can serious games save lives: thegamification of everyday lifeby prof sara de freitas
summary: grand challenges and gamification1) grand challenges of society. key grand challenges of modern societies e.g.:(a) population growth is leading to greater pressures on our environments(climate change, restricted resources, education systems, energy sources) (b)globalisation is leading to more interconnected and complex social structures(self-organised criticality) > futurICT2) serious games institute model and projects. how we are addressingcritical challenges in our research and development work, including trajectoriesfor research work and some key findings and research challenges3) what is gamification? the role of ‘gamification’ in social (behavioural)change and awareness raising.4) trajectories for research work and some key findings and researchchallenges: strands of research5) can gamification change our world and solve grand challenges weface? Some examples of how we can meet challengesreflections and conclusions: move towards more complex structures and sociallydriven innovation and technology development: solutions to big data andvulnerable systems. can games save lives?
1: grand challenges of society: e.g. population andcity growth, climate change leading to complexityand data explosion challenges
challenges humanity is facing in the 21st century (copyright: dirk helbing)Lee C. Bollinger, president of Columbia University,formulated the issue as follows: “The forces affectingsocieties around the world ... are powerful and novel. Thespread of global market systems ... are ... reshaping ourworld ..., raising profound questions. These questions callfor the kinds of analyses and understandings that academicinstitutions are uniquely capable of providing. Too manypolicy failures are fundamentally failures of knowledge.” 1. Financial and economic crisis 2. Debts and inflation 3. Stability of the European Union 4. Political revolutions, war 5. Critical infrastructure risks 6. Environmental change 7. Epidemics (SARS, H1N1 pandemic) 8. Migration and integration 9. Extremism, terrorism 10. Corruption, organized crime
predicting the sequence of possible impacts of earthquakes
Data Models Forecasts demographic infection data contact network models + = transport data multi- scale geographic models data ...complexity... agent- based modelsscenarioanalysis predictions Validationpriorities policies copyright Alex Vespignani and FuturICT
2: serious games institute: an international hub ofexcellence in serious games research, business andstudy sgi: an agenda for applied sgi: an agenda for applied research.. research..
sgi activities: a hybrid model for business, research & studyi. applied research projects (23 projects, 12 eu projects)ii. masters programmeiii. doctoral schooliv. cpd coursesv. sgi overseas (singapore, south africa, mexico)vi. business projects (26 projects: e.g. bae, jaguar landrovervii. business incubationviii. serious games international spin outix. serious games labx. mobile development labxi. 30 companies in the clusterxii. ieee vs-games conference (2008-2011)xiii. companies based at the sgi (e.g. Pixelearning)
projects & games at the serious games institute meducator alice code of everand roma nova simaula mirror vtrade gala customer futurict floodsim modesedugamelab maseltov sex health game
sgi projects: ict/cultural heritage/teli. erasmus: roma nova viii. eu strep maseltovii. herbert gallery: ix. eu gala network of excellence in undercrofts priory serious games visualisation x. eu strep aliceiii. coventry city council: far xi. llp simaula gosford street reconstruction xii. llp modesiv. technology strategy board: xiii. eu ip meducator shakespeare trust xiv. llp edugamelabv. fet futurict xv. prime ministers initiative fund:vi. jisc customer project disaster city reconstructionvii. jisc inspires xvi. uk department for transport: code of everand xvii.jisc opex platform xviii. epsrc sensor networks and games xix. eu mexpex
3: what is gamification? how can we use seriousgames to answer the grand challenges?
gamification trendsbeginning of 2010 the games industry posted total sales of $1.17 billion for the month of januaryvalue of sg in 2010 was estimated to be 1.5 billion, and is set to increase by average 47% between2010 and 2015 (idate market report)international software federation of europe (isfe, 2010):74% of those aged 16-19 considered themselves gamers (n=3000), 60% of those 20-24, 56% 25-29and 38% 30-44.32% of the total uk population consider themselves gamers (n=3000). 31% of females describedthemselves as gamers and 34% of males.several studies demonstrating the efficacy of serious games for training in particular throughbehavioural change (sg-ets, hope lab’s re:mission, pulse project)wide uptake of social software (e.g. facebook, wikipedia), crowdsourcinglearning in multimodal ways: mixed reality, augmented reality, mobile learning, haptics (moreflexible approaches)converging technologies: mobile devices, ar devices, bci/eegs, sensor networks, robotics, virtualworld mashups, gps, geocoding, web technologies and services (soa)
Yes No Male Female 100% 50 90% 45 80% 40 % who play game type 70%% Responses 35 60% 30 50% 25 40% 30% 20 20% 15 10% 10 0% 5 <30 30-39 40+ <30 30-39 40+ 0 Males Females Action Adventure Arcade Education Fighting Puzzles Role play Simulation Sports Strategy Other Age (years) Games Type Male Female 100 90 % who prefer learning method 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Tutor Reading E-learning Video game Audio Workshop Internet Video Job Role-play Learning method
4: research trajectory and findings from thestudies
mapping our systems more closely against human behaviour design theory a: neuro-psychology LEARNING INSTRUCTION ASSESSMENT approaches to learning with Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context User learning GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics games Clear player goals Instructional b: visualization and User engagement User behavior design Debriefing GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy modelling interactive tutoringLearning content System feedback environment c: multimodal interfaces d: artificial intelligence and life interactivity e: semantic web, standards and metadata feedback adaptivity models and frameworks 2006-2011
models and frameworks 2006-2012de Freitas, S. & Oliver, M. (2006). How can exploratory Staalduinen, J. P. v. & de Freitas, S. (2011). A game-based learning framework:learning with games and simulations within the curriculum Linking game design and learning outcomes. In: Learning to Play: Exploring thebe most effectively evaluated? Computers and Education, Future of Education with Video Games. M. S. Khyne (Ed.). New York, Peter Lang:46 (3): 249-264. 29-54.
models and frameworks 2006-2012de Freitas, S. & Jarvis, S. (2008). Towards a development approach for serious Petridis P., Dunwell I., Panzoli, D., de Freitas S. (2012), Gamegames. In T.M. Connolly, M. Stansfield, & E. Boyle (Eds) Games-based learning Engines Selection Framework for High Fidelity Seriousadvancements for multi-sensory human-computer interfaces: Techniques and Application. International Journal of Interactive Worlds, Volumeeffective practices. IGI Global. Hershey, PA. 2012.
strand a: neuro-psychological approaches to game-based learning: are games effective teaching tools?
how can we measure immersion and efficacy of games? sg-ets project
triage trainer – trial resultstriage trainer (tt) trial summary: tt game group: 5 trials: september 2007 – january 2008 15 minute tutorial in game play / user interfaceindependently conducted by the university 60 minutes playing the tt game of birmingham on their own instructor available to answertrial participants: questions 91 uk nhs doctors, nurses & paramedics all on alsg major incident medical non-game group: management and support (mimms) 75 minute normal alsg instructor- training courses led table top exercise involved sorting cards with vitalparticipants were randomly distributed: signs variables written on tt game (n = 47) them into priority groups non-game (n = 44)
triage trainer – (knight et al., 2010)trial results of tt game trainees versus non- possible conclusions: game trainees: a ‘serious game’ such as the triagetagging accuracy of tt game trainees: trainer offers the potential to: significantly higher accuracy *χ2 = 13.126, enhance learning; and p<0.05] improve transfer of trainingstep accuracy of tt game trainees. comparing possible reasons are that the game the ratios of participants who achieved an offers: 8/8 opportunity to practice skillsaccuracy rating (i.e. followed the correct and knowledge gained on protocol for all 8 casualties): the course in a more significantly more accurate (28%) than the realistic and more engaging non-game group (7%) *χ2 = 7.29, environment p<0.05] personalised feedback whichtime taken by tt game trainees to complete enables the game player to triage of all 8 casualties: correct procedural errors made, through repeated no significant difference on time taken play (p>0.05)
neuro-psychology approaches: studies with graz
international risk, resilience and rescue centre (ir3c): texas a&m & coventry universities
reflections the upon future of serious gameswhat benefits do serious games provide? scalability of game environments to large global communities adaptivity to user requirements closer modelling of user behaviour (feedback loop) behavioural change flow, feedback, visual and actual realism leading to higher levels of immersion increased motivation and engagement multimodal integration of interfaces and other technologies: e.g. ai, haptics, biofeedback, sensors networks etc) from convergence, mash ups and user/community interaction
conclusionsso are applications of vw/games technologies really changing our approachesto working, learning, social interactions and how we consider experiences? providing new tools for flow, feedback, visual and actual realism leading to higher levels of immersion great potential for the medium for supporting immersive education through increased motivation and engagement potential for personalized feedback and more sophisticated learning interactionmove towards immersive learning experiences and design: with increasedmotivation, immediate feedback and sophisticated user modelscan serious games save lives and address the grand challenges?need for serious games community to work with user communities andeducationalists to answer some of the key grand challenges
upcoming conference:vs-games conference in genoa, november 2012any questions contact: prof. sara de email@example.com
selected referencesJOURNAL ARTICLES & CONFERENCE PAPERS: Knight, J., Carly, S., Tregunna, B., Jarvis, S., Smithies, R., de Freitas, S., Mackway-Jones, K. & Dunwell, I. (2010). Seriousde Freitas, S., Jarvis, S. (2008). Towards a development gaming technology in major incident triage training: Aapproach for serious games. In T.M. Connolly, M. Stansfield, pragmatic controlled trial. Resuscitation Journal 81(9): 1174-9& E. Boyle (Eds) Games-based learning advancements formulti-sensory human-computer interfaces: Techniques and de Freitas, S. (2011) Game for Change. Nature, 470 (7334): 330-effective practices. IGI Global. Hershey, PA. 331.Anderson, E.F., McLoughlin, L., Liarokapis, F., Peters, C., BOOKS (2010-2012):Petridis, P., de Freitas, S. Serious Games in CulturalHeritage, 10th VAST International Symposium on Virtual Sharpe, R., Beetham, H. & de Freitas, S. (Eds) (2010) RethinkingReality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST 09), Learning in the Digital Age, London & New York: Routledge.VAST-STAR, Short and Project Proceedings, Eurographics,Malta, 22-25 September, 29-48, (2009). de Freitas, S. & Maharg, P. (Eds) (2011) Digital Games and Learning. London and New York: Continuum Pressde Freitas, S., Rebolledo-Mendez, G., Liarokapis, F.,Magoulas, G., Poulovassilis A. (2010). Learning as de Freitas, S & Jameson, J. (2012) The e-Learning Reader.immersive experiences: using the four dimensional London & New York: Routledge.framework for designing and evaluating immersive learningexperiences in a virtual world. British Journal of Ferdig, R & de Freitas, S. (eds.) (2012) InterdisciplinaryEducational Technology Advancements in Gaming, Simulations and Virtual Environments: Emerging Trends, Hersey, PA, IGI Global.Dunwell, I., Petridis, P., Protopsaltis, A., de Freitas, S.,Panzoli, D. & Samuels, P. Automating Content Generation BOOK SERIES:for Large-Scale Virtual Learning Environments usingSemantic Web Services. In proceedings of the 5th de Freitas, S. & Maharg, P. (Series Eds) (2011-) Digital GamesInternational Workshop on Semantic Wikis (SemWiki2010), and Learning. London and New York: Routledge.ESWC2010, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, May 29th -June 3rd2010