homeostais and body_fluid
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homeostais and body_fluid Presentation Transcript

  • 1. HomeostasisHomeostasis
  • 2.  Physiology: study the functions of living things
  • 3. Body Fluid Compartments  Cells contained in watery internal environment: life- sustaining exchanges occur  Extracellular fluid (ECF): Fluid outside the cells Plasma Interstitial fluid  Intracellular fluid (ICF): Fluid contained within the cells
  • 4. Homeostasis  Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment  Internal environment is the extracellular fluid  Essential for survival and function of all cells
  • 5. Homeostasis  Factors Homeostatically Regulated:  Concentration of nutrient molecules  Concentration of O2 and CO2  Concentration of waste products  Concentration of water, salt, and other electrolytes  Volume and pressure  pH  Temperature
  • 6. Homeostasis  All the systems of the body work together to maintain homeostasis:  Gastrointestinal, Respiratory systems Obtaining nutrients and O2  Circulatory system  Transport  Respiratory, Renal systems  Removal of waste and metabolic end products  Nervous and Endocrine systems Regulation
  • 7. Homeostasis
  • 8. Homeostatic Control Systems  Functionally interconnected network of body components that operate to maintain a given factor in the internal environment relatively constant around an optimal level
  • 9. Homeostatic Control Systems Components: Sensor: Detects deviation from set point Integrating (control) center: Compares input with set point & determines response Effecter: Produces response
  • 10. Homeostatic Control Systems  Feedforward:  Term used for responses made in anticipation of a change  Feedback:  Refers to responses made after change has been detected  Types of feedback systems  Negative Feedback  Positive Feedback
  • 11. Homeostatic Control Systems  Negative Feedback:  Primary type of homeostatic control  Opposes initial change
  • 12. Homeostatic Control Systems  Negative Feedback:
  • 13. Homeostatic Control Systems  Positive Feedback:  amplifies an initial change  An output is enhanced  A controlled variable moves in the direction of an initial change
  • 14. Homeostatic Control Systems  Positive Feedback:  One example occurs during the birth of a baby
  • 15. Body FluidBody Fluid
  • 16. Body fluid  On average, body fluids constitute 60% of total body weight  In the average 70 Kg adult male is about 42 L
  • 17. Body fluid  Variation in water content:  Variation due to age: total body water (TBW)  with increasing age, by age of 60 years it becomes 50 %  Variation between tissues:  Most tissues are water-rich and contain 70-80% water  Plasma contains >90% water  Fat is the driest tissue of all, having only 10% water content  Variation between individuals:  TBW in a standard male is 60% of his body weight, while in female, its 55%, due to higher fat content  Obese adults have lower percentage
  • 18. Body Fluid Compartments  TBW represent about 60% of total body weight:  Intracellular fluid (ICF):  fluid within the cells  about 2/3 of TBW (40%)  Extracellular fluid (ECF):  fluid outside the cells  About 1/3 of TBW (20%)
  • 19. Body Fluid Compartments
  • 20. Body Fluid Compartments
  • 21. Body Fluid Compartments
  • 22. Body Fluid Compartments
  • 23. Body Fluid Compartments
  • 24. Body Fluid Compartments ICF differs considerably from ECF
  • 25. Body is in fluid balance  Daily intake of water:  Fluid intake (1.250 mL/day)  Food intake (1000 ml/day)  Metabolically produced H2O (350mL/day)  Daily loss of body water:  Insensible water loss (900ml/day)  Fluid loss in sweat (100ml/day)  Water loss in feces (100ml/day)  Water loss by kidney (1500 ml/day) Total intake (2600ml/day) Total output (2600ml/day)
  • 26. Body is in fluid balance  In a steady state, the osmolarity in ECF is the same as in ICF  Normally, cells neither shrink or swell because intracellular and interstitial fluids have the same osmolarity (280 mmol/L)  Increasing osmolarity of ECF draws water out of cells and cells shrink  Decreasing osmolarity of ECF draw water inside of cells and causes cells to swell