Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited
Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad |
Pondicherry |...
Final Year IEEE Project 2013-2014  - Networking Project Title and Abstract
Final Year IEEE Project 2013-2014  - Networking Project Title and Abstract
Final Year IEEE Project 2013-2014  - Networking Project Title and Abstract
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Final Year IEEE Project 2013-2014 - Networking Project Title and Abstract

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  1. 1. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com 13 Years of Experience Automated Services 24/7 Help Desk Support Experience & Expertise Developers Advanced Technologies & Tools Legitimate Member of all Journals Having 1,50,000 Successive records in all Languages More than 12 Branches in Tamilnadu, Kerala & Karnataka. Ticketing & Appointment Systems. Individual Care for every Student. Around 250 Developers & 20 Researchers
  2. 2. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com 227-230 Church Road, Anna Nagar, Madurai – 625020. 0452-4390702, 4392702, + 91-9944793398. info@elysiumtechnologies.com, elysiumtechnologies@gmail.com S.P.Towers, No.81 Valluvar Kottam High Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600034. 044-42072702, +91-9600354638, chennai@elysiumtechnologies.com 15, III Floor, SI Towers, Melapudur main Road, Trichy – 620001. 0431-4002234, + 91-9790464324. trichy@elysiumtechnologies.com 577/4, DB Road, RS Puram, Opp to KFC, Coimbatore – 641002 0422- 4377758, +91-9677751577. coimbatore@elysiumtechnologies.com
  3. 3. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com Plot No: 4, C Colony, P&T Extension, Perumal puram, Tirunelveli- 627007. 0462-2532104, +919677733255, tirunelveli@elysiumtechnologies.com 1st Floor, A.R.IT Park, Rasi Color Scan Building, Ramanathapuram - 623501. 04567-223225, +919677704922.ramnad@elysiumtechnologies.com 74, 2nd floor, K.V.K Complex,Upstairs Krishna Sweets, Mettur Road, Opp. Bus stand, Erode-638 011. 0424-4030055, +91- 9677748477 erode@elysiumtechnologies.com No: 88, First Floor, S.V.Patel Salai, Pondicherry – 605 001. 0413– 4200640 +91-9677704822 pondy@elysiumtechnologies.com TNHB A-Block, D.no.10, Opp: Hotel Ganesh Near Busstand. Salem – 636007, 0427-4042220, +91-9894444716. salem@elysiumtechnologies.com
  4. 4. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com Networking (2013-2014) ETPL NT-001 Answering ―What-If‖ Deployment and Configuration Questions With WISE: Techniques and Deployment Experience, Abstract: Designers of content distribution networks (CDNs) often need to determine how changes to infrastructure deployment and configuration affect service response times when they deploy a new data center, change ISP peering, or change the mapping of clients to servers. Today, the designers use coarse, back-of-the-envelope calculations or costly field deployments; they need better ways to evaluate the effects of such hypothetical “what-if” questions before the actual deployments. This paper presents What- If Scenario Evaluator (WISE), a tool that predicts the effects of possible configuration and deployment changes in content distribution networks. WISE makes three contributions: 1) an algorithm that uses traces from existing deployments to learn causality among factors that affect service response time distributions; 2) an algorithm that uses the learned causal structure to estimate a dataset that is representative of the hypothetical scenario that a designer may wish to evaluate, and uses these datasets to predict hypothetical response-time distributions; 3) a scenario specification language that allows a network designer to easily express hypothetical deployment scenarios without being cognizant of the dependencies between variables that affect service response times. Our evaluation, both in a controlled setting and in a real-world field deployment on a large, global CDN, shows that WISE can quickly and accurately predict service response-time distributions for many practical what-if scenarios. ETPL NT-002 Complexity Analysis and Algorithm Design for Advance Bandwidth Scheduling in Dedicated Networks Abstract: An increasing number of high-performance networks provision dedicated channels through circuit switching or MPLS/GMPLS techniques to support large data transfer. The link bandwidths in such networks are typically shared by multiple users through advance reservation, resulting in varying bandwidth availability in future time. Developing efficient scheduling algorithms for advance bandwidth reservation has become a critical task to improve the utilization of network resources and meet the transport requirements of application users. We consider an exhaustive combination of different path and bandwidth constraints and formulate four types of advance bandwidth scheduling problems, with the same objective to minimize the data transfer end time for a given transfer request with a prespecified data size: fixed path with fixed bandwidth (FPFB); fixed path with variable bandwidth (FPVB); variable path with fixed bandwidth (VPFB); and variable path with variable bandwidth (VPVB). For VPFB and VPVB, we further consider two subcases where the path switching delay is negligible or nonnegligible. We propose an optimal algorithm for each of these scheduling problems except for FPVB and VPVB with nonnegligible path switching delay, which are proven to be NP-complete and nonapproximable, and then tackled by heuristics. The performance superiority of these heuristics is verified by extensive experimental results in a large set of simulated networks in comparison to optimal and greedy strategies ETPL NT-003 Diffusion Dynamics of Network Technologies With Bounded Rational Users: Aspiration-Based Learning Abstract: Recently, economic models have been proposed to study adoption dynamics of entrant and incumbent technologies motivated by the need for new network architectures to complement the current Internet. We propose new models of adoption dynamics of entrant and incumbent technologies among bounded rational users who choose a satisfying strategy rather than an optimal strategy based on aspiration-based learning. Two models of adoption dynamics are proposed according to the characteristics of aspiration level. The impacts of switching cost, the benefit from entrant and incumbent technologies,
  5. 5. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com and the initial aspiration level on the adoption dynamics are investigated. ETPL NT-004 Delay-Based Network Utility Maximization Abstract: It is well known that max-weight policies based on a queue backlog index can be used to stabilize stochastic networks, and that similar stability results hold if a delay index is used. Using Lyapunov optimization, we extend this analysis to design a utility maximizing algorithm that uses explicit delay information from the head-of-line packet at each user. The resulting policy is shown to ensure deterministic worst-case delay guarantees and to yield a throughput utility that differs from the optimally fair value by an amount that is inversely proportional to the delay guarantee. Our results hold for a general class of 1-hop networks, including packet switches and multiuser wireless systems with time- varying reliability . ETPL NT-005 A Distributed Control Law for Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks Abstract: In this paper, we face the challenging issue of defining and implementing an effective law for load balancing in Content Delivery Networks (CDNs). We base our proposal on a formal study of a CDN system, carried out through the exploitation of a fluid flow model characterization of the network of servers. Starting from such characterization, we derive and prove a lemma about the network queues equilibrium. This result is then leveraged in order to devise a novel distributed and time-continuous algorithm for load balancing, which is also reformulated in a time-discrete version. The discrete formulation of the proposed balancing law is eventually discussed in terms of its actual implementation in a real-world scenario. Finally, the overall approach is validated by means of simulations. ETPL NT-006 Efficient Algorithms for Neighbor Discovery in Wireless Networks Abstract: Neighbor discovery is an important first step in the initialization of a wireless ad hoc network. In this paper, we design and analyze several algorithms for neighbor discovery in wireless networks. Starting with a single-hop wireless network of n nodes, we propose a Θ(nlnn) ALOHA-like neighbor discovery algorithm when nodes cannot detect collisions, and an order-optimal Θ(n) receiver feedback- based algorithm when nodes can detect collisions. Our algorithms neither require nodes to have a priori estimates of the number of neighbors nor synchronization between nodes. Our algorithms allow nodes to begin execution at different time instants and to terminate neighbor discovery upon discovering all their neighbors. We finally show that receiver feedback can be used to achieve a Θ(n) running time, even when nodes cannot detect collisions. We then analyze neighbor discovery in a general multihop setting. We establish an upper bound of O(Δlnn) on the running time of the ALOHA-like algorithm, where Δ denotes the maximum node degree in the network and n the total number of nodes. We also establish a lower bound of Ω(Δ+lnn) on the running time of any randomized neighbor discovery algorithm. Our result thus implies that the ALOHA-like algorithm is at most a factor min(Δ,lnn) worse than optimal. ETPL NT-007 Stochastic Game for Wireless Network Virtualization Abstract: We propose a new framework for wireless network virtualization. In this framework, service providers (SPs) and the network operator (NO) are decoupled from each other: The NO is solely responsible for spectrum management, and SPs are responsible for quality-of-service (QoS) management for their own users. SPs compete for the shared wireless resources to satisfy their distinct service objectives and constraints. We model the dynamic interactions among SPs and the NO as a stochastic game. SPs bid for the resources via dynamically announcing their value functions. The game is regulated
  6. 6. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com by the NO through: 1) sum-utility optimization under rate region constraints; 2) enforcement of Vickrey- Clarke-Groves (VCG) mechanism for pricing the instantaneous rate consumption; and 3) declaration of conjectured prices for future resource consumption. We prove that there exists one Nash equilibrium in the conjectural prices that is efficient, i.e., the sum-utility is maximized. Thus, the NO has the incentive to compute the equilibrium point and feedback to SPs. Given the conjectural prices and the VCG mechanism, we also show that SPs must reveal their truthful value functions at each step to maximize their long-term utilities. As another major contribution, we develop an online learning algorithm that allows the SPs to update the value functions and the NO to update the conjectural prices iteratively. Thus, the proposed framework can deal with unknown dynamics in traffic characteristics and channel conditions. We present simulation results to show the convergence to the Nash equilibrium prices under various dynamic traffic and channel conditions. ETPL NT-008 ABC: Adaptive Binary Cuttings for Multidimensional Packet Classification, Abstract: Decision tree-based packet classification algorithms are easy to implement and allow the tradeoff between storage and throughput. However, the memory consumption of these algorithms remains quite high when high throughput is required. The Adaptive Binary Cuttings (ABC) algorithm exploits another degree of freedom to make the decision tree adapt to the geometric distribution of the filters. The three variations of the adaptive cutting procedure produce a set of different-sized cuts at each decision step, with the goal to balance the distribution of filters and to reduce the filter duplication effect. The ABC algorithm uses stronger and more straightforward criteria for decision tree construction. Coupled with an efficient node encoding scheme, it enables a smaller, shorter, and well-balanced decision tree. The hardware-oriented implementation of each variation is proposed and evaluated extensively to demonstrate its scalability and sensitivity to different configurations. The results show that the ABC algorithm significantly outperforms the other decision tree-based algorithms. It can sustain more than 10- Gb/s throughput and is the only algorithm among the existing well-known packet classification algorithms that can compete with TCAMs in terms of the storage efficiency. ETPL NT-009 A Utility Maximization Framework for Fair and Efficient Multicasting in Multicarrier Wireless Cellular Networks Abstract: Multicast/broadcast is regarded as an efficient technique for wireless cellular networks to transmit a large volume of common data to multiple mobile users simultaneously. To guarantee the quality of service for each mobile user in such single-hop multicasting, the base-station transmitter usually adapts its data rate to the worst channel condition among all users in a multicast group. On one hand, increasing the number of users in a multicast group leads to a more efficient utilization of spectrum bandwidth, as users in the same group can be served together. On the other hand, too many users in a group may lead to unacceptably low data rate at which the base station can transmit. Hence, a natural question that arises is how to efficiently and fairly transmit to a large number of users requiring the same message. This paper endeavors to answer this question by studying the problem of multicasting over multicarriers in wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) cellular systems. Using a unified utility maximization framework, we investigate this problem in two typical scenarios: namely, when users experience roughly equal path losses and when they experience different path losses, respectively. Through theoretical analysis, we obtain optimal multicast schemes satisfying various throughput-fairness requirements in these two cases. In particular, we show that the conventional multicast scheme is optimal in the equal-path-loss case regardless of the utility function adopted. When users experience different path losses, the group multicast scheme, which divides the users almost equally into many multicast groups and multicasts to different groups of users over nonoverlapping subcarriers, is optimal .
  7. 7. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com ETPL NT-010 Achieving Efficient Flooding by Utilizing Link Correlation in Wireless Sensor Networks, Abstract: Although existing flooding protocols can provide efficient and reliable communication in wireless sensor networks on some level, further performance improvement has been hampered by the assumption of link independence, which requires costly acknowledgments (ACKs) from every receiver. In this paper, we present collective flooding (CF), which exploits the link correlation to achieve flooding reliability using the concept of collective ACKs. CF requires only 1-hop information at each node, making the design highly distributed and scalable with low complexity. We evaluate CF extensively in real-world settings, using three different types of testbeds: a single-hop network with 20 MICAz nodes, a multihop network with 37 nodes, and a linear outdoor network with 48 nodes along a 326-m-long bridge. System evaluation and extensive simulation show that CF achieves the same reliability as state-of-the-art solutions while reducing the total number of packet transmission and the dissemination delay by 30%- 50% and 35%-50%, respectively ETPL NT-011 Random Walks and Green's Function on Digraphs: A Framework for Estimating Wireless Transmission Costs Abstract: Various applications in wireless networks, such as routing and query processing, can be formulated as random walks on graphs. Many results have been obtained for such applications by utilizing the theory of random walks (or spectral graph theory), which is mostly developed for undirected graphs. However, this formalism neglects the fact that the underlying (wireless) networks in practice contain asymmetric links, which are best characterized by directed graphs (digraphs). Therefore, random walk on digraphs is a more appropriate model to consider for such networks. In this paper, by generalizing the random walk theory (or spectral graph theory) that has been primarily developed for undirected graphs to digraphs, we show how various transmission costs in wireless networks can be formulated in terms of hitting times and cover times of random walks on digraphs. Using these results, we develop a unified theoretical framework for estimating various transmission costs in wireless networks. Our framework can be applied to random walk query processing strategy and the three routing paradigms- best path routing, opportunistic routing, and stateless routing-to which nearly all existing routing protocols belong. Extensive simulations demonstrate that the proposed digraph-based analytical model can achieve more accurate transmission cost estimation over existing methods. ETPL NT-012 A Flexible Platform for Hardware-Aware Network Experiments and a Case Study on Wireless Network Coding Abstract: In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a general, flexible, hardware-aware network platform that takes hardware processing behavior into consideration to accurately evaluate network performance. The platform adopts a network-hardware co-simulation approach in which the NS- 2 network simulator supervises the network-wide traffic flow and the SystemC hardware simulator simulates the underlying hardware processing in network nodes. In addition, as a case study, we implemented wireless all-to-all broadcasting with network coding on the platform. We analyze the hardware processing behavior during the algorithm execution and evaluate the overall performance of the algorithm. Our experimental results demonstrate that hardware processing can have a significant impact on the algorithm performance and hence should be taken into consideration in the algorithm design. We expect that this hardware-aware platform will become a very useful tool for more accurate network simulations and more efficient design space exploration of processing-intensive applications. ETPL NT-013 Exploring the Design Space of Multichannel Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming Systems
  8. 8. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com Abstract: Most of the commercial peer-to-peer (P2P) video streaming deployments support hundreds of channels and are referred to as multichannel systems. Recent research studies have proposed specific protocols to improve the streaming quality for all channels by enabling cross-channel cooperation among multiple channels. In this paper, we focus on the following fundamental problems in designing cooperating multichannel systems: 1) what are the general characteristics of existing and potential designs? and 2) under what circumstances should a particular design be used to achieve the desired streaming quality with the lowest implementation complexity? To answer the first question, we propose simple models based on linear programming and network-flow graphs for three general designs, namely Naive Bandwidth allocation Approach (NBA), Passive Channel-aware bandwidth allocation Approach (PCA), and Active Channel-aware bandwidth allocation Approach (ACA), which provide insight into understanding the key characteristics of cross-channel resource sharing. For the second question, we first develop closed-form results for two-channel systems. Then, we use extensive numerical simulations to compare the three designs for various peer population distributions, upload bandwidth distributions, and channel structures. Our analytical and simulation results show that: 1) the NBA design can rarely achieve the desired streaming quality in general cases; 2) the PCA design can achieve the same performance as the ACA design in general cases; and 3) the ACA design should be used for special applications. ETPL NT-014 Secondary Spectrum Trading—Auction-Based Framework for Spectrum Allocation and Profit Sharing Abstract: Recently, dynamic spectrum sharing has been gaining interest as a potential solution to scarcity of available spectrum. We investigate the problem of designing a secondary spectrum-trading market when there are multiple sellers and multiple buyers and propose a general framework for the trading market based on an auction mechanism. To this end, we first introduce a new optimal auction mechanism, called the generalized Branco's mechanism (GBM). The GBM, which is both incentive-compatible and individually rational, is used to determine the assigned frequency bands and prices for them. Second, we assume that buyers of the spectrum are selfish and model their interaction as a noncooperative game. Using this model, we prove that when the sellers employ the GBM to vend their frequency bands, they can guarantee themselves the largest expected profits by selling their frequency bands jointly. Third, based on the previous finding, we model the interaction among the sellers as a cooperative game and demonstrate that, for any fixed strategies of the buyers, the core of the cooperative game is nonempty. This suggests that there exists a way for the sellers to share the profits from the joint sale of the spectrum so that no subset of sellers will find it beneficial to vend their frequency bands separately without the remaining sellers. Finally, we propose a profit-sharing scheme that can achieve any expected profit vector in the nonempty core of the cooperative game while satisfying two desirable properties. ETPL NT-015 Towards Practical Communication in Byzantine-Resistant DHTs Abstract: There are several analytical results on distributed hash tables (DHTs) that can tolerate Byzantine faults. Unfortunately, in such systems, operations such as data retrieval and message sending incur significant communication costs. For example, a simple scheme used in many Byzantine fault-tolerant DHT constructions of n nodes requires O(log3 n) messages; this is likely impractical for real-world applications. The previous best known message complexity is O(log2 n) in expectation. However, the corresponding protocol suffers from prohibitive costs owing to hidden constants in the asymptotic notation and setup costs. In this paper, we focus on reducing the communication costs against a computationally bounded adversary. We employ threshold cryptography and distributed key generation to define two protocols, both of which are more efficient than existing solutions. In comparison, our first protocol is deterministic with O(log2 n) message complexity, and our second protocol is randomized with expected O(logn) message complexity. Furthermore, both the hidden constants and setup costs for our protocols are small, and no trusted third party is required. Finally, we present results from
  9. 9. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com microbenchmarks conducted over PlanetLab showing that our protocols are practical for deployment under significant levels of churn and adversarial behavior ETPL NT-016 Semi-Random Backoff: Towards Resource Reservation for Channel Access in Wireless LANs Abstract: This paper proposes a semi-random backoff (SRB) method that enables resource reservation in contention-based wireless LANs. The proposed SRB is fundamentally different from traditional random backoff methods because it provides an easy migration path from random backoffs to deterministic slot assignments. The central idea of the SRB is for the wireless station to set its backoff counter to a deterministic value upon a successful packet transmission. This deterministic value will allow the station to reuse the time-slot in consecutive backoff cycles. When multiple stations with successful packet transmissions reuse their respective time-slots, the collision probability is reduced, and the channel achieves the equivalence of resource reservation. In case of a failed packet transmission, a station will revert to the standard random backoff method and probe for a new available time-slot. The proposed SRB method can be readily applied to both 802.11 DCF and 802.11e EDCA networks with minimum modification to the existing DCF/EDCA implementations. Theoretical analysis and simulation results validate the superior performance of the SRB for small-scale and heavily loaded wireless LANs. When combined with an adaptive mechanism and a persistent backoff process, SRB can also be effective for large-scale and lightly loaded wireless networks. ETPL NT-017 Entry and Spectrum Sharing Scheme Selection in Femtocell Communications Markets Abstract: Focusing on a femtocell communications market, we study the entrant network service provider's (NSP's) long-term decision: whether to enter the market and which spectrum sharing technology to select to maximize its profit. This long-term decision is closely related to the entrant's pricing strategy and the users' aggregate demand, which we model as medium-term and short-term decisions, respectively. We consider two markets, one with no incumbent and the other with one incumbent. For both markets, we show the existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point in the user subscription dynamics and provide a sufficient condition for the convergence of the dynamics. For the market with no incumbent, we derive upper and lower bounds on the optimal price and market share that maximize the entrant's revenue, based on which the entrant selects an available technology to maximize its long-term profit. For the market with one incumbent, we model competition between the two NSPs as a noncooperative game, in which the incumbent and the entrant choose their market shares independently, and provide a sufficient condition that guarantees the existence of at least one pure Nash equilibrium. Finally, we formalize the problem of entry and spectrum-sharing scheme selection for the entrant and provide numerical results to complement our analysis. ETPL NT-018 On Replication Algorithm in P2P VoD, Abstract: Traditional video-on-demand (VoD) systems rely purely on servers to stream video content to clients, which does not scale. In recent years, peer-to-peer assisted VoD (P2P VoD) has proven to be practical and effective. In P2P VoD, each peer contributes some storage to store videos (or segments of videos) to help the video server. Assuming peers have sufficient bandwidth for the given video playback rate, a fundamental question is what is the relationship between the storage capacity (at each peer), the number of videos, the number of peers, and the resultant off-loading of video server bandwidth. In this paper, we use a simple statistical model to derive this relationship. We propose and analyze a generic replication algorithm Random with Load Balancing (RLB) that balances the service to all movies for both deterministic and random (but stationary) demand models and both homogeneous and heterogeneous peers (in upload bandwidth). We use simulation to validate our results for sensitivity analysis and for
  10. 10. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com comparisons to other popular replication algorithms. This study leads to several fundamental insights for P2P VoD system design in practice. ETPL NT-019 Back-Pressure-Based Packet-by-Packet Adaptive Routing in Communication Networks Abstract: Back-pressure-based adaptive routing algorithms where each packet is routed along a possibly different path have been extensively studied in the literature. However, such algorithms typically result in poor delay performance and involve high implementation complexity. In this paper, we develop a new adaptive routing algorithm built upon the widely studied back-pressure algorithm. We decouple the routing and scheduling components of the algorithm by designing a probabilistic routing table that is used to route packets to per-destination queues. The scheduling decisions in the case of wireless networks are made using counters called shadow queues. The results are also extended to the case of networks that employ simple forms of network coding. In that case, our algorithm provides a low-complexity solution to optimally exploit the routing-coding tradeoff. ETPL NT-020 Scheduling in a Random Environment: Stability and Asymptotic Optimality Abstract: We investigate the scheduling of a common resource between several concurrent users when the feasible transmission rate of each user varies randomly over time. Time is slotted, and users arrive and depart upon service completion. This may model, for example, the flow-level behavior of end-users in a narrowband HDR wireless channel (CDMA 1xEV-DO). As performance criteria, we consider the stability of the system and the mean delay experienced by the users. Given the complexity of the problem, we investigate the fluid-scaled system, which allows to obtain important results and insights for the original system: 1) We characterize for a large class of scheduling policies the stability conditions and identify a set of maximum stable policies, giving in each time-slot preference to users being in their best possible channel condition. We find in particular that many opportunistic scheduling policies like Score-Based, Proportionally Best, or Potential Improvement are stable under the maximum stability conditions, whereas the opportunistic scheduler Relative-Best or the cμ-rule are not. 2) We show that choosing the right tie-breaking rule is crucial for the performance (e.g., average delay) as perceived by a user. We prove that a policy is asymptotically optimal if it is maximum stable and the tie-breaking rule gives priority to the user with the highest departure probability. We will refer to such tie-breaking rule as myopic. 3) We derive the growth rates of the number of users in the system in overload settings under various policies, which give additional insights on the performance. 4) We conclude that simple priority- index policies with the myopic tie-breaking rule are stable and asymptotically optimal. All our findings are validated with extensive numerical experiments. ETPL NT-021 An Empirical Interference Modeling for Link Reliability Assessment in Wireless Networks Abstract: In recent years, it has been widely believed in the community that the link reliability is strongly related to received signal strength indicator (RSSI) [or signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR)] and external interference makes it unpredictable, which is different from the previous understanding that there is no tight relationship between the link reliability and RSSI (or SINR), but multipath fading causes the unpredictability. However, both cannot fully explain why the unpredictability appears in the link state. In this paper, we unravel the following questions: 1) What causes frame losses that are directly related to intermediate link states? 2) Is RSSI or SINR a right criterion to represent the link reliability? 3) Is there a better measure to assess the link reliability? We first configured a testbed for performing a real measurement study to identify the causes of frame losses, and observed that link reliability depends on an intraframe SINR distribution, not a single value of RSSI (or SINR). We also learned that an RSSI value is not always a good indicator to estimate the link state. We then conducted a further investigation on the
  11. 11. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com intraframe SINR distribution and the relationship between the SINR and link reliability with the ns-2 simulator. Based on these results, we finally propose an interference modeling framework for estimating link states in the presence of wireless interferences. We envision that the framework can be used for developing link-aware protocols to achieve their optimal performance in a hostile wireless environment. ETPL NT-022 On Downlink Capacity of Cellular Data Networks With WLAN/WPAN Relays Abstract: We consider the downlink of a cellular network supporting data traffic in which each user is equipped with the same type of IEEE 802.11-like WLAN or WPAN interface used to relay packets to further users. We are interested in the design guidelines for such networks and how much capacity improvements the additional relay layer can bring. A first objective is to provide a scheduling/relay strategy that maximizes the network capacity. Using theoretical analysis, numerical evaluation, and simulations, we find that when the number of active users is large, the capacity-achieving strategy divides the cell into two areas: one closer to the base station where the relay layer is always saturated and some nodes receive traffic through both direct and relay links, and the farther one where the relay is never saturated and the direct traffic is almost nonexistent. We also show that it is approximately optimal to use fixed relay link lengths, and we derive this length. We show that the obtained capacity is independent of the cell size (unlike in traditional cellular networks). Based on our findings, we propose simple decentralized routing and scheduling protocols. We show that in a fully saturated network our optimized protocol substantially improves performance over the protocols that use naive relay-only or direct-only policies. ETPL NT-023 Centralized and Distributed Protocols for Tracker-Based Dynamic Swarm Management Abstract: With BitTorrent, efficient peer upload utilization is achieved by splitting contents into many small pieces, each of which may be downloaded from different peers within the same swarm. Unfortunately, piece and bandwidth availability may cause the file-sharing efficiency to degrade in small swarms with few participating peers. Using extensive measurements, we identified hundreds of thousands of torrents with several small swarms for which reallocating peers among swarms and/or modifying the peer behavior could significantly improve the system performance. Motivated by this observation, we propose a centralized and a distributed protocol for dynamic swarm management. The centralized protocol (CSM) manages the swarms of peers at minimal tracker overhead. The distributed protocol (DSM) manages the swarms of peers while ensuring load fairness among the trackers. Both protocols achieve their performance improvements by identifying and merging small swarms and allow load sharing for large torrents. Our evaluations are based on measurement data collected during eight days from over 700 trackers worldwide, which collectively maintain state information about 2.8 million unique torrents. We find that CSM and DSM can achieve most of the performance gains of dynamic swarm management. These gains are estimated to be up to 40% on average for small torrents. ETPL NT-024 Localization of Wireless Sensor Networks in the Wild: Pursuit of Ranging Quality Abstract: Localization is a fundamental issue of wireless sensor networks that has been extensively studied in the literature. Our real-world experience from GreenOrbs, a sensor network system deployed in a forest, shows that localization in the wild remains very challenging due to various interfering factors. In this paper, we propose CDL, a Combined and Differentiated Localization approach for localization that exploits the strength of range-free approaches and range-based approaches using received signal strength indicator (RSSI). A critical observation is that ranging quality greatly impacts the overall localization accuracy. To achieve a better ranging quality, our method CDL incorporates virtual-hop localization, local filtration, and ranging-quality aware calibration. We have implemented and evaluated CDL by
  12. 12. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com extensive real-world experiments in GreenOrbs and large-scale simulations. Our experimental and simulation results demonstrate that CDL outperforms current state-of-art localization approaches with a more accurate and consistent performance. For example, the average location error using CDL in GreenOrbs system is 2.9 m, while the previous best method SISR has an average error of 4.6 m. ETPL NT-025 Control of Wireless Networks With Secrecy Abstract: We consider the problem of cross-layer resource allocation in time-varying cellular wireless networks and incorporate information theoretic secrecy as a quality-of-service constraint. Specifically, each node in the network injects two types of traffic, private and open, at rates chosen in order to maximize a global utility function, subject to network stability and secrecy constraints. The secrecy constraint enforces an arbitrarily low mutual information leakage from the source to every node in the network, except for the sink node. We first obtain the achievable rate region for the problem for single- and multiuser systems assuming that the nodes have full channel state information (CSI) of their neighbors. Then, we provide a joint flow control, scheduling, and private encoding scheme, which does not rely on the knowledge of the prior distribution of the gain of any channel. We prove that our scheme achieves a utility arbitrarily close to the maximum achievable utility. Numerical experiments are performed to verify the analytical results and to show the efficacy of the dynamic control algorithm. ETPL NT-026 ICTCP: Incast Congestion Control for TCP in Data-Center Networks Abstract: Transport Control Protocol (TCP) incast congestion happens in high-bandwidth and low-latency networks when multiple synchronized servers send data to the same receiver in parallel. For many important data-center applications such as MapReduce and Search, this many-to-one traffic pattern is common. Hence TCP incast congestion may severely degrade their performances, e.g., by increasing response time. In this paper, we study TCP incast in detail by focusing on the relationships between TCP throughput, round-trip time (RTT), and receive window. Unlike previous approaches, which mitigate the impact of TCP incast congestion by using a fine-grained timeout value, our idea is to design an Incast congestion Control for TCP (ICTCP) scheme on the receiver side. In particular, our method adjusts the TCP receive window proactively before packet loss occurs. The implementation and experiments in our testbed demonstrate that we achieve almost zero timeouts and high goodput for TCP incast. ETPL NT-027 Context-Aware Nanoscale Modeling of Multicast Multihop Cellular Networks Abstract: In this paper, we present a new approach to optimization of multicast in multihop cellular networks. We apply a hexagonal tessellation for inner partitioning of the cell into smaller subcells of radius r. Subcells may be several orders of magnitude smaller than, e.g., microcells, resulting in what we refer to as a nanoscale network model (NSNM), including a special nanoscale channel model (NSCM) for this application. For such tessellation, a spatial interleaving SI MAC protocol is introduced for context- aware interlink interference management. The directed flooding routing protocol (DFRP) and interflooding network coding (IFNC) are proposed for such a network model including intercell flooding coordination (ICFC) protocol to minimize the intercell interference. By adjusting the radius of the subcell r , we obtain different hopping ranges that directly affect the throughput, power consumption, and interference. With r as the optimization parameter, in this paper we jointly optimize scheduling, routing, and power control to obtain the optimum tradeoff between throughput, delay, and power consumption in multicast cellular networks. A set of numerical results demonstrates that the NSNM enables high- resolution optimization of the system and an effective use of the context awareness. ETPL NT-028 Moment-Based Spectral Analysis of Large-Scale Networks Using Local Structural Information
  13. 13. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com Abstract: The eigenvalues of matrices representing the structure of large-scale complex networks present a wide range of applications, from the analysis of dynamical processes taking place in the network to spectral techniques aiming to rank the importance of nodes in the network. A common approach to study the relationship between the structure of a network and its eigenvalues is to use synthetic random networks in which structural properties of interest, such as degree distributions, are prescribed. Although very common, synthetic models present two major flaws: 1) These models are only suitable to study a very limited range of structural properties; and 2) they implicitly induce structural properties that are not directly controlled and can deceivingly influence the network eigenvalue spectrum. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to overcome these limitations. Our approach is not based on synthetic models. Instead, we use algebraic graph theory and convex optimization to study how structural properties influence the spectrum of eigenvalues of the network. Using our approach, we can compute, with low computational overhead, global spectral properties of a network from its local structural properties. We illustrate our approach by studying how structural properties of online social networks influence their eigenvalue spectra ETPL NT-029 Internet-Scale IPv4 Alias Resolution With MIDAR Abstract: A critical step in creating accurate Internet topology maps from traceroute data is mapping IP addresses to routers, a process known as alias resolution. Recent work in alias resolution inferred aliases based on similarities in IP ID time series produced by different IP addresses. We design, implement, and experiment with a new tool that builds on these insights to scale to Internet-scale topologies, i.e., millions of addresses, with greater precision and sensitivity. MIDAR, our Monotonic ID-Based Alias Resolution tool, provides an extremely precise ID comparison test based on monotonicity rather than proximity. MIDAR integrates multiple probing methods, multiple vantage points, and a novel sliding-window probe scheduling algorithm to increase scalability to millions of IP addresses. Experiments show that MIDAR's approach is effective at minimizing the false positive rate sufficiently to achieve a high positive predictive value at Internet scale. We provide sample statistics from running MIDAR on over 2 million addresses. We also validate MIDAR and RadarGun against available ground truth and show that MIDAR's results are significantly better than RadarGun's. Tools such as MIDAR can enable longitudinal study of the Internet's topological evolution. ETPL NT-030 Time-Bounded Essential Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Abstract: In many practical applications of wireless sensor networks, it is crucial to accomplish the localization of sensors within a given time bound. We find that the traditional definition of relative localization is inappropriate for evaluating its actual overhead in localization time. To address this issue, we define a novel problem called essential localization and present the first rigorous study on the essential localizability of a wireless sensor network within a given time bound. Additionally, we propose an efficient distributed algorithm for time-bounded essential localization over a sensor network and evaluate the performance of the algorithm with analysis and extensive simulation studies. ETPL NT-031 Stability of FIPP -Cycles Under Dynamic Traffic in WDM Networks Abstract: Application opportunities associated with video, voice, and data triple-play result in a dramatic demand increase in metro transport networks, with traffic patterns becoming increasingly dynamic and difficult to predict. This is driving the need of core networks with a high degree of flexibility and multigranularities to carry traffic. We propose to investigate the question of what this means in terms of dynamic protection provisioning. In other words, we want to study how stable are the protection structures under dynamic traffic, i.e., how much and how often they need to be updated in a dynamic
  14. 14. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com survivable WDM network. While most studies on the stability of protection structures have been conducted on p-cycles and link shared protection, we propose to investigate here the stability of failure- independent path-protecting (FIPP) p-cycles under dynamic traffic. For doing so, we design and develop an original scalable mathematical model that we solve using large-scale optimization tools. Numerical results show that FIPP p-cycles are remarkably stable under the evaluation of the number of required optical bypass reconfigurations under dynamic traffic. ETPL NT-032 Cooperative Carrier Signaling: Harmonizing Coexisting WPAN and WLAN Devices Abstract: The unlicensed ISM spectrum is getting crowded by wireless local area network (WLAN) and wireless personal area network (WPAN) users and devices. Spectrum sharing within the same network of devices can be arbitrated by existing MAC protocols, but the coexistence between WPAN and WLAN (e.g., ZigBee and WiFi) remains a challenging problem. The traditional MAC protocols are ineffective in dealing with the disparate transmit-power levels, asynchronous time-slots, and incompatible PHY layers of such heterogeneous networks. Recent measurement studies have shown moderate-to-high WiFi traffic to severely impair the performance of coexisting ZigBee. We propose a novel mechanism, called cooperative carrier signaling (CCS), that exploits the inherent cooperation among ZigBee nodes to harmonize their coexistence with WiFi WLANs. CCS employs a separate ZigBee node to emit a carrier signal (busy tone) concurrently with the desired ZigBee's data transmission, thereby enhancing the ZigBee's visibility to WiFi. It employs an innovative way to concurrently schedule a busy tone and a data transmission without causing interference between them. We have implemented and evaluated CCS on the TinyOS/MICAz and GNURadio/USRP platforms. Our extensive experimental evaluation has shown that CCS reduces collision between ZigBee and WiFi by 50% for most cases, and by up to 90% in the presence of a high-level interference, all at negligible WiFi performance loss. ETPL NT-033 Mobility Increases the Connectivity of Wireless Networks Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the connectivity for large-scale clustered wireless sensor and ad hoc networks. We study the effect of mobility on the critical transmission range for asymptotic connectivity in k-hop clustered networks and compare to existing results on nonclustered stationary networks. By introducing k -hop clustering, any packet from a cluster member can reach a cluster head within k hops, and thus the transmission delay is bounded as Θ(1) for any finite k. We first characterize the critical transmission range for connectivity in mobile k-hop clustered networks where all nodes move under either the random walk mobility model with nontrivial velocity or the i.i.d. mobility model. By the term nontrivial velocity, we mean that the velocity of a node v is ω(r(n)), where r(n) is the transmission range of the node. We then compare with the critical transmission range for stationary k-hop clustered networks. In addition, the critical number of neighbors is studied in a parallel manner for both stationary and mobile networks. We also study the transmission power versus delay tradeoff and the average energy consumption per flow among different types of networks. We show that random walk mobility with nontrivial velocities increases connectivity in k-hop clustered networks, and thus significantly decreases the energy consumption and improves the power-delay tradeoff. The decrease of energy consumption per flow is shown to be Θ([(logn)/(nd)]) in clustered networks. These results provide insights on network design and fundamental guidelines on building a large-scale wireless network. ETPL NT-034 Topology Control for Effective Interference Cancellation in Multiuser MIMO Networks Abstract: In multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) networks, receivers decode multiple concurrent signals using successive interference cancellation (SIC). With SIC, a weak target signal can be deciphered in the presence of stronger interfering signals. However, this is only feasible if each strong
  15. 15. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com interfering signal satisfies a signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SINR) requirement. This necessitates the appropriate selection of a subset of links that can be concurrently active in each receiver's neighborhood; in other words, a subtopology consisting of links that can be simultaneously active in the network is to be formed. If the selected subtopologies are of small size, the delay between the transmission opportunities on a link increases. Thus, care should be taken to form a limited number of subtopologies. We find that the problem of constructing the minimum number of subtopologies such that SIC decoding is successful with a desired probability threshold is NP-hard. Given this, we propose MUSIC, a framework that greedily forms and activates subtopologies in a way that favors successful SIC decoding with a high probability. MUSIC also ensures that the number of selected subtopologies is kept small. We provide both a centralized and a distributed version of our framework. We prove that our centralized version approximates the optimal solution for the considered problem. We also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate that: 1) MUSIC forms a small number of subtopologies that enable efficient SIC operations; the number of subtopologies formed is at most 17% larger than the optimum number of topologies, discovered through exhaustive search (in small networks); 2) MUSIC outperforms approaches that simply consider the number of antennas as a measure for determining the links that can be simultaneously active. Specifically, MUSIC provides throughput improvements of up to four times, as compared to such an approach, in various topological settings. The improve- ents can be directly attributable to a significantly higher probability of correct SIC based decoding with MUSIC. ETPL NT-035 Distortion-Aware Scalable Video Streaming to Multinetwork Clients Abstract: We consider the problem of scalable video streaming from a server to multinetwork clients over heterogeneous access networks, with the goal of minimizing the distortion of the received videos. This problem has numerous applications including: 1) mobile devices connecting to multiple licensed and ISM bands, and 2) cognitive multiradio devices employing spectrum bonding. In this paper, we ascertain how to optimally determine which video packets to transmit over each access network. We present models to capture the network conditions and video characteristics and develop an integer program for deterministic packet scheduling. Solving the integer program exactly is typically not computationally tractable, so we develop heuristic algorithms for deterministic packet scheduling, as well as convex optimization problems for randomized packet scheduling. We carry out a thorough study of the tradeoff between performance and computational complexity and propose a convex programming-based algorithm that yields good performance while being suitable for real-time applications. We conduct extensive trace-driven simulations to evaluate the proposed algorithms using real network conditions and scalable video streams. The simulation results show that the proposed convex programming-based algorithm: 1) outperforms the rate control algorithms defined in the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) by about 10-15 dB higher video quality; 2) reduces average delivery delay by over 90% compared to DCCP; 3) results in higher average video quality of 4.47 and 1.92 dB than the two developed heuristics; 4) runs efficiently, up to six times faster than the best-performing heuristic; and 5) does indeed provide service differentiation among users. ETPL NT-036 Combined Optimal Control of Activation and Transmission in Delay-Tolerant Networks Abstract: Performance of a delay-tolerant network has strong dependence on the nodes participating in data transportation. Such networks often face several resource constraints especially related to energy. Energy is consumed not only in data transmission, but also in listening and in several signaling activities. On one hand these activities enhance the system's performance while on the other hand, they consume a significant amount of energy even when they do not involve actual node transmission. Accordingly, in order to use energy efficiently, one may have to limit not only the amount of transmissions, but also the amount of nodes that are active at each time. Therefore, we study two coupled problems: 1) the activation
  16. 16. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com problem that determines when a mobile will turn on in order to receive packets; and 2) the problem of regulating the beaconing. We derive optimal energy management strategies by formulating the problem as an optimal control one, which we then explicitly solve. We also validate our findings through extensive simulations that are based on contact traces. ETPL NT-037 A Low-Complexity Congestion Control and Scheduling Algorithm for Multihop Wireless Networks With Order-Optimal Per-Flow Delay Abstract: Quantifying the end-to-end delay performance in multihop wireless networks is a well-known challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a new joint congestion control and scheduling algorithm for multihop wireless networks with fixed-route flows operated under a general interference model with interference degree K. Our proposed algorithm not only achieves a provable throughput guarantee (which is close to at least 1/K of the system capacity region), but also leads to explicit upper bounds on the end- to-end delay of every flow. Our end-to-end delay and throughput bounds are in simple and closed forms, and they explicitly quantify the tradeoff between throughput and delay of every flow. Furthermore, the per-flow end-to-end delay bound increases linearly with the number of hops that the flow passes through, which is order-optimal with respect to the number of hops. Unlike traditional solutions based on the back- pressure algorithm, our proposed algorithm combines window-based flow control with a new rate-based distributed scheduling algorithm. A key contribution of our work is to use a novel stochastic dominance approach to bound the corresponding per-flow throughput and delay, which otherwise are often intractable in these types of systems. Our proposed algorithm is fully distributed and requires a low per- node complexity that does not increase with the network size. Hence, it can be easily implemented in practice. ETPL NT-038 Measuring Pulsed Interference in 802.11 Links Abstract: Wireless IEEE 802.11 links operate in unlicensed spectrum and so must accommodate other unlicensed transmitters that generate pulsed interference. We propose a new approach for detecting the presence of pulsed interference affecting 802.11 links and for estimating temporal statistics of this interference. This approach builds on recent work on distinguishing collision losses from noise losses in 802.11 links. When the intervals between interference pulses are i.i.d., the approach is not confined to estimating the mean and variance of these intervals, but can recover the complete probability distribution. The approach is a transmitter-side technique that provides per-link information and is compatible with standard hardware. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using extensive experimental measurements. In addition to applications to monitoring, management, and diagnostics, the fundamental information provided by our approach can potentially be used to adapt the frame durations used in a network so as to increase capacity in the presence of pulsed interference. ETPL NT-039 Pricing-Based Decentralized Spectrum Access Control in Cognitive Radio Networks Abstract: This paper investigates pricing-based spectrum access control in cognitive radio networks, where primary users (PUs) sell the temporarily unused spectrum and secondary users (SUs) compete via random access for such spectrum opportunities. Compared to existing market-based approaches with centralized scheduling, pricing-based spectrum management with random access provides a platform for SUs contending for spectrum access and is amenable to decentralized implementation due to its low complexity. We focus on two market models, one with a monopoly PU market and the other with a multiple-PU market. For the monopoly PU market model, we devise decentralized pricing-based spectrum access mechanisms that enable SUs to contend for channel usage. Specifically, we first consider SUs contending via slotted Aloha. Since the revenue maximization problem therein is nonconvex, we characterize the corresponding Pareto-optimal region and obtain a Pareto-optimal solution that maximizes
  17. 17. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com the SUs' throughput subject to their budget constraints. To mitigate the spectrum underutilization due to the “price of contention,” we revisit the problem where SUs contend via CSMA, which results in more efficient spectrum utilization and higher revenue. We then study the tradeoff between the PU's utility and its revenue when the PU's salable spectrum is controllable. Next, for the multiple-PU market model, we cast the competition among PUs as a three-stage Stackelberg game, where each SU selects a PU's channel to maximize its throughput. We explore the existence and the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium, in terms of access prices and the spectrum offered to SUs, and develop an iterative algorithm for strategy adaptation to achieve the Nash equilibrium. Our findings reveal that there exists a unique Nash equilibrium when the number of PUs is less than a threshold determined by the budgets and elasticity of SUs. ETPL NT-040 Mobile Data Offloading: How Much Can WiFi Deliver? Abstract: This paper presents a quantitative study on the performance of 3G mobile data offloading through WiFi networks. We recruited 97 iPhone users from metropolitan areas and collected statistics on their WiFi connectivity during a two-and-a-half-week period in February 2010. Our trace-driven simulation using the acquired whole-day traces indicates that WiFi already offloads about 65% of the total mobile data traffic and saves 55% of battery power without using any delayed transmission. If data transfers can be delayed with some deadline until users enter a WiFi zone, substantial gains can be achieved only when the deadline is fairly larger than tens of minutes. With 100-s delays, the achievable gain is less than only 2%-3%, whereas with 1 h or longer deadlines, traffic and energy saving gains increase beyond 29% and 20%, respectively. These results are in contrast to the substantial gain (20%- 33%) reported by the existing work even for 100-s delayed transmission using traces taken from transit buses or war-driving. In addition, a distribution model-based simulator and a theoretical framework that enable analytical studies of the average performance of offloading are proposed. These tools are useful for network providers to obtain a rough estimate on the average performance of offloading for a given WiFi deployment condition. ETPL NT-041 Quantifying and Verifying Reachability for Access Controlled Networks Abstract: Quantifying and querying network reachability is important for security monitoring and auditing as well as many aspects of network management such as troubleshooting, maintenance, and design. Although attempts to model network reachability have been made, feasible solutions to computing network reachability have remained unknown. In this paper, we propose a suite of algorithms for quantifying reachability based on network configurations [mainly Access Control Lists (ACLs)] as well as solutions for querying network reachability. We present a network reachability model that considers connectionless and connection-oriented transport protocols, stateless and stateful routers/firewalls, static and dynamic NAT, PAT, IP tunneling, etc. We implemented the algorithms in our network reachability tool called Quarnet and conducted experiments on a university network. Experimental results show that the offline computation of reachability matrices takes a few hours, and the online processing of a reachability query takes 0.075 s on average. ETPL NT-042 Optimal Content Placement for Peer-to-Peer Video-on-Demand Systems, Abstract: In this paper, we address the problem of content placement in peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, with the objective of maximizing the utilization of peers' uplink bandwidth resources. We consider system performance under a many-user asymptotic. We distinguish two scenarios, namely “Distributed Server Networks” (DSNs) for which requests are exogenous to the system, and “Pure P2P Networks” (PP2PNs) for which requests emanate from the peers themselves. For both scenarios, we consider a loss network model of performance and determine asymptotically optimal content placement strategies in the case of a
  18. 18. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com limited content catalog. We then turn to an alternative “large catalog” scaling where the catalog size scales with the peer population. Under this scaling, we establish that storage space per peer must necessarily grow unboundedly if bandwidth utilization is to be maximized. Relating the system performance to properties of a specific random graph model, we then identify a content placement strategy and a request acceptance policy that jointly maximize bandwidth utilization, provided storage space per peer grows unboundedly, although arbitrarily slowly, with system size. ETPL NT-043 Content Availability and Bundling in Swarming Systems Abstract: BitTorrent, the immensely popular file swarming system, suffers a fundamental problem: content unavailability. Although swarming scales well to tolerate flash crowds for popular content, it is less useful for unpopular content as peers arriving after the initial rush find it unavailable. In this paper, we present a model to quantify content availability in swarming systems. We use the model to analyze the availability and the performance implications of bundling, a strategy commonly adopted by many BitTorrent publishers today. We find that even a limited amount of bundling exponentially reduces content unavailability. For swarms with highly unavailable publishers, the availability gain of bundling can result in a net decrease in average download time. We empirically confirm the model's conclusions through experiments on PlanetLab using the Mainline BitTorrent client. ETPL NT-044 Model-Driven Optimization of Opportunistic Routing, Abstract: Opportunistic routing aims to improve wireless performance by exploiting communication opportunities arising by chance. A key challenge in opportunistic routing is how to achieve good, predictable performance despite the incidental nature of such communication opportunities and the complicated effects of wireless interference in IEEE 802.11 networks. To address the challenge, we develop a model-driven optimization framework to jointly optimize opportunistic routes and rate limits for both unicast and multicast traffic. A distinctive feature of our framework is that the performance derived from optimization can be achieved in a real IEEE 802.11 network. Our framework consists of three key components: 1) a model for capturing the interference among IEEE 802.11 broadcast transmissions; 2) a novel algorithm for accurately optimizing different performance objectives; and 3) effective techniques for mapping the resulting solutions to practical routing configurations. Extensive simulations and testbed experiments show that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art shortest-path routing and opportunistic routing protocols. Moreover, the difference between the achieved performance and our model estimation is typically within 20%. Evaluation in dynamic and uncontrolled environments further shows that our approach is robust against inaccuracy introduced by a dynamic network and it also consistently outperforms the existing schemes. These results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of our approach. ETPL NT-045 Opportunistic MANETs: Mobility Can Make Up for Low Transmission Power Abstract: Opportunistic mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a special class of sparse and disconnected MANETs where data communication exploits sporadic contact opportunities among nodes. We consider opportunistic MANETs where nodes move independently at random over a square of the plane. Nodes exchange data if they are at a distance at most r within each other, where r > 0 is the node transmission radius. The flooding time is the number of time-steps required to broadcast a message from a source node to every node of the network. Flooding time is an important measure of how fast information can spread in dynamic networks. We derive the first upper bound on the flooding time, which is a decreasing
  19. 19. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com function of the maximal speed of the nodes. The bound holds with high probability, and it is nearly tight. Our bound shows that, thanks to node mobility, even when the network is sparse and disconnected, information spreading can be fast. ETPL NT-046 Fast Transmission to Remote Cooperative Groups: A New Key Management Paradigm Abstract: The problem of efficiently and securely broadcasting to a remote cooperative group occurs in many newly emerging networks. A major challenge in devising such systems is to overcome the obstacles of the potentially limited communication from the group to the sender, the unavailability of a fully trusted key generation center, and the dynamics of the sender. The existing key management paradigms cannot deal with these challenges effectively. In this paper, we circumvent these obstacles and close this gap by proposing a novel key management paradigm. The new paradigm is a hybrid of traditional broadcast encryption and group key agreement. In such a system, each member maintains a single public/secret key pair. Upon seeing the public keys of the members, a remote sender can securely broadcast to any intended subgroup chosen in an ad hoc way. Following this model, we instantiate a scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. Even if all the nonintended members collude, they cannot extract any useful information from the transmitted messages. After the public group encryption key is extracted, both the computation overhead and the communication cost are independent of the group size. Furthermore, our scheme facilitates simple yet efficient member deletion/addition and flexible rekeying strategies. Its strong security against collusion, its constant overhead, and its implementation friendliness without relying on a fully trusted authority render our protocol a very promising solution to many application ETPL NT-047 Throughput-Optimal Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Networks Without Per-Flow Information Abstract: In this paper, we consider the problem of link scheduling in multihop wireless networks under general interference constraints. Our goal is to design scheduling schemes that do not use per-flow or per- destination information, maintain a single data queue for each link, and exploit only local information, while guaranteeing throughput optimality. Although the celebrated back-pressure algorithm maximizes throughput, it requires per-flow or per-destination information. It is usually difficult to obtain and maintain this type of information, especially in large networks, where there are numerous flows. Also, the back-pressure algorithm maintains a complex data structure at each node, keeps exchanging queue-length information among neighboring nodes, and commonly results in poor delay performance. In this paper, we propose scheduling schemes that can circumvent these drawbacks and guarantee throughput optimality. These schemes use either the readily available hop-count information or only the local information for each link. We rigorously analyze the performance of the proposed schemes using fluid limit techniques via an inductive argument and show that they are throughput-optimal. We also conduct simulations to validate our theoretical results in various settings and show that the proposed schemes can substantially improve the delay performance in most scenarios. ETPL NT-048 Experiences With a Centralized Scheduling Approach for Performance Management of IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs Abstract: We present a centralized integrated approach for: 1) enhancing the performance of an IEEE 802.11 infrastructure wireless local area network (WLAN), and 2) managing the access link that connects the WLAN to the Internet. Our approach, which is implemented on a standard Linux platform, and which we call ADvanced Wi-fi Internet Service EnhanceR (ADWISER), is an extension of our previous system WLAN Manager (WM). ADWISER addresses several infrastructure WLAN performance anomalies such as mixed-rate inefficiency, unfair medium sharing between simultaneous TCP uploads and downloads, and inefficient utilization of the Internet access bandwidth when Internet transfers compete with LAN- WLAN transfers, etc. The approach is via centralized queueing and scheduling, using a novel,
  20. 20. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com configurable, cascaded packet queueing and scheduling architecture, with an adaptive service rate. In this paper, we describe the design of ADWISER and report results of extensive experimentation conducted on a hybrid testbed consisting of real end-systems and an emulated WLAN on Qualnet. We also present results from a physical testbed consisting of one access point (AP) and a few end-systems. ETPL NT-049 Geographic Routing in -Dimensional Spaces With Guaranteed Delivery and Low Stretch Abstract: Almost all geographic routing protocols have been designed for 2-D. We present a novel geographic routing protocol, named Multihop Delaunay Triangulation (MDT), for 2-D, 3-D, and higher dimensions with these properties: 1) guaranteed delivery for any connected graph of nodes and physical links, and 2) low routing stretch from efficient forwarding of packets out of local minima. The guaranteed delivery property holds for node locations specified by accurate, inaccurate, or arbitrary coordinates. The MDT protocol suite includes a packet forwarding protocol together with protocols for nodes to construct and maintain a distributed MDT for routing. We present the performance of MDT protocols in 3-D and 4- D as well as performance comparisons of MDT routing versus representative geographic routing protocols for nodes in 2-D and 3-D. Experimental results show that MDT provides the lowest routing stretch in the comparisons. Furthermore, MDT protocols are specially designed to handle churn, i.e., dynamic topology changes due to addition and deletion of nodes and links. Experimental results show that MDT's routing success rate is close to 100% during churn, and node states converge quickly to a correct MDT after churn. ETPL NT-050 Randomized Information Dissemination in Dynamic Environments, Abstract: We consider randomized broadcast or information dissemination in wireless networks with switching network topologies. We show that an upper bound for the ε-dissemination time consists of the conductance bound for a network without switching, and an adjustment that accounts for the number of informed nodes in each period between topology changes. Through numerical simulations, we show that our bound is asymptotically tight. We apply our results to the case of mobile wireless networks with unreliable communication links and establish an upper bound for the dissemination time when the network undergoes topology changes and periods of communication link erasures. ETPL NT-051 Towards MIMO-Aware 802.11n Rate Adaptation Abstract: In this paper, we use real experiments to study multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) 802.11n rate adaptation (RA) on a programmable access point (AP) platform. Our case study shows that existing RA solutions offer much lower throughput than even a fixed-rate scheme. It is proven that all such algorithms are MIMO-mode oblivious; they do not differentiate spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing modes. We first design MiRA, a novel MIMO RA scheme that zigzags between intra- and inter-MIMO modes to address MIMO 802.11n dynamics. Second, we examine a window-based RA solution, which runs an independent RA in each MIMO mode in parallel and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-based MIMO RA that differentiates modes using SNR measurements. Our experiments show that MIMO-mode aware designs outperform MIMO-mode oblivious RAs in various settings, with goodput gains up to 73.5% in field trials. ETPL NT-052 Fast Algorithms and Performance Bounds for Sum Rate Maximization in Wireless Networks Abstract: In this paper, we consider a wireless network where interference is treated as noise, and we study the nonconvex problem of sum rate maximization by power control. We focus on finding approximately optimal solutions that can be efficiently computed to this NP-hard problem by studying the solutions to two related problems, the sum rate maximization using a signal-to-interference-plus-noise
  21. 21. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com ratio (SINR ) approximation and the max-min weighted SINR optimization. We show that these two problems are intimately connected, can be solved efficiently by algorithms with fast convergence and minimal parameter configuration, and can yield high-quality approximately optimal solutions to sum rate maximization in the low interference regime. As an application of these results, we analyze the connection-level stability of cross-layer utility maximization in the wireless network, where users arrive and depart randomly and are subject to congestion control, and the queue service rates at all the links are determined by the sum rate maximization problem. In particular, we determine the stability region when all the links solve the max-min weighted SINR problem, using instantaneous queue sizes as weights. ETPL NT-053 Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces Abstract: Mobility traces of people and vehicles have been collected and published to assist the design and evaluation of mobile networks, such as large-scale urban sensing networks. Although the published traces are often made anonymous in that the true identities of nodes are replaced by random identifiers, the privacy concern remains. This is because in real life, nodes are open to observations in public spaces, or they may voluntarily or inadvertently disclose partial knowledge of their whereabouts. Thus, snapshots of nodes' location information can be learned by interested third parties, e.g., directly through chance/engineered meetings between the nodes and their observers, or indirectly through casual conversations or other information sources about people. In this paper, we investigate how an adversary, when equipped with a small amount of the snapshot information termed as side information, can infer an extended view of the whereabouts of a victim node appearing in an anonymous trace. Our results quantify the loss of victim nodes' privacy as a function of the nodal mobility, the inference strategies of adversaries, and any noise that may appear in the trace or the side information. Generally, our results indicate that the privacy concern is significant in that a relatively small amount of side information is sufficient for the adversary to infer the true identity (either uniquely or with high probability) of a victim in a set of anonymous traces. For instance, an adversary is able to identify the trace of 30%-50% of the victims when she has collected 10 pieces of side information about a victim. ETPL NT-054 Rigorous Statistical Analysis of Internet Loss Measurements Abstract: Loss measurements are widely used in today's networks. There are existing standards and commercial products to perform these measurements. The missing element is a rigorous statistical methodology for their analysis. Indeed, most existing tools ignore the correlation between packet losses and severely underestimate the errors in the measured loss ratios. In this paper, we present a rigorous technique for analyzing performance measurements, in particular, for estimating confidence intervals of packet loss measurements. The task is challenging because Internet packet loss ratios are typically small and the packet loss process is bursty. Our approach, SAIL, is motivated by some simple observations about the mechanism of packet losses. Packet losses occur when the buffer in a switch or router fills, when there are major routing instabilities, or when the hosts are overloaded, and so we expect packet loss to proceed in episodes of loss, interspersed with periods of successful packet transmission. This can be modeled as a simple on/off process, and in fact, empirical measurements suggest that an alternating renewal process is a reasonable approximation to the real underlying loss process. We use this structure to build a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) of the underlying loss process and, from this, to estimate both loss ratios and confidence intervals on these loss ratios. We use both simulations and a set of more than 18 000 hours of real Internet measurements (between dedicated measurement hosts, PlanetLab hosts, Web and DNS servers) to cross-validate our estimates and show that they are better than any current alternative.
  22. 22. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com ETPL NT-055 Distributed CSMA Algorithms for Link Scheduling in Multihop MIMO Networks Under SINR Model Abstract: In this paper, we study distributed scheduling in multihop multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) networks. We first develop a “MIMO-pipe” model that provides the upper layers a set of rates and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) requirements that capture the rate-reliability tradeoff in MIMO communications. The main thrust of this paper is then dedicated to developing distributed carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) algorithms for MIMO-pipe scheduling under the SINR interference model. We choose the SINR model over the extensively studied protocol-based interference models because it more naturally captures the impact of interference in wireless networks. The coupling among the links caused by the interference under the SINR model makes the problem of devising distributed scheduling algorithms very challenging. To that end, we explore the CSMA algorithms for MIMO-pipe scheduling from two perspectives. We start with an idealized continuous-time CSMA network, where control messages can be exchanged in a collision-free manner, and devise a CSMA-based link scheduling algorithm that can achieve throughput optimality under the SINR model. Next, we consider a discrete- time CSMA network, where the message exchanges suffer from collisions. For this more challenging case, we develop a “conservative” scheduling algorithm by imposing a more stringent SINR constraint on the MIMO-pipe model. We show that the proposed conservative scheduling achieves an efficiency ratio bounded from below ETPL NT-056 An Efficient and Fair MAC Protocol Robust to Reactive Interference Abstract: Interference constitutes a major challenge to availability for communication networks operating over a shared medium. This paper proposes the medium access (MAC) protocol AntiJam, which achieves a high and fair throughput even in harsh environments. Our protocol mitigates internal interference, requiring no knowledge about the number of participants in the network. It is also robust to intentional and unintentional external interference, e.g., due to coexisting networks or jammers. We model external interference using a powerful reactive adversary that can jam a (1-ε) -portion of the time-steps, where 0 <; ε ≤ 1 is an arbitrary constant. The adversary uses carrier sensing to make informed decisions on when it is most harmful to disrupt communications. Moreover, we allow the adversary to be adaptive and to have complete knowledge of the entire protocol history. AntiJam makes efficient use of the nonjammed time periods and achieves, if ε is constant, a Θ(1)-competitive throughput. In addition, AntiJam features a low convergence time and has excellent fairness properties, such that channel access probabilities do not differ among nodes by more than a small constant factor. ETPL NT-057 Fine-Grained Channel Access in Wireless LAN Abstract: With the increasing of physical-layer (PHY) data rate in modern wireless local area networks (WLANs) (e.g., 802.11n), the overhead of media access control (MAC) progressively degrades data throughput efficiency. This trend reflects a fundamental aspect of the current MAC protocol, which allocates the channel as a single resource at a time. This paper argues that, in a high data rate WLAN, the channel should be divided into separate subchannels whose width is commensurate with the PHY data rate and typical frame size. Multiple stations can then contend for and use subchannels simultaneously according to their traffic demands, thereby increasing overall efficiency. We introduce FICA, a fine- grained channel access method that embodies this approach to media access using two novel techniques. First, it proposes a new PHY architecture based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) that retains orthogonality among subchannels while relying solely on the coordination mechanisms in existing WLAN, carrier sensing and broadcasting. Second, FICA employs a frequency-domain contention method that uses physical-layer Request to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS) signaling and frequency
  23. 23. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com domain backoff to efficiently coordinate subchannel access. We have implemented FICA, both MAC and PHY layers, using a software radio platform, and our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the FICA design. Furthermore, our simulation results show FICA can improve the efficiency of WLANs from a few percent to 600% compared to existing 802.11. ETPL NT-058 A Formal Data-Centric Approach for Passive Testing of Communication Protocols Abstract: There is currently a high level of consciousness of the importance and impact of formally testing communicating networks. By applying formal description techniques and formal testing approaches, we are able to validate the conformance of implementations to the requirements of communication protocols. In this context, passive testing techniques are used whenever the system under test cannot be interrupted or access to its interfaces is unavailable. Under such conditions, communication traces are extracted from points of observation and compared to the expected behavior formally specified as properties. Since most works on the subject come from a formal model context, they are optimized for testing the control part of the communication with a secondary focus on the data parts. In the current work, we provide a data-centric approach for black-box testing of network protocols. A formalism is provided to express complex properties in a bottom-up fashion starting from expected data relations in messages. A novel algorithm is provided for evaluation of properties in protocol traces. Experimental results on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) traces for IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services are provided. ETPL NT-059 QFQ: Efficient Packet Scheduling With Tight Guarantees Abstract: Packet scheduling, together with classification, is one of the most expensive processing steps in systems providing tight bandwidth and delay guarantees at high packet rates. Schedulers with near- optimal service guarantees and O(1) time complexity have been proposed in the past, using techniques such as timestamp rounding and flow grouping to keep their execution time small. However, even the two best proposals in this family have a per-packet cost component that is linear either in the number of groups or in the length of the packet being transmitted. Furthermore, no studies are available on the actual execution time of these algorithms. In this paper we make two contributions. First, we present Quick Fair Queueing (QFQ), a new O( 1) scheduler that provides near-optimal guarantees and is the first to achieve that goal with a truly constant cost also with respect to the number of groups and the packet length. The QFQ algorithm has no loops and uses very simple instructions and data structures that contribute to its speed of operation. Second, we have developed production-quality implementations of QFQ and of its closest competitors, which we use to present a detailed comparative performance analysis of the various algorithms. Experiments show that QFQ fulfills our expectations, outperforming the other algorithms in the same class. In absolute terms, even on a low-end workstation, QFQ takes about 110 ns for an enqueue()/dequeue() pair (only twice the time of DRR, but with much better service guarantees). ETPL NT-060 Spreader Classification Based on Optimal Dynamic Bit Sharing Abstract: Spreader classification is an online traffic measurement function that has many important applications. In order to keep up with ever-higher line speed, the recent research trend is to implement such functions in fast but small on-die SRAM. However, the mismatch between the huge amount of Internet traffic to be monitored and limited on-die memory space presents a significant technical challenge. In this paper, we propose an Efficient Spreader Classification (ESC) scheme based on dynamic bit sharing, a compact information storage method. We design a maximum likelihood estimation method to extract per-source information from the compact storage and determine the heavy spreaders. Our new scheme ensures that false positive/negative ratios are bounded. Moreover, given an arbitrary set of
  24. 24. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com bounds, we develop a systematic approach to determine the optimal system parameters that minimize the amount of memory needed to meet the bounds. Experiments based on a real Internet traffic trace demonstrate that the proposed spreader classification scheme reduces memory consumption by 3-20 times when compared to the best existing work. We also investigate a new multi-objective spreader classification problem and extend our classification scheme to solve it. ETPL NT-061 LIFO-Backpressure Achieves Near-Optimal Utility-Delay Tradeoff Abstract: There has been considerable work developing a stochastic network utility maximization framework using Backpressure algorithms, also known as MaxWeight. A key open problem has been the development of utility-optimal algorithms that are also delay-efficient. In this paper, we show that the Backpressure algorithm, when combined with the last-in-first-out (LIFO) queueing discipline (called LIFO-Backpressure), is able to achieve a utility that is within O(1/V) of the optimal value, for any scalar V ≥ 1, while maintaining an average delay of O([log(V)]2 ) for all but a tiny fraction of the network traffic. This result holds for a general class of problems with Markovian dynamics. Remarkably, the performance of LIFO-Backpressure can be achieved by simply changing the queueing discipline; it requires no other modifications of the original Backpressure algorithm. We validate the results through empirical measurements from a sensor network testbed, which show a good match between theory and practice. Because some packets may stay in the queues for a very long time under LIFO-Backpressure, we further develop the LIFOp -Backpressure algorithm, which generalizes LIFOp -Backpressure by allowing interleaving between first-in-first-out (FIFO) and LIFO. We show that LIFOp Backpressure also achieves the same O(1/V) close-to-optimal utility performance and guarantees an average delay of O([log(V)]2 ) for the packets that are served during the LIFO period. ETPL NT-060 An Efficient and Robust Addressing Protocol for Node Autoconfiguration in Ad Hoc Networks Abstract: Address assignment is a key challenge in ad hoc networks due to the lack of infrastructure. Autonomous addressing protocols require a distributed and self-managed mechanism to avoid address collisions in a dynamic network with fading channels, frequent partitions, and joining/leaving nodes. We propose and analyze a lightweight protocol that configures mobile ad hoc nodes based on a distributed address database stored in filters that reduces the control load and makes the proposal robust to packet losses and network partitions. We evaluate the performance of our protocol, considering joining nodes, partition merging events, and network initialization. Simulation results show that our protocol resolves all the address collisions and also reduces the control traffic when compared to previously proposed protocols. ETPL NT-061 Cross-Domain Privacy-Preserving Cooperative Firewall Optimization Abstract: Firewalls have been widely deployed on the Internet for securing private networks. A firewall checks each incoming or outgoing packet to decide whether to accept or discard the packet based on its policy. Optimizing firewall policies is crucial for improving network performance. Prior work on firewall optimization focuses on either intrafirewall or interfirewall optimization within one administrative domain where the privacy of firewall policies is not a concern. This paper explores interfirewall optimization across administrative domains for the first time. The key technical challenge is that firewall policies cannot be shared across domains because a firewall policy contains confidential information and even potential security holes, which can be exploited by attackers. In this paper, we propose the first cross-domain privacy-preserving cooperative firewall policy optimization protocol. Specifically, for any two adjacent firewalls belonging to two different administrative domains, our protocol can identify in each firewall the rules that can be removed because of the other firewall. The optimization process
  25. 25. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com involves cooperative computation between the two firewalls without any party disclosing its policy to the other. We implemented our protocol and conducted extensive experiments. The results on real firewall policies show that our protocol can remove as many as 49% of the rules in a firewall, whereas the average is 19.4%. The communication cost is less than a few hundred kilobytes. Our protocol incurs no extra online packet processing overhead, and the offline processing time is less than a few hundred seconds ETPL NT-062 Beyond OFDM: Best-Effort Dynamic Spectrum Access Using Filterbank Multicarrier Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), widely recommended for sharing the spectrum among different nodes in a dynamic spectrum access network, imposes tight timing and frequency synchronization requirements. We examine the use of filterbank multicarrier (FBMC), a somewhat lesser known and understood alternative, for dynamic spectrum access. FBMC promises very low out-of-band energy of each subcarrier signal when compared to OFDM. In order to fully understand and evaluate the promise of FBMC, we first examine the use of special pulse-shaping filters of the FBMC PHY layer in reliably transmitting data packets at a very high rate. Next, to understand the impact of FBMC beyond the PHY layer, we devise a distributed and adaptive medium access control (MAC) protocol that coordinates data packet traffic among the different nodes in the network in a best-effort manner. Using extensive simulations, we show that FBMC consistently achieves at least an order of magnitude performance improvement over OFDM in several aspects including packet transmission delays, channel access delays, and effective data transmission rate available to each node in static, indoor settings. Using measurements of power spectral density and high data rate transmissions from a transceiver that we build using our National Instruments hardware platform, we show that while FBMC can decode/distinguish all the received symbols without any errors, OFDM cannot. Finally, we also examine the use of FBMC in a vehicular network setup. We find that FBMC achieves an order of magnitude performance improvement over large distances in this setup as well. Furthermore, in the case of multihop vehicular networks, FBMC can achieve about 20 × smaller end-to-end data packet delivery delays and relatively low packet drop probabilities. In summary, FBMC offers a much higher performing alternative to OFDM for networks that dynamically share the spectrum among multiple nodes. ETPL NT-063 An Adaptive System Based on Roadmap Profiling to Enhance Warning Message Dissemination in VANETs Abstract: In recent years, new applications, architectures, and technologies have been proposed for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Regarding traffic safety applications for VANETs, warning messages have to be quickly and smartly disseminated in order to reduce the required dissemination time and to increase the number of vehicles receiving the traffic warning information. In the past, several approaches have been proposed to improve the alert dissemination process in multihop wireless networks, but none of them were tested in real urban scenarios, adapting its behavior to the propagation features of the scenario. In this paper, we present the Profile-driven Adaptive Warning Dissemination Scheme (PAWDS) designed to improve the warning message dissemination process. With respect to previous proposals, our proposed scheme uses a mapping technique based on adapting the dissemination strategy according to both the characteristics of the street area where the vehicles are moving and the density of vehicles in the target scenario. Our algorithm reported a noticeable improvement in the performance of alert dissemination processes in scenarios based on real city maps. ETPL NT-064 ACORN: An Auto-Configuration Framework for 802.11n WLANs Abstract: The wide channels feature combines two adjacent channels to form a new, wider channel to facilitate high-data-rate transmissions in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)-based IEEE 802.11n networks. Using a wider channel can exacerbate interference effects. Furthermore, contrary to what has

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