Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Degrees of Openness in MassiveOpen Online Courses (MOOC)Michael TotschnigE-Learning ConsultanteMadrid, 17th of May 2013
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013About me● PhD in Communication from Université du Québec àMontréal● Active in E-Learning R&D since 2005– WU Wien● LMS (Learn@WU), Authoring Tools, E-Learning Standards– KnowledgeMarkets● Learning Object Repository (EducaNext, Bildungspool Austria)– Econtent+ project Icoper● Outcome-oriented education (OICS)– Hasso-Plattner-Institute● MOOC (openHPI)
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Context for this talk● Based on the experience as coordinator for openHPI,a platform for xMOOCs● Evaluation presented at Educon 2013 (with FrankaGrünewald, Christian Willems, Ralf Teusner and ElnazMazandarani)● Interested in the pedagogical, technical, socialinnovations of cMOOCs● Inspired by Fischers theory of “culture of participation”and “meta-design” (thanks to Franka Grünewald)
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Outline● Definitions of Openness in cMOOCs andxMOOCs● Experience with openHPI (xMOOC)● Cultures of participation● Design guidelines● Conclusions:– Technical: From LMS to SOA– Conceptual: Beyond the c/x dichotomy
MOOC – A New and SuccessfulTrend in E-Learning■ What happens when courses traditionally taught to members of aneducational institution are offered online and opened (accessiblewithout cost and preconditions). They can attract a massive world-wideaudience.■ Expected Consequences– Content will be scrutinized massively and can be improved throughsuggestions– Participants will help each other solve problems and create vibrantcommunities– Learning analytics will allow to gain deeper understanding of learningprocesses– Competition between educational providers will motivateimprovements– Economies of scale allow to decrease cost and increase quality
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013OPEN● Open Access !: free of cost and free ofpreconditions● Open Content ? Can the content be reused asOpen Educational Resources ?● Open Source ? Is the system open toexperimentation ?● Open Space? Where are the Boundaries ?
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Boundaries of the learning eventxMOOC cMOOCTemporal fixed Potentially unlimitedCultural One dominant voice PolyphonicOrganizational One institution in the center Network of institutions andinvididualsTechnical Monolithic system Aggregation of toolsDomain Definite and independent Infinite and connectedKnowledge Theoretical content Situated context, process
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013MOOCs and social learning● Social software as „the ability to speak into thecontext others have created“ (Siemens andTittenberger)● Learning spaces as stages for theorchestration of learning activities in specificroles as individuals, groups, communities● Are these roles prescribed by the system oropen for experimentation?
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013openHPI● hosted at the Hasso Plattner Institute in Potsdam (HPI),Germany● Courses in English and German
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013OpenHPI: Technical Platform● Based on CanvasLMS (Open Source LMSwritten in RubyOnRails)● Private cloud infrastructure behindLoadBalancer● Video streaming from Vimeo
openHPI – Course Format●Course content is split into 6 units●Each unit is taught during one consecutive course week●Learning material provided during a week consists of– sequences of lecture recordings,– self tests and weekly homework– additional reading materials,– dedicated discussion forums.●Final exam is held in seventh course week●Cumulated result of homework and final exam decides uponreception of openHPI certificate11
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013openHPI courses● In-Memory Data Management, Prof. HassoPlattner. 13,126 registrations, 2,137 certificates● Internetworking mit TCP/IP, Prof. Dr. ChristophMeinel, 9,891 registrations, 1,635 certificates● Semantic Web Technologies, Dr. Harald Sack,5,692 registrations, 784 certifactes● Datenmanagement mit SQL, Prof. Dr. FelixNaumann, currently 6478 registrations● Web-Technologien, Prof. Dr. Christoph Meinel
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013OpenHPI: insights on communitymanagement● Leave questions unanswered for at least one day in order to allowstudent engament● Answer questions that remain unanswered for 3-5 days in order toprevent student dissatisfaction● Do not tolerate any dismissive behavior or bad manners. React friendly,but determined● Self-regulative community: Users react to offenses and protect theteaching team
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013OpenHPI: degrees of participation● Inactive● Passive● Reacting● Acting● Supervising / supporting
OpenHPI: Emergence of additionaluser types● Domain expert: active when his domain of expertise is the current coursetopic; gives high quality answers and points out possible mistakes in theteaching material (including errata)● Contributing user:– provision of very detailed solutions to homework on private websites,where the sample solution of the teaching team was not detailedenough for all learners.– implementation and distribution of tools for the solution of exerciseswith algorithmic or mathematical nature.– generation and allocation of audio files.– discussion triggers initiated by students.● Users switch between roles and become active in specific contexts
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Culture of participation andMeta-Design●Concepts suggested by Gerhard Fischer●active participation and empowerment of a subject● Design guidelines for participative communities● „conceptualize, create, and evolve socio-technical environmentsthat not only technically enable and support users’ participation,but also successfully encourage it.“G. Fischer. “Understanding, Fostering, and Supporting Cultures of Participation”. interactions, vol. 80, no. 3,2011, pp. 42-53.Gerhard Fischer and Elisa Giaccardi: Meta-Design: A Framework for the Future of End-User Development. In:In Lieberman, H., Paternò, F., Wulf, V. (Eds) (2004) End User Development - Empowering People to FlexiblyEmploy AdvancedInformation and Communication Technology,:
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Roles in a culture of participationSource: Grünewald et. al.: openHPI - a Case-Study on the Emergence of two Learning Communities. Educon 2013
Design guidelines I: Supportdifferent levels of engagement● 0: allow incremental discovery of the system● 1: allow peripheral participation● 2: give incentives for contributions (users areresponsible for knowledge construction)● 3: grant privileges to highly involvedparticipants● 4: allow experiments that extend, transcend thesystem
Design guidelines II: Supporthuman-problem interaction● Multiple choice questions assess rememberingand understanding (referring to Bloomstaxonomy)● hands-on exercises allow much deeperpractical involvement (application, analysis,evaluation)● Exercises linked to concrete experience● Challenges that require creativity
Design guidelines III: Underdesignfor emergent behaviour● “allow the “owners of problems” to create thesolutions themselves at use time” (Fischer)● Encourage negotiation and discussionopportunities via channels internal and externalto the system● Allow connections to external tools (socialnetworks, personal learning environments,e-portfolio systems)
Design guidelines IV: Reward andrecognize contributions● Support „social capital, reputation economiesand gift cultures“● Stackoverflow Q&A model:– Questions, answers and comments can be up-and down-voted– Users earn points and badges
Design guidelines VI: Co-evolutionof artefacts and the community● „Support the mutual cross-polination betweenthe evolution of the communities and theresources for system developments“● Community ownership● Seeding, evolutionary growth, and reseeding(SER) model
Seeding, evolutionary growth, andreseeding (SER) modelSeed: „collection of domain knowledge that isdesigned to evolve at use time.“Evolutionary Growth: „users focus on solving aspecific problem and creating problem-specificinformation“Reseeding: organize the contributions into acoherent whole, create a new seed
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Conclusions: Technical● From monolithic LMS to distributed SOA● Re-use state-of the art backend serviceswhere available and scalable● Provide APIs that enables community-developped clients for heterogenous clientenvironments and integration with third-partytools (PLE, social networks) and externallearning facilities
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Conclusions: ConceptualcMOOC and xMOOC not as dualisticopposition, but as challenge for creatingunderdesigned systems that encourageparticipation, experimentation and creativity
Michael Totschnig, 17. Mai 2013Thank you for the invitation andthe firstname.lastname@example.org
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