Tooth development

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For first year dental student, i got this from the internet.. Hope this can help u guys understand more about the tooth development.. Btw, good luck for minitest OB tomorrow.. No sacrifice, no victory!

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Tooth development

  1. 1. Development of Teeth Dr. Khaldoun Darwich Specialist in Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery – Hamburg University PhD – Hamburg University Academic Teacher - Department of OMF Surgery in Damascus University Instructor and Academic Advisor in IUST
  2. 2. Overview Initiation of Tooth development Stages of tooth development Development of the dental papilla Dentinogenesis Amelogenesis Crown Maturation Development of the Tooth Root Development of supporting structures
  3. 3. Each of us began life as a single cell, a zygote. The zygote produces a ball of cells (the morula) which in turn produces the Human embryo. However, the actual development of Teeth starts at approximately 6-7 weeks after conception.
  4. 4. In the human 20 primary and 32 permanent teeth develop from the interaction of the oral epithelial cells and the underlying mesenchymal cells .
  5. 5. Each tooth develops through three successive early stages : 1. Bud stage. 2. Cap stage. 3. Bell stage.
  6. 6. During these early stages the tooth germs grow and expand and the cells that are to form the hard tissues of the teeth differentiate. Differentiation takes place in the bell stage setting the stage for enamel and dentin formation
  7. 7. As the crowns are formed and mineralized the roots of the teeth begin to form After the roots calcify the supporting tissues of the teeth (the cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone) begin to develop Subsequently the completed tooth crown erupts into the oral cavity
  8. 8. Root formation and cementogenesis continue until a functional tooth and its supporting structures are fully developed
  9. 9. Developmentally missing permanent teeth can be a result of a genetic abnormality. When fewer than 6 teeth are missing it is termed Hypodontia When more than 6 teeth are missing it is oligodontia
  10. 10. Oligodontia Severe dental agenesis (oligodontia). In this case lack of most permanent teeth (indicated by arrows
  11. 11. Teeth develop from 2 types of cells: 1- oral epithelial cells form the enamel organ 2- mesenchymal cells form the dental papilla in addition the neural crest cells contribute to tooth development
  12. 12. The first sign of tooth formation is the development of dental lamina rising from the oral epithelium
  13. 13. Dental lamina Bud Cap Bell Appositional ….
  14. 14. The Dental lamina develops into a sheet of epithelial cells that pushes into the underlying mesenchyme around the perimeter of both the maxillary and mandibular jaws .
  15. 15. At the leading edge of the lamina 20 areas of enlargement appear which form tooth buds for the 20 primary teeth . After primary teeth develop from the buds the leading edge of the lamina continues to grow to develop the permanent teeth , which succeed the 20 primary teeth . This part of the lamina is called the successional lamina
  16. 16. The lamina continues posteriorly into the elongating jaw and from it come the posterior teeth , which form behind the primary teeth . In this manner 20 of the permanent teeth replace the 20 primary teeth and 12 posterior permanent molars develop behind the primary dentition The last teeth to develop are the 3rd molars , which develop about 15 years after birth
  17. 17. The lamina continues posteriorly into the elongating jaw and from it come the posterior teeth , which form behind the primary teeth . In this manner 20 of the permanent teeth replace the 20 primary teeth and 12 posterior permanent molars develop behind the primary dentition The last teeth to develop are the 3rd molars , which develop about 15 years after birth
  18. 18. the primary teeth and permanent molars form from the general lamina The anterior permanent teeth which succeed the primary teeth form from the successional lamina The initiating dental lamina that forms both the successional and general lamina begins to function in the 6th prenatal week and continues to function until the 15th year producing all 52 teeth
  19. 19. Each tooth develops through three successive early stages : 1. Bud stage. 2. Cap stage. 3. Bell stage. Each stage is defined according to the shape of the epithelial enamel organ which is a part of the developing tooth
  20. 20. Is a rounded localized growth of epithelial cells surrounded by proliferating mesenchymal cells.
  21. 21. Gradually as the rounded epithelial bud enlarges it gains a concave surface.
  22. 22. Cap stage The epithelial cells become the enamel organ The mesenchyme forms the dental papilla The tissue surrounding these 2 structures is the dental follicle ©Copyright 2007, Thomas G. Hollinger, Gainesville, Fl
  23. 23. After further growth of the papilla and the enamel organ the tooth reaches the morphodifferentiation and histodifferentiation stage also known as the bell stage. At this stage the inner enamel epithelial cells are characterized by the shape of the tooth they form
  24. 24. The cells of the enamel organ have differentiated into the outer enamel epithelial cells which cover the enamel organ , and inner enamel epithelial cells which become the ameloblasts that form the enamel of the tooth crown Between the 2 cell layers are the stellate reticulum cells, which are star shaped with processes attached to each other
  25. 25. A fourth layer in the enamel organ is composed of stratum intermedium cells , which lie adjacent to the inner enamel epithelial cells. They assist the ameloblast in the formation of enamel The function of the outer enamel epithelial cells is to organize a network of cappillaries that will bring nutrition to the ameloblasts
  26. 26. Bell Stage Oral Histology, 5th edition, A R Ten Cate ©Copyright 2007, Thomas G. Hollinger, Gainesville, Fl
  27. 27. ©Copyright 2007, Thomas G. Hollinger, Gainesville, Fl Oral cavity Outer dental epithelium Dental lamina Enamel knob Stellate reticulum Stratum intermedium Inner dental Epithelium Dental papilla Structures Seen at Bell Stage
  28. 28. Cells in the periphery of the dental papilla become odontoblats (differentiate from mesenchymal cells) These cells elongate and become columnar and form a matrix of collagen fibers identified as predentin which becomes dentin When several increments of dentin have formed the differentiated ameloblasts deposit an enamel matrix
  29. 29. After the enamel organ is differentiated the dental lamina begins to degenerate by undergoing lysis. Cells interact through a system of effectors , modulators, and receptors called cell signaling.
  30. 30. Densley packed cells characterize the dental papilla This is evident in the early bud stage during which cells proliferate around the enlarging tooth buds at the leading edge of the dental lamina The papilla cells are significant in furthering enamel organ bud formation into the cap and bell stage Blood vessels (nutrition) appear early in the dental papilla along with nerve fibers Cellular changes result in formation of a hard shell around the central papilla , as this occurs the papilla becomes the dental pulp
  31. 31. ©Copyright 2007, Thomas G. Hollinger, Gainesville, Fl Oral cavity Outer dental epithelium Dental lamina Enamel knob Stellate reticulum Stratum intermedium Inner dental Epithelium Dental papilla Structures Seen at Bell Stage
  32. 32. As the odontoblasts elongate, a process develops at the proximal end of the cell adjacent to the dentinoenamel junction Gradually the cell moves pulpward and the cell process known as the odontoblast process elongates Increments of dentin are formed along the dentinoenamel junction The dentinal matrix is first a meshwork of collagen fibers, but within 24 hours it becomes calcified It is called predentin before calcification and dentin after calcification The odontoblasts maintain their elongating processes in dentinal tubules
  33. 33. Dentinogenesis ©Copyright 2007, Thomas G. Hollinger, Gainesville, Fl Oral Histology, 5th edition, A R Ten Cate
  34. 34. The collagenous dentinal matrix is laid down in increments like bone or enamel , which is indicative of a daily rhythm for hard tissue formation The site of initial formation is at the cusp tips As the odontoblastic process elongates a tubule is maintained in the dentin , and the matrix is formed around this tubule Dentinogenesis takes place in 2 phases . First is the collagen matrix formation, followed by the deposition of calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) crystals in the matrix .
  35. 35. ©Copyright 2007, Thomas G. Hollinger, Gainesville, Fl
  36. 36. Calcification : The initial calcification appears as crystals that are in small vesicles on the surface and within the collagen fibers The crystals grow, spread and coalesce until the matrix is completely calcified. Only the newly formed band of dentinal matrix along the pulpal border is uncalcified Mineralization proceeds by an increase in mineral density of the dentin As each daily increment of predentin forms along the pulpal boundary the adjacent peripheral increment of predentin formed the previous day calcifies and becomes dentin
  37. 37. Dentinogenesis ©Copyright 2007, Thomas G. Hollinger, Gainesville, Fl Oral Histology, 5th edition, A R Ten Cate
  38. 38. Ameloblasts begin enamel deposition after a few micrometers of dentin have been deposited at the dentinoenamel junction At the bell stage cells of the inner enamel epithelium differentiate, they elongate and are ready to become active secretory ameloblasts.
  39. 39. the ameloblasts exhibit changes as they differntiate in 5 functional stages : 1- morphogenesis 2- organization and differentiation 3- secretion 4- maturation 5- protection
  40. 40. Short conical processes (Tomes’ processes) develop at the apical end of the ameloblasts during the secretory stage Junctional complexes called the terminal bar apparatus appear at the junction of the cell bodies and tomes’ processes and maintain contact between adjacent cells the first enamel deposited on the surface of the dentin establishes the dentinoenamel junction As the enamel matrix develops , it forms in continuous rods from the dentinoenamel junction to the surface of the enamel
  41. 41. Enamel Secretory Ameloblast Tomes’ process Junctional complex Cell body of ameloblast
  42. 42. When ameloblasts begin secretion , the overlying cells of the stratum intermedium change in shape from spindle to pyramidal . Substances needed for enamel production arrive via the blood vessels and pass through the stellate reticulum to the stratum intermedium and ameloblasts In this manner the protein amelogenin is produced. Only a few ameloblasts at the tip of the cusps begin to function initially As the process proceeds more ameloblasts become active and the increments of enamel matrix become more prominent
  43. 43. Is a genetic problem in which the enamel is poorly developed and mineralized It can be the result of cellular malfunction resulting in defective enamel matrix formation
  44. 44. Amelogenesis imperfecta

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