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DI Powerpoint

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  • Main points to make while talking about this slide:
    To differentiate instruction is to recognize students’ varying background knowledge, readiness, learning styles, and interests and to react to that.
    The intent of differentiated instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and designing instruction that matches students’ needs.
  • Go through and talk about each green box.
    Content – What is being taught. You can differentiate the actual content being presented to students.
    Process – How the student learns what is being taught. For example, some students need to interact with the material physically, some might prefer to read a book.
    Product – How the student shows what he/she has learned. For example, students can write a paper or they can present information orally.
    Readiness – Skill level and background knowledge of child. We try to stay away from the word “ability” because you don’t always know the ability level of a child if their readiness level is low.
    Interest – Child’s interest or preferences – these can be interests within the curricular area (for example, they might be interested specifically in learning about folklore in a unit on volcanoes) or in general (for example, knowing a student’s favorite cartoon character could allow you to tie that into an example and might motivate the student)
    Learning Profile – This includes learning style (is the student a visual, auditory, tactile, or kinesthetic learner), as well as preferences for environmental (such as level of distraction, exposure to light or noise) or grouping factors (small group, large group, or individual)
  • Explain each of these using the following handouts:
    For Choice Boards:
    First – show the Diner menu handout. Explain that each student does the appetizer and they have choice on the entrees and an option of the dessert. Explain that you can easily modify this for particular students so that they have more or less choice (for example, perhaps the appetizer is optional for students at a higher readiness level, while the dessert is not optional). Point out that each entrée activity lead to the same outcome, but students choose the way in which they get there.
    Second – show the Think-Tac-Toe board. Students pick 3 activities to do, crossing them off the way you would need to in tic-tac-toe. Explain that you can also give students modified choices by telling them that the have to do three diagonally (and therefore must do the one in the middle) or horizontally.
    For Tiered Activities:
    Show the tiered activities lesson plan. Explain that all three lessons address the same outcome, but each lesson is adjusted according to student readiness.
    For Learning Contracts:
    There are two handouts for this. One is a more elementary example and the other is more secondary. Explain how these can be used so that students can explore areas of interest in more depth and take some ownership and planning of their work. These are also good for students to work on when they must do independent work while the teacher works with small groups.
  • Tell participants they are now going to look at some strategies in more depth.
    Go to the next slide.
  • Start Slowly – begin with one subject and one technique – use it for a while then add more
    It will take students, as well as the teacher, time to adjust to a new way of learning.
    Organize your classroom space – think about how your room is arranged and whether it provides space and materials for students to work in various configurations
    Go to the next slide
  • One way a classroom can be set up
    The teacher station is for work with small groups. All needed materials are on the shelf behind the teacher so that teacher and students can stay in one place (not get up to get things) during that group work time.
    Desks can be manipulated so students can work independently, in small groups, or in pairs. Each student should, if possible, have a “home base” desk that they go to when they first come to class.
    Teacher station 2 can be used if there is a classroom aide or a co-teacher. If not – it can be used for student small group work or for a learning station.
    The inboxes can be used to store materials or as places where students turn in work. Think about labeling them by subject area for elementary school or by class period for secondary students. Color coding materials can also help students find things quickly without teacher assistance – for example, all math books are red or all 2nd period journals are yellow. Organize things on the bookshelf this way as well.
    Always keep a schedule and group assignments posted. Kids should be able to figure out where they are supposed to be and who they are working with without having to ask the teacher.
    The red hexagons represent pillows – give students opportunities to work on the floor if it meets their learning profile. Create structure around this (for example, they pick one place and stay there for a defined time period), but allow students to be comfortable when they work. It will help motivate.
  • Student Files: Have a set of folders where you can easily place anecdotal notes about students or copies of completed assessments.
    Student portfolios: Have students keep work in portfolios or independent work folders that they monitor (see record keeping chart handout – kids can use it to monitor their work and it provides you with an easy way to see what they’re doing). Portfolios can also be examples of best work or of a progression of skills. If kids put writing samples in a portfolio every month then the teacher has a basis of assessment and can discuss with the student how his or her work has progressed over the months. This also helps teach students how to set their own goals.
    Clipboard: If you always carry a clipboard, kids get used to you writing on it. Carry goal tracking sheets on your clipboard so that you can keep track of what students are working on on a daily basis. You can also put blank index cards on your clipboard and take anecdotal notes throughout the day. Those note cards can then be placed in student files.
    Use of technology: Providing students with websites and other technology can allow them to work more independently. There are websites listed on the Resources handout that fall in this category.
    Start class with familiar tasks: this allows everyone to have a starting place (a warm-up question, for example) that can be completed while the teacher takes care of administrative tasks or moves students to groups.
    Task cards, tape recorder, or overhead for directions: give students ways to hear and review directions so that they do not need to interrupt instruction or a teacher’s work with a small group. Directions can be written on index cards, tape recorded, and/or posted on an overhead or chart paper in the room.
    System for student questions: Decide on steps that students should take before they ask the teacher a question. For example, first they use a set of pre-determined strategies (looking in their journal, skimming the textbook, looking online, etc.), next they ask a peer, finally they can ask the teacher. Then decide how students should ask the teacher questions if the teacher is working with a small group at the time (for example, they could write their question on an index card and place it by the teacher, who could write a response without interrupting much of the small group work.
  • Teachers can’t possibly individualize for 30 kids, so they need to plan using “user friendly” strategies to address different readiness levels, interests, and student profiles. Tiered instruction allows the teacher to make slight adjustments within the same lesson or unit for different learners.
    A teacher will only tier when it makes sense for the kids and the concepts or skills being taught.
  • With a little thought, almost any classroom activity can be tiered.
    Two or three tiers is usually best for implementation. However, a teacher who is experienced and comfortable with the strategy may have more tiers if it facilitates the instruction or better meets the needs of the students.
  • This graphic represents a sequence for planning a tiered activity or assignment. (Walk through graphic) There is nothing sacred about three groups---the teacher may want to use two groups or as many as four or five. Assessment, diagnosis, and prescription are integral to the use of this strategy. The strategy itself is very visible and viable and usually makes sense to students and parents.
  • Another method for developing tiered assignments or activities is to first develop an on-level task and then make slight adjustments up or down. Some tasks in each tier may be the same while others might be changed to match student readiness levels.
    Factors from the six-step framework should still be considered in this planning process.
  • Dr. Carol Tomlinson from the University of Virginia has developed an instrument called “The Equalizer” that can be used by teachers to consider different factors that can be adjusted to provide challenge and success.
    This overhead lists some of the areas that teachers should consider when making adjustments for students in different groups.
  • The equalizer works in the same way that you might adjust the volume on your stereo. The teacher uses the equalizer as a planning tool to think about the kinds of adjustments that might be made for struggling, on-level, and advanced learners. This is an attempt to match the task with readiness levels of the students. It is not necessary to adjust all nine equalizer buttons for each activity.
  • Transcript

    1. Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    2. Differentiated Instruction Defined “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.” Carol Ann Tomlinson
    3. Research Brain research suggests three broad and interrelated principles that point clearly to the need for differentiated classrooms, that is, classrooms responsive to students’: • Varying language readiness levels, • Varying interests, and • Varying learning profiles.   http://www.ascd.org/pdi/demo/diffinstr/tomlinson.html How the Brain Learns, Carol Ann Tomlinson and M. Layne Kalbfleisch
    4. Research Brain Research confirms what experienced teachers have always known:     No two children are alike. No two children learn in the same identical way. An enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for another. In the classroom, children should be taught to think for themselves. Marian Diamonds: Professor of Neuroanatomy at Berkeley http://www.ascd.org/cms/objectlib/ascdframeset/index.cfm?publication=http://www.ascd.org/publications/ed_lead/199811/darcangelo.html
    5. Brain Research • An enriched environment gives students the opportunity to make sense out of what they are learning. • The brain constantly seeks connections between the new and the known. • Allow the child to be an active participant rather than a passive observer. • Students need appropriate challenge.
    6. Research says . . . • Most teachers and students have not been in effective differentiated classrooms. • Most teachers believe differentiated instruction would benefit students but do not believe it is feasible. • Most teachers who try differentiated instruction often are more reactive than proactive in planning. • Even special class settings seldom differentiate for multiple exceptionalities. Tomlinson, 2005 Schumm & Vaughn, 1991
    7. A New Paradigm • Curriculum is defined as to what a student will be able to demonstrate • Each student experiences successful outcomes • Essential that we understand what the student knew at the beginning and move forward from that point in a successful manner • Need to understand how each student learns best • Need to build on what each student already knows
    8. Ways Individuals Can Differ—Know Your Students • • • • • • Cognitive and Affective Domains Prior Knowledge and Skill Experience Learning Rate Learning Style Preferences Motivation, Attitudes, and Effort Interests, Multiple Intelligence Strengths, and Talents
    9. Differentiation: Differentiated Instruction Differentiation is a teaching concept in which the classroom teacher plans for the diverse needs of students. The teacher must consider such differences as the students’: • Learning styles, skill levels, and rates • Learning difficulties • Language proficiency • Background experiences and knowledge • Interests • Motivation • Ability to attend • Social and emotional development • Various intelligences • Levels of abstraction • Physical needs
    10. Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results --Albert Einstein
    11. 25-Year History in Education • Acknowledge that one size does not fit all • Research showed students benefited most from heterogeneous classes • Demand to eliminate segregation based on color, disability, and language • Look at Learning Styles, Multiple Intelligences, Cognitive and Affective Domains—Physical, Social, and Emotional
    12. Differentiate Differentiate (Verb) To: “mark as different, a distinctive feature or attribute or characteristic; become different during development; develop in a way most suited to the environment; become distinct and acquire a different character.”
    13. What is Differentiation? • A teacher’s response to learner needs • The recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and preferences • Instruction that appeals to students’ differences
    14. In a Differentiated Classroom Teachers Differentiate • Content • Process • Products According to a student’s • Readiness • Interest • Learning Profile
    15. Good Teaching is Differentiating Content, Process, and Products • Pace/Level Compacting, Learning Stations, Tiered Activities • Depth/Breadth Integrated Curriculum, Learning Styles, Creative Processes • Grouping Cluster, Interest, Tiered, Independent Smutney & Von Fremd, 2004
    16. The Key The Key to a differentiated classroom is that all students are regularly offered CHOICES and students are matched with tasks compatible with their individual learner profiles. Curriculum should be differentiated in three areas: 1. Content: Multiple options for taking in information 2. Process: Multiple options for making sense of the ideas 3. Product: Multiple options for expressing what they know
    17. Key Characteristic of a Differentiated Classroom An obvious feature of the differentiated classroom is that it is “student centered.” Shifting the emphasis from the "teacher and instruction" focus to the "student and learning" focus means redefining the role of the teacher.
    18. Teachers Can Differentiate Content Process Product According to Students’ Readiness Interest Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999) Learning Profile
    19. Some Differentiation Strategies • Choice Boards • Tiered Activities • Learning Contracts
    20. Differentiation Strategies
    21. Low Preparation Differentiation • • • • • • • • Choice of books Homework options Multiple level texts Multiple level questions Journal prompts Explore by interest Think-Pair-Share Flexible groups by readiness, interest, and learning profile • Computer programs • Multiple levels of questions • Work alone or together • Reading buddies • Vary pacing • Negotiated criteria • Open-ended activities • Jigsaw • Games Tomlinson, 2001
    22. High Preparation Differentiation • • • • • • • • • • Tiered Activities Tiered Projects Multiple Texts Multiple Testing Options Alternative Assessments Course Compacting Spelling by Readiness Varying Organizers Learning Contracts Compacting • Tiered Centers • Interest Centers/Group Stations • Group Investigations • Choice Boards • Think-Tac-Toe • Graduated Rubrics Tomlinson, 2001
    23. Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom • Start slowly • Organize your classroom space
    24. Teacher Station 1 Inboxes Bookshelf Teacher Station 2 Schedule Group Assignments
    25. • • • • • • • Concrete  Abstract Simple  Complex Basic  Transformational Fewer  Multi-facets Smaller Leaps  Greater Leaps More Structure  More Open Slower  Quicker
    26. Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom • • • • • • Start student files Start student portfolios Use a clipboard Use of technology Start class with familiar tasks Use task cards, a tape recorder, or an overhead for directions • Have systems for student questions
    27. Differentiation is . . . • A way of thinking about teaching and learning • A philosophy based on a set of beliefs • A blend of whole class, small group, and individual instruction • A teaching theory based on the premise that instructional approaches should vary and be adaptable to diverse students • Not new and not whole class all the time • Is necessary but not needed every day
    28. If everyone is doing the same thing, it is not differentiation.
    29. What Differentiated Instruction Is Not • • • • • A recipe for teaching What the teacher does when he/she has time Grouping by scholastic ability Synonymous with individual instruction Lines of students waiting for help from the teacher • Hard to keep track of student knowledge • Just about student choice
    30. Concept of Differentiated Instruction • As old as Confucious who taught over 3,000 students was willing to teach anyone advised that people differ in their abilities counseled you have to start where they are • As old as a one-room school house students vary greatly in age, experience, abilities, and proficiency
    31. More about the one-room schoolhouse . . . • Teachers had to be flexible in use of time, space, materials, groupings, and instruction. • Teachers had to plan for different instruction based on what level of mastery the student performed.
    32. The past 25 years in education • Consolidated schools • Assigned students to classrooms according to age • Had wisdom that teacher’s job would be easier if age was factored out of the teaching/learning equation. • Believed one lesson worked for the whole group—teaching to the middle
    33. Teaching is one of the greatest joys of life. • Let all students have an equal chance to learn. • Since the 1970s the numbers in special education have increased 400%. • Now the ratio is 7:1. For every 7 students there is 1 special education student. • Why? Assessment instruments, Psychologists, better informed parents, and teachers have become more compassionate
    34. Today • High-stakes testing • Testing mandates • Appear to be moving beyond one-size fits all • Hearing about the concept of Differentiated Instruction • Advanced learners likely to suffer in heterogeneous placement unless opportunities are consistently available
    35. Research reports . . . Most teachers persist with a singlesize approach and are repeatedly disappointed by test scores and shortfall in student achievement.
    36. Students learn best when • Supportive adults push them slightly (moderately) beyond where they can work without assistance • They make connections between curriculum and interests in life experiences • Learning opportunities are natural • Classrooms and schools create a sense of community where students feel significant and respected
    37. Why Differentiate? • At school every student’s job is to learn • Ultimate goal is effective classroom practices • Every student learning—whatever it takes
    38. How to Differentiate • Survey student interests, learning styles, and multiple intelligences • Assess prior knowledge • Vary content, process (activities), and product • Keep it simple, start small, take small steps, take it slow • Use learning centers • Use Different Grouping Strategies • Use Technology (Internet research and Webquests)
    39. Differentiate Content • Determine what you want the student to be able to know, understand, and do • Requires pretesting • Compacting curriculum to identify students who do not require direct instruction who can proceed to tasks of solving a problem or accelerating rate of progress • Means some students can work independently and cover content faster
    40. Differentiate Process • Use a variety of learning activities and strategies • Give students alternate paths • Use varied complexity of graphic organizers, maps, diagrams, and charts to display comprehension • Grouping strategies • Provide variety of resources • Provide extension activities • Ongoing assessment to modify strategies • Provide frequent feedback
    41. Layered Curriculum • • • C Level Most assignments, general understanding, 15-20 choices B Level where student looks forward to finishing C and getting to B A Level—ultimate goal Turn out students who can critically think about issues, analyze, research, and form an opinion Kathy Nunley’s Layered Curriculum http://help4teachers.com/samples2.htm
    42. TIERED INSTRUCTION A PLANNING STRATEGY FOR MIXED ABILITY CLASSROOMS “A Different Spin on an Old Idea.” SOURCE: based on work by Carol Ann Tomlinson
    43. WHAT CAN BE TIERED? • • • • • • • • • ASSIGNMENTS ACTIVITIES CENTERS & STATIONS LEARNING CONTRACTS ASSESSMENTS MATERIALS EXPERIMENTS WRITING PROMPTS HOMEWORK
    44. IDENTIFY OUTCOMES WHAT SHOULD THE STUDENTS KNOW, UNDERSTAND, OR BE ABLE TO DO? THINK ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS PRE-ASSESS READINESS, INTEREST, OR LEARNING PROFILE INITIATING ACTIVITIES USE AS COMMON EXPERIENCE FOR WHOLE CLASS GROUP 1 TASK GROUP 2 TASK GROUP 3 TASK
    45. Planning Tiered Assignments Concept to be Understood OR Skill to be Mastered Create on-level task first then adjust up and down. Below-Level Task On-Level Task “Adjusting the Task” Above-Level Task
    46. When Tiering: Adjust--• Level of Complexity • Amount of Structure • Materials • Time/Pace • Number of Steps • Form of Expression • Level of Dependence
    47. Develop Tiered Activities for Advanced Learners • • • • • Tiered means different work not more work Encourage broader reading Focus on problem solving Develop creative talents Provide meaningful work with peers of similar interests • Promote higher level thinking
    48. The “Equalizer” 1. Foundational Transformational 2. Concrete Abstract 3. Simple Complex 5. Smaller Leap 6. More Structured 7. Clearly Defined Problems 8. Less Independence 4. Fewer Facets Greater Leap More Open Fuzzy Problems Greater Independence Multi-facets 9. Slower Quicker
    49. Differentiate Products • Vary the complexity of the product to demonstrate mastery of concepts • Have reduced performance expectations for students working below grade level • Require more complex and advanced thinking for advanced learners • Offer a choice of products to address multiple intelligence strengths and motivate student learning
    50. to Differentiate Product • Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile • Clear expectations • Timelines • Agreements • Product Guides • Rubrics • Evaluation
    51. Curriculum Tells Us What To Teach Differentiation Tells Us How To Teach What do you want students to know, understand, and do? • • • • • Need a flexible learning environment Need student-centered focus on student interests Encourage independence Modifications in content, process, and projects Richer, more rigor, more diverse, and encourage abstract and complexity
    52. • • • • • • • • • • • • • A Student who UNDERSTANDS Something can… Explain it clearly, giving examples Use it Compare and contrast it with other concepts Relate it to other instances in the subject studies, other subjects and personal life experiences Transfer it to unfamiliar settings Discover the concept embedded within a novel problem Combine it appropriately with other understandings Pose new problems that exemplify or embody the concept Create analogies, models, metaphors, symbols, or pictures of the concept Pose and answer “what-if” questions that alter variables in a problematic situation Generate questions and hypotheses that lead to new knowledge and further inquiries Generalize from specifics to form a concept Use the knowledge to appropriately assess his or her performance, or that of someone else. Adopted from Barell, J. (1995) Teaching for thoughtfulness: Classroom Strategies
    53. Skills These are the basic skills of any discipline. They include the thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing. These are the skills of planning, the skills of being an independent learner, the skills of setting and following criteria, the skills of using the tools of knowledge such as adding, dividing, understanding multiple perspectives, following a timeline, calculating latitude, or following the scientific method. The skill portion encourages the students to “think” like the professionals who use the knowledge and skill daily as a matter of how they do business. This is what it means to “be like” a doctor, a scientist, a writer or an artist.
    54. Build Self-Efficacy • Can-do Attitude • Successes build belief • Most effective is through mastery experiences • Failures can undermine • One’s judgment of one’s capability to perform given activities Siegle, 2005
    55. A New Paradigm in Education • People learn at different rates • Students are not learning enough • Students need mastery learning and sense of self-efficacy • Make continuous progress • Teacher as coach/facilitator • Need for thinking skills and problem solving skills • Strengthen Interpersonal skills
    56. Our new mission is Learning • Produce learning with every student • Work backwards by design—identify the desired outcomes • Provide a variety of learning strategies • Provide more opportunities to learn • Offer different pacing • Increase collaboration between students and teachers • Differentiate the core curriculum by modifying content, process, and product based on students interests, learning profile, and readiness
    57. Differentiation—Goal of the Teacher Become an expert on differentiation • Powerful curriculum is what will make the best difference in student achievement • Increase challenge in the core curriculum • Reflective understanding • Network with other teachers • Attend professional development workshops • Become a professional in the field of differentiation.
    58. Differentiation Instruction for Interest – Readiness – Learning Profile by Self – Peers - Teachers

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