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  • FIGURE 15-1: An example of hydrolysis. In this example, the disaccharide maltose (the intermediate breakdown product of polysaccharides) is broken down into two glucose molecules by the addition of H2O at the bond site.
  • TABLE 15-1: Anatomy and Functions of Components of the Digestive System.
  • TABLE 15-1: Anatomy and Functions of Components of the Digestive System.
  • FIGURE 15-2: Layers of the digestive tract wall. The digestive tract wall consists of four major layers: from the innermost out, they are the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa.
  • FIGURE 15-3: Summary of pathways controlling digestive system activities.
  • FIGURE 15-4: Control of salivary secretion.
  • FIGURE 15-5: Oropharyngeal stage of swallowing. (a) Position of the oropharyngeal structures at rest.
  • FIGURE 15-5: Oropharyngeal stage of swallowing. (b) Changes that occur during the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing to prevent the bolus of food from entering the wrong passageways.
  • FIGURE 15-6: Peristalsis in the esophagus. As the wave of peristaltic contraction sweeps down the esophagus, it pushes the bolus ahead of it toward the stomach.
  • FIGURE 15-7: Anatomy of the stomach. The stomach is divided into three sections based on structural and functional distinctions—the fundus, body, and antrum. The mucosal lining of the stomach is divided into the oxyntic mucosa and the pyloric gland area based on differences in glandular secretion.
  • FIGURE 15-8: Gastric emptying and mixing as a result of antral peristaltic contractions.
  • FIGURE 15-8: Gastric emptying and mixing as a result of antral peristaltic contractions.
  • TABLE 15-3: The Stomach Mucosa and the Gastric Glands.
  • TABLE 15-3: The Stomach Mucosa and the Gastric Glands.
  • TABLE 15-3: The Stomach Mucosa and the Gastric Glands.
  • FIGURE 15-9: Pepsinogen activation in the stomach lumen. In the lumen, hydrochloric acid (HCl) activates pepsinogen to its active form, pepsin, by cleaving off a small fragment. Once activated, pepsin autocatalytically activates more pepsinogen and begins protein digestion. Secretion of pepsinogen in the inactive form prevents it from digesting the protein structures of the cells in which it is produced.
  • FIGURE 15-10: Gastric mucosal barrier.
  • FIGURE 15-11: Schematic representation of the exocrine and endocrine portions of the pancreas. The exocrine pancreas secretes into the duodenal lumen a digestive juice composed of digestive enzymes secreted by the acinar cells and an aqueous NaHCO3 solution secreted by the duct cells. The endocrine pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
  • FIGURE 15-12: Hormonal control of pancreatic exocrine secretion.
  • FIGURE 15-13: Schematic representation of liver blood flow.
  • FIGURE 15-14: Anatomy of the liver. (a) Hepatic lobule.
  • FIGURE 15-14: Anatomy of the liver. (b) Wedge of a hepatic lobule.
  • FIGURE 15-15: Enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. The majority of bile salts are recycled between the liver and small intestine through the enterohepatic circulation (blue arrows). After participating in fat digestion and absorption, most bile salts are reabsorbed by active transport in the terminal ileum and returned through the hepatic portal vein to the liver, which resecretes them in the bile.
  • FIGURE 15-16: Schematic structure and function of bile salts. (a) Schematic representation of the structure of bile salts and their adsorption on the surface of a small fat droplet. A bile salt consists of a lipid-soluble part that dissolves in the fat droplet and a negatively charged, water-soluble part that projects from the surface of the droplet.
  • FIGURE 15-16: Schematic structure and function of bile salts. (b) Formation of a lipid emulsion through the action of bile salts. When a large fat droplet is broken up into smaller fat droplets by intestinal contractions, bile salts adsorb on the surface of the small droplets, creating shells of negatively charged, water-soluble bile salt components that cause the fat droplets to repel each other. This action holds the fat droplets apart and prevents them from recoalescing, increasing the surface area of exposed fat available for digestion by pancreatic lipase.
  • FIGURE 15-17: Schematic representation of a micelle. Bile constituents (bile salts, lecithin, and cholesterol) aggregate to form micelles that consist of a hydrophilic (water-soluble) shell and a hydrophobic (lipid-soluble) core. Because the outer shell of a micelle is water soluble, the products of fat digestion, which are not water soluble, can be carried through the watery luminal contents to the absorptive surface of the small intestine by dissolving in the micelle’s lipid-soluble core.
  • FIGURE 15-18: Segmentation. Segmentation consists of ringlike contractions along the length of the small intestine. Within a matter of seconds, the contracted segments relax and the previously relaxed areas contract. These oscillating contractions thoroughly mix the chyme within the small-intestine lumen.
  • FIGURE 15-19: Control of the ileocecal valve/sphincter. The juncture between the ileum and large intestine is the ileocecal valve, which is surrounded by thickened smooth muscle, the ileocecal sphincter. Pressure on the cecal side pushes the valve closed and contracts the sphincter, preventing the bacteria-laden colonic contents from contaminating the nutrient-rich small intestine. The valve/sphincter opens and allows ileal contents to enter the large intestine in response to pressure on the ileal side of the valve and to the hormone gastrin secreted as a new meal enters the stomach.
  • FIGURE 15-20: Small-intestine absorptive surface. (a) Gross structure of the small intestine. (b) One of the circular folds of the small-intestine mucosa, which collectively increase the absorptive surface area threefold.
  • FIGURE 15-20: Small-intestine absorptive surface. (c) Microscopic fingerlike projection known as a villus. Collectively, the villi increase the surface area another tenfold. (d) Electron microscope view of a villus epithelial cell, depicting the presence of microvilli on its luminal border; the microvilli increase the surface area another 20-fold. Altogether, these surface modifications increase the small intestine’s absorptive surface area 600-fold.
  • FIGURE 15-23: Fat digestion and absorption.
  • FIGURE 15-24: Anatomy of the large intestine.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Fig. 15-CO, p. 464 Digestive System Body systems maintain homeostasis Homeostasis is essential for survival of cells Cells Cells make up body systems Homeostasis
    • 2. Fig. 15-1, p. 466 Maltose GlucoseGlucose
    • 3. Table 15-1, pp. 468-46 Nasal passages Mouth Salivary glands Pharynx Pharngoesophageal sphincter Trachea Esophagus
    • 4. Table 15-1, pp. 468-46 Gastroesophageal sphincter Liver Stomach Gallbladder Pancreas Duodenum Descending colon Transverse colon Ascending colon Jejunum Cecum lleum Appendix Sigmoid colon Anus Rectum
    • 5. Fig. 15-2, p. 470 Body wall Peritoneum Mesentery Serosa Submucosa Duct of large accessory digestive gland (i.e., liver or pancreas) emptying into digestive tract lumen Outer longitudinal muscle Inner circular muscle Muscularis externa Lamina propria Mucous membrane Muscularis mucosa Myenteric plexus Submucous plexus Lumen Mucosa
    • 6. Fig. 15-3, p. 471 External influence Local changes in digestive tract Receptors in digestive tract Intrinsic nerve plexuses Extrinsic automatic nerves Gastrointestinal hormones Smooth muscle (contraction for motility) Exocrine gland cells (secretion of digestive juices) Endocrine gland cells (secretion of gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones) Self- excitable = Short reflex = Long reflex = Hormonal pathway
    • 7. Fig. 15-4, p. 473 Cerebral cortex Other inputs Salivary center in medulla Conditioned reflex Pressure receptors and chemoreceptors in mouth Simple reflex Autonomic nerves Salivary glands Salivary secretions
    • 8. Fig. 15-5a, p. 474 Nasal passages Hard palate Soft palate Uvula Pharynx Epiglottis Esophagus Trachea Bolus Tongue Glottis at entrance of larynx
    • 9. Fig. 15-5b, p. 474 Tight apposition of vocal folds across glottis prevents food from entering respiratory airways (viewed from above) Swallowing center inhabits respiratory center in brain stem Elevation of uvula prevents food from entering nasal passages Position of tongue prevents food from re-entering mouth Epiglottis is pressed down over closed glottis as auxiliary mechanism to prevent food from entering airways
    • 10. Bolus Fig. 15-6, p. 475 Ringlike peristaltic contraction sweeping down the esophagus
    • 11. Fig. 15-7, p. 476 Esophagus Fundus Smooth muscle Oxyntic mucosa Antrum Pyloric gland area Duodenum Pyloric sphincter Stomach folds Body Gastroesophageal sphincter
    • 12. Fig. 15-8a, p. 477 Esophagus Duodenum Pyloric sphincter Stomach Gastroesophageal sphincter Movement of chyme Peristaltic contraction Direction of movement of peristaltic contraction Gastric emptying
    • 13. Fig. 15-8b, p. 477 Gastric mixing Peristaltic contraction
    • 14. Table 15-2, p. 478
    • 15. Table 15-3, p. 480
    • 16. Table 15-3 (1), p. 480 Oxyntic mucosa Pyloric gland area Stomach lumen Gastric pit Mucosa Submucosa
    • 17. Table 15-3 (2), p. 480 In oxyntic mucosa Gastric pit Gastric gland Surface epithelial cells Mucosa cells Chief cells Parietal cells Enterochomaffin- like (ECL) cells In pyloric gland area G cells D cells
    • 18. Fig. 15-9, p. 482 Autocatalysis Digestion Protein Peptide fragments Gastric lumen HCI Pepsinogen Pepsin
    • 19. Table 15-4, p. 483
    • 20. Table 15-5, p. 484
    • 21. Fig. 15-10, p. 484 Mucus coating Impermeable to HCI Cells lining gastric mucosa (including those lining gastric pits and glands)Submucosa Tight junction Luminal contents
    • 22. Fig. 15-11, p. 487 Duodenum Bile duct from liver Stomach Hormones (insulin, glucagon) Blood Endocrine portion of pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) The glandular portions of the pancreas are grossly exaggerated Duct cells secrete aqueous NaHCO3 solution Acinar cells secrete digestive enzymes Exocrine portion of panaceas (Acinar and duct cells)
    • 23. Fig. 15-12, p. 488 Acid in duodenal lumen Fat and protein products in duodenal lumen Secretion release from duodenal mucosa CCK release from duodenal mucosa (Secretin carried by blood) Pancreatic acinar cells Secretion of aqueous NaHCO3 solution into duodenal lumen Secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes into duodenal lumen Pancreatic duct cells Neutralizes Digests(CCK carried by blood)
    • 24. Fig. 15-13, p. 489 Heart Aorta Inferior vena cava Hepatic vein Hepatic artery Liver sinusoids Liver Hepatic portal vein Digestive capillaries Digestive tract Arteries to digestive tract
    • 25. Fig. 15-14a, p. 490 Branch of hepatic portal vein Bile duct Sinusoids Branch of hepatic artery Bile canaliculi Central vein Cords of hepatocytes (liver cells) Hepatic portal vein Hepatic artery To hepatic duct
    • 26. Fig. 15-14b, p. 490 Branch of hepatic artery Branch of hepatic portal vein Connective tissue Kupffer cell Bile canaliculi Sinusoids Central vein Hepatic plate Cords of hepatocytes (liver cells) Bile duct
    • 27. Fig. 15-15, p. 490 Bile salts Cholesterol Liver Common bile duct Duodenum Gallbladder Sphincter of Oddi Portal circulation Terminal ileum Colon
    • 28. Fig. 15-16a, p. 491 Negativity charged H2O-soluble portion (a carboxyl group at the end of a glycine or taurine chain) Lipid-soluble portion (derived from cholesterol) Small lipid (fat) droplet with bile salt molecules absorbed on its surface
    • 29. Fig. 15-16b, p. 491 Large fat droplet Through action of bile salts Lipid emulsion
    • 30. Fig. 15-17, p. 492 Hydrophobic core Hydrophilic shell All lipid-soluble Cholesterol Bile salt Water-soluble portion Lipid-soluble portion Water-soluble portion Lipid-soluble portion Lecithin
    • 31. Fig. 15-18, p. 493
    • 32. Fig. 15-19, p. 495 Ascending colon Ileocecal valve Pushes valve closed and contracts sphincter Cecum Gastrin Ileocecal sphincter Pushes valve open and relaxes sphincter Ileum Appendix New meal
    • 33. Table 15-6, p. 496
    • 34. Fig. 15-20ab, p. 497 Circular fold Villus (Continue to next slide)
    • 35. Fig. 15-20cd, p. 497 Epithelial cell Mucous cell Central lacteal Capillaries Crypt of Lieberkühn Arteriole Venule Lymphatic vessel Microvilli
    • 36. Fig. 15-23, p. 500 Lipid emulsion Micelles Epithelial cell of villus Lumen (Exocytosis) Central lacteal Aggregate and coated with lipoprotien Short or medium chain Basement membrane Capillary Lumen Micelles diffusion Micelle Microvillus Fatty acids, monoglycerides Passive absorption
    • 37. Table 15-7, p. 501
    • 38. Fig. 15-24, p. 502 Transverse colon Haustra Descending colon Sigmoid colon External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle) Anal sphincter Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle) Rectum Appendix Cecum Ileocecal valve Ascending colon Taeniae coli
    • 39. Click to view animation. Esophageal Phase Animation
    • 40. Click to view animation. Gastric Mixing Animation
    • 41. Click to view animation. Oropharyngeal Stage Animation
    • 42. Click to view animation. Segmentation Animation

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