According to the New Global estimates, child labour is declining. We estimate that the global number of child labourers in the age group 5-17 decreased from 246 million in 2000 to 218 million in 2004. This amounts to a decrease of 11%. [The following is not on this slide but in the Global Report] Child labour has also declined in relative terms. The percentage of child labourers among the 5-17 year-old children in the world went down from 16% in 2000 to 14% in 2004.
The number of children engaged in hazardous work has declined from 170m in 2000 to 126m in 2004. This is a decline of about 25%. For the younger children (age group 5-14) the decline in hazardous work was even steeper- by 33 %. In short, the emerging picture is that children’s work is declining and that the more harmful the work and the more vulnerable the children the faster the decline.
The percentage of working children among the child population has declined in all regions of the world. The reduction has been most significant in Latin America and the Caribbean, where activity rates among 5-14 year olds have fallen to about one-third of their previous level in 2000 (16% of children in the region were working in 2000, and this has decreased to 5% in 2004). Also in absolute terms, Latin America ranks first in reducing the participation of children in work. The region had almost 12m fewer child workers in 2004 than four years earlier (over 17m Latin American children were working in 2000, and this has decreased to fewer than 6 m in 2004). [Note: this slide shows the trend in percentage of working children by region, and NOT in absolute numbers by region] At the other end of the scale we find Sub-Saharan Africa, where [even though the incidence of working children decreased from 29% to 26 % (as shown in this slide) in terms of percentage in the children aged 5-14], the number of working children under the age of 15 slightly increased, as continued high population growth offset the declining incidence. Sub-Saharan Africa now has close to 50m child workers (more than 25% of African children are at work). This is a million more than four years earlier. Even though the number of 50m is still short of the 122m working children (aged 5-14) in the Asian-Pacific region, the number of working children in Asia has decreased by 5m during the last four years and less than 20 % of Asian children are now at work. The Global Report dedicated a section specifically to child labour and Africa’s future.
What is “economic exploitation?” – Legal framework for the elimination of child labour Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 32 provides for the protection from “economic exploitation” , and its paragraph (2) refers to “the relevant provisions of other international instruments” – e.g. ILO standards. Adoption in June 1998 of the Declaration on Fundamental Rights and Principles at Work and its Follow-up , which specifies that the effective abolition of child labour is one of the four fundamental principles to be respected by all member States It is not simple to define what is « economic exploitation » or « child labour » that needs to be eliminated, while children do carry out work of different forms under different conditions – not all of that is « bad » for them. Thus there is a need for international standards for national regulations.
Another fundamental ILO Convention for the effective abolition of child labour is Convention No.138 of 1973 on minimum age, supplemented by Recommendation No.146 , giving the framework for drawing a line betweeen work by children that is permissible and child labour that needs to be eliminated. Since Convention No.138 covers all sectors of economy, and employment as well as work, in addition to the exception in the Table for developing countries, there are several other clauses allowing flexibility , for example: a possibility to exclude limited categories such as family undertakings; exclusion of work carried out within the framework of education and training under certain conditions; authorization of artistic performances under individual permit.
Unanimous adoption of the " Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182) and Recommendation (No.190) " on 17 June 1999.
The Convention is action-oriented : it requires ratifying States not only to prohibit the worst forms of child labour in law, but to design and implement programmes of action to eliminate them as a priority; and to establish or designate appropriate mechanisms for monitoring implementation of the Convention. Ratifying States should also take effective and time-bound measures for prevention; provide support for the removal of children form the worst forms of child labour and their rehabilitation; ensure access to free basic education or vocational training for all children removed from the worst forms of child labour; identify children at special risk; and take account of the special situation of girls.
The principle of the effective abolition of child labour is inseparable with the belief that children’s place is in school and not at work until at least they finish compulsory schooling. The ILO Convention No.138 on Minimum Age (supplemented by Recommendation No.146) thus requires a general minimum age for work to be fixed nationally at a level not less than the age of finishing compulsory education, and not less than 15 in principle. However, light work may be permitted from the age of 13 or 12 years, while hazardous work should be prohibited for all those under 18 years of age. The exact contents of hazardous work must be determined nationally after tripartite consultation (I.e. among the government, trade unions and employers’ representatives)
III. Who can make the difference? (1) Important role of employers’ and workers’ organizations in the ILO’s system (2) Wider partnership in the society Strong interest in ILO standards on child labour among the civil society, including chiildren: e.g. Global March that arrived in Geneva at the ILC in 1998 and 1999 Private sector voluntary initiatives (Codes of conducts, labelling etc) also refer to ILO standards increasingly. The Global Conpact is a framework by the UN to encourage such initiatives, including four principles regarding the world of work, one of which is the effective abolition of child labour. These four principles in fact exactly echoe those of the ILO Declaration.
IV. Technical cooperation and assistance As one of its innovative features, the new ILO instruments (C.182 and R.190) call for international cooperation or assistance in the efforts to make its provisions really applied, including support for social and economic development, poverty eradication and education. There is a confirmation that education is a key to break the vicious cycle of poverty and child labour.
The ILO itself has been assisting member countries in their fight against child labour through practical projects in the field, through its International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), launched in 1992. The promotion of the Conventions and other advocacy activities are thus offering framework for action, and at the same time, have been complemented by operation of programmes and projects for direct action. Two aspects of recent developments in IPEC’s technical assistance are briefly presented here, as examples.
(1) Time-Bound Programmes The development of Time Bound Programmes (TBPs) approach aims to help the national efforts to accelerate the process of eradicating the worst forms of child labour in the spirit of C182. This approach combines IPEC’s past experiences of sectoral, thematic and geographically based projects; links the action against child labour to the national development effort as a whole – and to economic and social policies of every kind, from macro-economic performance to education and labour market policies. Strong emphasis is placed on mobilizing society and on engaging the top leadership of each country. Three countries - El Salvador, Nepal and The United Republic of Tanzania - have expressed the commitment to engage in nationwide Time Bound Programmes aimed at drastically reducing the worst forms of child labour within a given period of time.
The ILO and its actionagainst Child Labour International action to promote the rights of the child, EU civil society facility, Brussels, 16.09.09www.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 1
SummaryLatest Global Estimates (2006)Rights and Standards Convention No.138 (Minimum Age) Convention No.182 (Worst Forms of Child Labour)IPEC Programme Partners Philosophy and objectives Time-Bound Programme approachThe global crisis and child labour www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 2
Latest Global Estimates (1) Global trends in child labour by age group and year (millions) 246 million 2000 186 59 218million 2004 166 52 0 50 100 150 200 250 Age 5-14 15- groups: 17www.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 3
Latest Global Estimates (2) Global trends in hazardous work by age group and year (millions) 2000 111 59 170 million 2004 74 52 126 million 0 50 100 150 200 Hazardous 5-14 Hazardous 15-17www.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 4
Latest global estimates (3) Regional trends in the proportion of working children in the age group 5 – 14 years (%) 28.8 30 26.4 19.4 20 18.8 16.1 10 6.8 5.1 5.2 0 Asia and the Latin America Other Sub-Saharan Africa Pacific & Caribbean regions 2000 2004www.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 5
International Principles and RightsUN ConventionUN Convention Provides that children be Provides that children be on the Rights protected from economic Child of the Child exploitation and work that threatens their health threatens their health education and education and developmentILO DeclarationILO Declaration ILO Minimum Ageon Fundamental Declares the effective Declares the effective Convention, No. 138 Principles and abolition of child abolition of child Rights at Work labour as a social pillar ILO Worst Forms of of the global economy Child Labour Convention, No. 182 www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 6
Convention No. 138 Requires a national policy for the ILO effective abolition of child labour Minimum Age (Art. 1) Convention Requires a specification of minimum No. 138 (154 ratifications, 09/2009) age > end of compulsory education (Art. 2) General General Exceptions for Exceptions for developing countries developing countriesBasic Minimum Age (Art. 2)Basic Minimum Age (Art. 2) 15 years 15 years 14 years 14 yearsHazardous work (Art. 3)Hazardous work (Art. 3) 18 years 18 years NO EXCEPTION NO EXCEPTION (16 years conditionally) (16 years conditionally)Light work (Art. 7)Light work (Art. 7) 13-15 years 13-15 years 12-14 years 12-14 years www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 7
Convention No.182 and its 10th Anniversary ILO Worst Forms PRE-AMBULE OF CONVENTION: « ..child labour is to a great extent caused by of Child Labour Convention poverty and (..) the long-term solution lies in No. 182 and its sustained economic growth leading to social Recommendation progress, in particular poverty alleviation and No. 190 universal education.. » A new global cause Calls for immediate action to eliminate Ratification the worst forms of child labour as a by 171 States matter of urgencyas of September 2009 www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 8
C 182: coverageAll sectors of economic activityGirls and boys under 18 yearsSpecial attention for most vulnerable e.g. minority groups, very young and girlsWorst forms of child labour as priority target for action www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 9
Worst Forms of Child Laboura) Children in slavery, forced or compulsory labour, child trafficking Including forced recruitment for use in armed conflicta) Children in prostitution and pornographyb) Children in illicit activitiesc) Children in hazardous work www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 10
C182: Obligations (summary) Determine and map hazardous work Establish monitoring mechanisms Design/implement programmes of actionTo take immediate and effective Develop time bound Develop time bound measures to prohibit and measures eliminate the worst forms of Enhance international child labour as a matter of cooperation urgency (Art. 1) www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 11
C182 in relation with C138 C182 complements C138: Convention No. 138 aims at all forms of child labour Convention No. 182 aims at the worst forms of child labour as a matter of prioritywww.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 12
What is child labour to be abolished?18 Children between the minimum age and 1814/15/16 <minimum working age> Children between 12/13 and the minimum age12/13 Children below 12/13 years of age Hazardous work Work excluded Non-hazardous, (and also other from minimum Light work non-light worst forms of age legislation work child labour) C138 Shaded area = child labour for abolition C182 www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 13
Partners and alliances Universities, judiciary, Government, employers, workers Government, employers, workers media, parliamentarians, health and religious UN-system and IGOs, organizations and/or in particular UNICEF institutionsInternational and regional Community-based development banks organizations (e.g. World Bank) (local schools, doctors, teachers, chiefs and others) NGOs (International, regional, national and local ) Committed individuals Private sector Children and (buisiness) their families www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 14
Child labour and Poverty Poverty causes Child Labour Child Labour child labour and child labour causes poverty !! EDUCATION EDUCATION To break Poverty Poverty the cycle !!www.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 15
IPEC: Philosophy and objectives Knowledge KnowledgeOperationsOperations /Advocacy /Advocacy Combating Combating child child labour labour Programmes and Projects Programmes and Projects Awareness at local, national Awareness at local, national in the field in the field and international level and international level www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 16
What is the Time-Bound Programme? Clear goals – specific targets – defined time frame Operates at many levels: international, national, provincial, community, Definition: individual/family. A set of integrated & coordinated Addresses root causes of WFCL. policies & programmes to prevent & eliminate a Links to national development effort. country’s worst forms ofchild labour within a defined period of time. Emphasis on “country ownership”. www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 17
The global crisis and child labour Unique dimensions of present global crisis Impact on developing and vulnerable economies Coping mechanisms of vulnerable households Scarce empirical evidence on schooling and child labour from previous economic shocks Implications for policy and follow-up action by ILO/IPEC Decent work agenda (ILO Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalisation, June 2008) www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 18
The global crisis and child labour ILOGlobal Jobs Pact, adopted by the ILC through tripartite consensus on 19.06.09 amongst 183 delegations (183 ILO Member states): EU played an active role through the EU coordination at ILC Decent work response to the crisis: action at national, regional and global level Also request by G 20 April 2009 Summit Part of UN system response to the crisis (CEB issues paper) www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 19
Some required policy measures Principles and menu of measures for responding to the crisis taking into account national priorities and needs e.g.: Prevent an erosion of progress in eliminating child labour Re-prioritize expenditures to benefit the poor and vulnerable (“Social Stimulus”) Broadening coverage of social protection systems Mitigate the effects on labour markets and education systems Promoting youth employment www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 20
ILO action on elimination of child labour in Europe In EU: all 27 EU MS have ratified Conventions 138 and 182 (as well as the 6 other CLS conventions; most EU 27 have ratified other up to date priority conventions) EU 1993 Directive on protection of young workers, including minimum age European social fund and EU social protection and social inclusion strategy (specific and general approach) Past initiatives in Portugal and ongoing initiatives in Romania, Bulgaria (Decent work country programmes in past and now decent work agenda) www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 21
ILO action on elimination of child labour in Europe EU candidate, potential candidate countries and some ENP ILO action in Albania, Kosovo-UNMIK, Moldova, Ukraine See ILO note: 17.000 child labourers and children at risk have received direct services from ILO IPEC (no EU funds, bilateral funds from Germany, US). ILO action in Turkey: EU pre-access financial assistance 2005-2007 funded ILO IPEC programme other funds intervened to support the ILO-Turkey 1992-2006 long term strategic action plan as well as other ongoing action Child labour survey (2007): 958.000 children between 6 and 17 age engaged in economic activity; 502.000 in rural economy), in 1994 2.269.0000 children at work www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 22
EU support for ILO action on child labour in the world EU action on the rights of children: June 2009 EU Forum was dealing with child labour Development and external aid: mainly Africa (ACP), EU- LAC social cohesion initative, some initiatives in Asia (e.g. Pakistan) EU trade and trade related policy: GSP and GSP plus, bilateral agreements Broader decent work agenda: growing EU support for a broader approch e.g. skills development, extending social protection coverage www.ilo.org/ipe c International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 23
For more information: please contact International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 4, Route des Morillons CH-1211 Geneva 22 Switzerland Tel.: (+41 - 22) 799 81 81 Fax: (+41 - 22) 799 87 71 E-mail: email@example.com Brussels@ilo.org ILO Brussels website www.ilo.org/brussels Child labour website: http://www.ilo.org/childlabourwww.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour 24