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Relative costs Adoption Deployment Maintenance Changes [source ZapThink http://www.zapthink.com/] Costs of different EAI approces Custom Integration Proprietary EAI solutions Web Services based EAI solutions SOA based EAI solutions
    5. 5. … mature integration model IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca 5/43 1 2 3 4 5 silos object component service SOA Maturità del modello di integrazione infrastructure architecture applications method IT seen from the business Function oriented modules structured Close platforms monolitic Function oriented modules Object oriented Close platforms a layers Function oriented components Component based Open platforms Component-based Service oriented service Service modeling W eb S ervices Client-server Service oriented Business Process made of services IT process modeling Web Services SOA
    6. 6. SOA allows to open-up the silos <ul><li>A common problem faced by EAI is the integration of different existing application silos. </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 […] Silos 1 Silos 2 Silos N
    7. 7. SOA allows to open-up the silos <ul><li>… by identifying common components deployed in multiple silos and … </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 […] Silos 1 Silos 2 Silos N
    8. 8. SOA allows to open-up the silos IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Silos 1 Shared Services Outsourced Services Provider Customer Silos 2 … by rationalizing the architecture.
    9. 9. SOA provide great plumbing! IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    10. 10. <ul><li>WIKIs </li></ul><ul><li>Social Tagging </li></ul><ul><li>C2C e-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>User Review </li></ul>Web 2.0 is a collection of success stories! <ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Pod Casting </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    11. 11. Web 2.0 success factors <ul><li>Services, not packaged software </li></ul><ul><li>cost-effective scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Control over data sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unique, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard-to-recreate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that get richer as more people use them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trusting users as co-developers </li></ul><ul><li>Harnessing collective intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging the long tail through customer self-service </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business models </li></ul></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    12. 12. Web 2.0 provide great plumbing! IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    13. 13. Can SOA and Web 2.0 get combined? IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 SOA Web 2.0 plan design implement monitor
    14. 14. Similarities and differences IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Web 2.0 SOA Software as service = Software as service Interoperability achieved using existing Web standards in new ways (i.e., Ajax + REST service) = Interoperability achieved proposing new “Web” standards (i.e., SOAP, WSDL, UDDI) Accent on platform = Accent on platform Encurage re-use  Allow re-use Rich and lightweight user interfaces  No user interfaces Participation  Governance
    15. 15. SOA and Web 2.0 nicely fit together! IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca Fonte: Babak Hosseinzadeh, IBM /43
    16. 16. Mash-up based on SOA: great plumbing! IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca Mash-up SOA /43
    17. 17. Is pluming enough? IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    18. 18. The problem is in the semantics! IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 to know what that format is. You have to agree on what the business objects look like. And no one has come up with a feasible way to work that out yet ...“ Oracle Chairman and CEO - Larry Ellison &quot; Semantic differences remain the primary roadblock to smooth application integration , one which Web Services alone won't over-come. Until someone finds a way for applications to understand each other, the effect of Web services technology will be fairly limited. When I pass customer data across in a certain format using a Web Services interface, the receiving program has The problem is not in the plumbing, it is in the semantics ” Verizon Chief Scientist - M . L . Brodie
    19. 19. The great challenge <ul><li>The process is not trivial. For each task </li></ul><ul><li>the most convenient service or data source is discovered either at design-time or at run-time . Heterogeneity in exchanged data and service behaviours is handled automatically. </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Integration Business Process Services Buyer 3rd Party Shipment Web as a world scale platform […] […] […] Mediator Mediator Legacy Mediator Mediator Comm. Mediator Mediator Mediator Mediator Mediator Mediator Legacy Mediator Mediator Legacy Mediator Mediator Mediator Mediator Comm. Mediator Comm. Mediator Mediator Mediator
    20. 20. Coping with complexity… IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Inspired by: J. Cardoso, C. Bussler, A. Sheth, D. Fensel, Semantic Web Services and Processes , October 2002 A4 A1 A4 A1 A2 A1 A2 A1 B3 A4 A2 A1 B3 A1 B3 A1 A1 A2 A1 A4 A4 A2 A1 A4 A4 A2 A1 A2 A2 A1 B3 A1 A1 A2 A1 A1 A1 B3 A1 A1 A1 A1 A4 A4 A4 A1 A1 A2 A1 A4 A1 A1 A1 A1 B3 B3 A2 A4 A1 A1 A2 A1 A1 A2 A1 A1 A1 A1 B3 A4 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A4 B3 B3 B3 B3 A1 B3 A4 B3 A1 A4 A1 A4 A2 A2 A1 A1 A1 A1 A4 A1 A1 A1 A2 A1 A4 A1 A4 B3 A1 A1 A4 A2 A4 A1 A1 A2 B3 A1 A2 A2 A1 A1 B3 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A4 B3 A2 A1 A4 A1 A1 A1 A4 A1 B3 A1 A2 A2 A1 A4 A2 A1 A2 A1 A1 A1 A2 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 B3 B3 A4 A4 A1 A4 A2 A1 A4 If you have few services and data source you want to support several simple mashup But, if you have lot of services and data sources and you want to support complex business process? B8 A1 A4 A1 A2 A4 B3 A1 A4 A6 A2 A5 A4 A1 A4 A1 A1 B3 B3 A1 A1 B3 A1 A1 A4 A4 A1 A1 A4 A1 A2 A1 B3 A1 A4 A4 A1 A2 A2 B3 A2 Few services and data sources Simple mashup Lot of complex services and data sources Complex Business Process A ? C D N1 N2 F E
    21. 21. Where semantics is in SOA? <ul><li>In concrete situation a strong agreement on semantics is needed </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Publish Service provider Service requester Discovery Agencies Discover Interact Provider Human Requester Human Provider Entity Requester Entity WSD + WSD + Sem AGREE WSD ? Sem ? Sem
    22. 22. Could machine process semantics? <ul><li>We need some mechanism for encoding semantics in a machine processable way </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Discovery Agencies Publish Service provider Service requester Interact Provider Human Requester Human Provider Entity Requester Entity AGREE Sem Discover + Sem WSD ! WSD + Sem WSD WSD + Sem WSD ? Sem WSD + Sem WSD
    23. 23. We may use Semantic Web technologies <ul><li>Il Semantic Web offers </li></ul><ul><li>ontologies ( ) to share the formal agreement among human and machines </li></ul><ul><li>metadata ( ) to make semantics machine processable </li></ul><ul><li>mediators ( ) to bypass heterogeneity </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Discovery Agencies Publish Service provider Service requester Interact Provider Human Requester Human Provider Entity Requester Entity AGREE Sem Discover + Sem WSD ontologia WSD + Sem WSD WSD + Sem WSD ? Sem WSD + Sem WSD META META META META META META
    24. 24. e.g., WSMO: W eb S ervice M odeling O ntology <ul><li>WSMO consists of four different main elements for describing semantic web services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ontologies ( ) that provide the terminology used by other elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>goals ( ) that define the problems that should be solved by web services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>web services ( ) descriptions that define various aspects of a web service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mediators ( ) which bypass interpretability problems. </li></ul></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 WSMO language WSMO execution G
    25. 25. A Semantic Web Service Challenge IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 http://sws-challenge.org sponsored by organized by Mediation Discovery
    26. 26. State-of-the-art and SWE-ET innovation <ul><li>Semantic Web Services (SWS) have a great potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easy web service discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automatic web service integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easy interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Till now SWS are rarely used in practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>annotations are an extra cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Engineering (SE) tools and methodologies can push the use of SWS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>model driven development techniques can be improved to include annotation and generate Semantic Web Services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SWE-ET key innovations are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a SE approach in developing SWS application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a comprehensive set of tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automatic generation of semantic annotations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integration of Semantic Web Service Discovery </li></ul></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    27. 27. The SWE-ET approach IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Business Process Modeling Software (Web) engineering http://www.bpmn.org/ BPMN http://www.webml.org/ Semantic Web Services SWE-ET http://www.wsmo.org/ S emantic W eb (services) E ngineering E nvironment and T ool http://glue.cefrie.it
    28. 28. WebML and WebRatio at work IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 /43 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca
    29. 29. GLUE as discovery engine <ul><li>GLUE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a WSMO compliant discovery engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it aims at developing an efficient system for the manage- ment of Semantic Web Services and their discovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adopts a mediator centric approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provider and requester don’t have necessarily to agree on using the same set ontologies in describing their goals and Web Services, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But , they only have to agree in using compatible ontologies and in coding how to bypass heterogeneity using mediators: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ggMediators are used for goal refinement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wgMediators are used for discovery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 c 2 a c 5 c 1 c 2 c 3 c 4 a b b b c 2 REQUESTER PROVIDERS ggMediator (goal refinement) wgMediator (discovery) Class of WS C Class of Goals A Class of Goals B
    30. 30. SWE-ET: Extended WebML framework IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 SWS WebML S emantic W eb S ervice Application
    31. 31. The SWE-ET development process <ul><li>We adopt a development process in line with the classic Boehm’s Spiral model extended with semantic importing and annotation. </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Reuse of existing ontological data source Specialized units for advanced queries over semantic data and annotation extraction
    32. 32. Model-Driven SWS application development <ul><li>The result is a top-down approach to the development of applications employing Semantic Web Services, that combines semantic methods and tools with Software Engineering ones. </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 WSML Goal WSML WS Choreography WSML WS Capability WSML Ontology Ontology importing and/or semantic annotation Automatic code generation Business process modeling WF-driven WebML generator Web application modeling BPMN model WebML skeleton Running application WebML data model WebML hypertext model WSML Ontology Generator WSML WS Capabilty Generator WSML WS Chor. Generator WSML Goal Cap. Generator
    33. 33. the discovery scenario <ul><li>Problem statement: find the best shipment service keeping into account: </li></ul><ul><li>pick up location and time (espressed in accordance with timezone), </li></ul><ul><li>destination and expected delivery date-time, </li></ul><ul><li>price (expressed in $, €, ect.), </li></ul><ul><li>weigth and dimension (also expressed in different units) </li></ul>29 Novembre 2006, La dimensione semantica dell’IT, Roma Author: E. Della Valle - SWA © CEFRIEL-DEI /43 Read out more: http://sws-challenge.org/wiki/index.php/Scenario:_Shipment_Discovery Discovery
    34. 34. SWE-ET at work BPMN modeling <ul><li>We used the WebML Business Process Modeling tool to model the discovery process that was informally described by the SWS challenge organizers </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    35. 35. SWE-ET at work Design of the Data Model in WebML <ul><li>We model the shipment ontology in WebML using its extended Entity-Relationship and constraint language. </li></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 ShipmentService where ShipmentService.shipTo not in ShipmentService . locatedIn Self TO Europe where Self.locatedIn isa Europe
    36. 36. SWE-ET at work Extraction of the Ontologies <ul><li>The expressivity of WebML is close to WSML-Flight </li></ul><ul><li>This makes converting WebML data models in WSML Flight easy. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concept EuropeanShipmentService subConceptOf InternationalShipmentService </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nfp dc#relation hasValue { EuShipmentServiceDef } endnfp </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>axiom EuShipmentServiceDef </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definedBy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>?x memberOf InternationlShipmentService and hasLocation(?x,?nation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and ?nation memberOf Europe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>implies ?x memberOf EuropeanShipmentService. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 InternationalShipmentService( as SuperEntity ) where InternationalShipmentService.hasLocation isa Europe
    37. 37. <ul><li>Once the business process is designed, workflow constraints are turned into navigation constraints among the hypertext activities pages and into data queries on the workflow metadata for checking the status of the process . </li></ul><ul><li>This applies both to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the human-consumed pieces of contents (i.e., site interfaces) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to the machine-consumed contents (i.e., Services interactions). </li></ul></ul>SWE-ET at work Design of User and Service Interfaces IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    38. 38. Semantics coded in the Discovery Engine <ul><li>SOA Aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal come proposto in WSMO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Service come proposto in WSMO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WebService-to-Goal-Mediator in cui sono codificate le regole di matching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporal Aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concept dateAndTime subConceptOf instant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>date ofType (1 1) date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time ofType (1 1) time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>axiom beforeDateAndTime definedBy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>before(?x,?y) :-?x[date hasValue ?xd, time hasValue ?xt] memberOf dateAndTime and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ?y[date hasValue ?yd, time hasValue ?yt] memberOf dateAndTime and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (before(?xd,?yd) or (equal(?xd,?yd) and before(?xt,?yt))). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographical Aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concept location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concept worldwide subConceptOf location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concept europe subConceptOf worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>axiom check ContainmentOf PickupLocation definedBy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>satisfied(?request, ?provider) :- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>?request[pickupLocation hasValue ?x] and ?provider[pickupLocations hasValue ?y] and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(?x = ?y or ?x subConceptOf ?y). </li></ul></ul>29 Novembre 2006, La dimensione semantica dell’IT, Roma Author: E. Della Valle - SWA © CEFRIEL-DEI /43
    39. 39. DEMO: Glue at work IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Try it! http://webml.org/sws-challenge.html
    40. 40. Awards related to SWE-ET IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43 Links: http://sws-challenge.org/wiki/index.php/Workshop_Budva#Evaluation http://www-304.ibm.com/jct09002c/university/scholars/it/faculty_awards.html http://www.webml.org http://www.webratio.com http://glue.cefrie.it The most complete solution of Faculty Award 2006
    41. 41. Conclusions A comprehensive method and tool <ul><li>SWE-ET is an approach for designing Semantic Web applications by exploiting software engineering techniques . </li></ul><ul><li>It offers a complete method for the semi-automatic extraction of WSMO elements by using existing software engineering abstractions. It supports the extraction of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WSML Flight Ontologies from the WebML data model and their registration as shared resources in WSMX . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WSMO Web Services functional capabilities for each Web Service modelled in WebML; non-functional capabilities should be added manually . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WSMO Web Services Choreography interfaces by combining information in the Business Process Model and in the WebML hypertext model . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WSMO goals (e.g., goals that triggers the Glue discovery engine) by gathering data required to perform a given action of the business process </li></ul></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    42. 42. Conclusions Future Work <ul><li>With the current implementation of SWE-ET we provide a comprehensive methodology and a self-contained design approach for Semantic Web Service applications, but it lacks importing facilities for WSMO elements. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to overcome such limitation our next steps are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>providing the possibility of importing ontologies , services and mediators descriptions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defining a set of new WebML primitives for querying ontological information , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incorporating WSMO elements as “first-class citizens” in the design process , lifting them up in the artifacts design hierarchy, so as to further improve and simplify the design of native WSMO elements. </li></ul></ul>IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca /43
    43. 43. Thank you for paying attention. IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA USA 2-11-2007 E. Della Valle and F.M. Facca Any Question ? /43

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