Rainforestation: A Paradigm Shift in
Rainforestation Farming:
A Paradigm Shift in Forest
       Restoration

     Forest R...
OUTLINE
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Rest...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Forest loss in Leyte
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest...
Most reforestation efforts in
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A               the Philippines focus on the
 ...
Rainforestation
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A               as an option for rural development and
 A Pa...
OBJECTIVES
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        R...
Marcos, Baybay
Before RF implementation
Rainforestation Farming:
A Paradigm Shift in Forest
       Restoration




       ...
Marcos, Baybay
                                 Established in 1995
Rainforestation Farming:
A Paradigm Shift in Forest
  ...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest            Operation...
Sun demanding local forest tree species
                                     recommended for RF on degraded limestone
    ...
Shade loving local forest tree species of Leyte
                                     Leyte recommended for RF on volcanic ...
PLANTING SCHEME
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
    ...
Reasons why the utilization of indigenous
                                       Philippine forest tree species received
R...
Effects of Rainforestation on
                                                    Site Quality
Rainforestation Farming:
  ...
1. Improvement of soil chemical
                                         properties;
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainfore...
2. Improvement of soil structure and
                                        water holding capacity;
Rainforestation Farmi...
1

Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restorati...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
3. Improvement of soil organic matter
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A                 and soil color;
 A P...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
4. Improvement of nutrient status;

Rainforestation Farming:
                                          Rainforestation sit...
5. Improvement of biological activity;
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A                    and
 A ParadigmS...
What is Rainforestation Farming?
                                      A farming system that closely resembles the
Rainfo...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Table 1. Economic and environmental benefits of
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest...
Rainforestation Farming:
A Paradigm Shift in Forest
       Restoration




                     PPMilan
Global Warming
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
     ...
Consequences of
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
    ...
Strategies to Mitigate and Adapt
                                                Climate Change
Rainforestation Farming: W...
 During Rainy Season WHEN WATER IS TOO
                                     MUCH!

Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainfores...
•Improve fish cage management

Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A               HEALTH
 A ParadigmShift in Fo...
•Integrate coastal resource management
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A               •Integrate adaptation...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
Baybay, Albuera ,Ormoc &
                               San Miguel, Leyte
                                  • VSU demo far...
Major Accomplishments

                                                                        • After 16 years of Rainfor...
Improve our program on:
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in For...
Rainforestation Farming:
    Rainforestation: A
 A ParadigmShift in Forest
  Paradigm Shift in Forest
        Restoration
...
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MINDANAO COURSE - Rainforestation: A Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation / Paciencia P. Milan

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MINDANAO COURSE - Rainforestation: A Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation / Paciencia P. Milan

  1. 1. Rainforestation: A Paradigm Shift in Rainforestation Farming: A Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Forest Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation PACIENCIA P. MILAN, PhD University Professor Visayas State University Presented during the Mindanao Rainforest Restoration Forum PPMilan
  2. 2. OUTLINE Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the INTRODUCTION Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Status of Philippine Forests Change Mitigation RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme INTRODUCTION Native Tree Species used in RF Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT RAINFORESTATION FARMING Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  3. 3. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE Ridge-to-Reef Concept PPMilan
  4. 4. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Farmers continue to cut down trees to RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE give way for more agriculture lands and for economic reasons foremost. PPMilan
  5. 5. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  6. 6. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  7. 7. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  8. 8. Forest loss in Leyte Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest 1900 2005 Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan Source: Nueberger, 2005
  9. 9. Most reforestation efforts in Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A the Philippines focus on the A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the development of forestry and Philippines for Sustainability and Climate agro-forestry system using tree Change Mitigation species which are introduced because they are selected for their fast growth and easy INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests germination. The species composition of the original RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE forest that once covered the CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES land prior to logging are rarely taken into account . CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE Milan and Margraf, 1996 PPMilan
  10. 10. Rainforestation Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A as an option for rural development and A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest biodiversity conservation Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate • uses native/local trees of the area to be Change Mitigation reforested (biodiversity) • gives importance on improvement of INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests structural habitat to support wildlife RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT (habitat restoration) Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF • supports Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE sustainable development CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES through organic practices in agricultural CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE and forestry production (agroforestry) • provides ecological services(watershed) PPMilan
  11. 11. OBJECTIVES Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the 1. To replace the more destructive forms Philippines for of slash-and-burn or kaingin practices Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation 2. To form a buffer-zone around the primary forest INTRODUCTION 3. To protect forest biodiversity Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme 4. To help maintain the water cycle and Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming other ecological services of forest RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES 5. To provide farmers with higher income CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  12. 12. Marcos, Baybay Before RF implementation Rainforestation Farming: A Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration PPMilan
  13. 13. Marcos, Baybay Established in 1995 Rainforestation Farming: A Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration PPMilan
  14. 14. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Operational Framework of Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Rainforestation Change Mitigation • Habitat restoration INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests • Biodiversity conservation RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF • Provision of ecological Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE functions/services CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  15. 15. Sun demanding local forest tree species recommended for RF on degraded limestone hills (in decreasing order of productivity). Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Local Name Official Scientific Name Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation Kalumpit Terminalia microcarpa Anislag Securinega flexuosa Bagalunga Melia dubia Dao Dracontomelon dao INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests Ipil Intsia bijuga RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Mntn. Agoho Casuarina nodiflora Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming Kamagong Diospyros philippenensis RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Bahay Ormosia calavensis RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE Molave Vitex parviflora Lingo-lingo Vitex turczaninowii PPMilan
  16. 16. Shade loving local forest tree species of Leyte Leyte recommended for RF on volcanic soils Local Name Official Scientific Name Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A Palosapis Anisoptera thurifera A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Apitong Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Restoration Restoration in the HairyApitong Dipterocarpus philippinensis Philippines for Hagakhak Dipterocarpus warburgii Sustainability and Climate Manggachapui Hopea acuminata Change Mitigation Dalingdingan Hopea foxworthyi Gisok-gisok Hopea philippinensis Yakal-kaliot Hopea malibato Bagtikan Parashorea malaanonan White Lauan Shorea contorta INTRODUCTION Almon Shorea almon Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Guijo Shorea guiso Planting Scheme Yakal-malibato Shorea malibato Native Tree Species used in RF Red lauan Shorea negrosensis Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE Tangile Shorea polysperma CHANGE MITIGATION Mayapis Shorea palosapis RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES Kamagong Diospyros philippensis CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE Talakatak Castanopsis philippinensis Ulaian Lithocarpus pruinosa Dungon Heritiera sylvatica Kulatingan Pterospermum obliquum Balobo Diplodiscus paniculatus PPMilan
  17. 17. PLANTING SCHEME Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  18. 18. Reasons why the utilization of indigenous Philippine forest tree species received Rainforestation Farming: minimal support in reforestation programs Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the • native species especially dipterocarps grow slow; Philippines for Sustainability and Climate • dipterocarps fruit only about every 3-5 years Change Mitigation depending on species and locality; • not enough seedling materials can be produced in a short time because nursery management of INTRODUCTION native species are not fully studied; Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme • dipterocarp seedlings (but not all) and other native Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming species require shade and cannot be used to RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE reforest open areas, e.g. grasslands; and CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE • local lumber species have higher wood quality but not propagated, hence, the mother trees become very rare and seed material is even less available. PPMilan
  19. 19. Effects of Rainforestation on Site Quality Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the 1. Improvement of soil chemical properties; Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation 2. Improvement of soil structure and water holding capacity; 3. Improvement of soil organic matter and INTRODUCTION soil color; Status of Philippine Forests 4. Improvement of nutrient status; RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF 5. Improvement of biological activity; and Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION 6. Improvement of microclimate RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  20. 20. 1. Improvement of soil chemical properties; Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Site 1994 1998 2002 Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation Rainforestation site (LSU) – acidic soil Soil pH 4.2 4.8 5.2 INTRODUCTION Rainforestation site (Punta) – calcareous soil Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Soil pH 8.2 7.4 7.2 Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Secondary forest (LSU) = soil pH 4.5 – 4.7 RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  21. 21. 2. Improvement of soil structure and water holding capacity; Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate - increased soil structure Change Mitigation formation due to microbial and animal activity INTRODUCTION - increased water holding Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme capacity due to improved Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES porosity CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  22. 22. 1 Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate 2 Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming Distribution of decomposer soil fungi on the secondary RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE forest floor in VSU. Diplopod faecal pellet at the left CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES upper corner Ø 3 mm (1), litter fragment (2), stalk (3). CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE The fungi penetrated the pellets from inside; The white mycelium grows on the pellet surface. PPMilan
  23. 23. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the 3 Philippines for Sustainability and Climate 1 Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION 2 Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE Soil structure improved by biological aggregates on the CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES forest floor at the demonstration farm at ViSCA. Cluster CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE of arthropod faecal pellets (1, single pellet Ø 1mm), earthworm casts (2), and fungal mycelium (3). PPMilan
  24. 24. 3. Improvement of soil organic matter Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A and soil color; A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation - darkening of color of surface soil a) Rainforestation (VSU) INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests yellowish brown dark brown RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE b) Rainforestation (Punta) CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES very pale brown dark brown to black CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  25. 25. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE Rainforestation site (Punta) PPMilan
  26. 26. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES Rainforestation site CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE (VSU) PPMilan
  27. 27. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Secondary forest site RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE (VSU) PPMilan
  28. 28. 4. Improvement of nutrient status; Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation site (VSU) Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Nutrient 1994 2002 Philippines for OM 2.06 3.25 Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation (%) Total N (%) 0.22 0.33 INTRODUCTION Avail. P 0.40 1.05 Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT (ppm) Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Exch. Ca (me/100g) 4.60 9.47 RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE Exch. Mg (me/100g) 2.80 8.32 PPMilan
  29. 29. 5. Improvement of biological activity; Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A and A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for 6. Improvement of microclimate Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation Measured in Demonstration farm, Secondary forest, Rainforestation farm, depth of (cm) ViSCA ViSCA Punta INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests pH (CaCL2) 0-4 5.53 4.66 7.35 RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme 4-8 4.72 4.52 7.60 Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming H2O (%) 0-2 37.97 43.70 19.88 RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES Soil-temp. (°C) 0-2 26.70 25.40 26.00 CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE Air-temp. (°C) 2 27.00 26.50 29.50 PPMilan
  30. 30. What is Rainforestation Farming?  A farming system that closely resembles the Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A structure of a natural Philippine rainforest A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest ecosystems or home gardens that promotes the Restoration Restoration in the use of native or local trees commonly growing in Philippines for the area. Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation  It is based on a preliminary working hypothesis that the closer a farming system in the humid tropic is to its natural ecosystem, the more INTRODUCTION sustainable it is. Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme  It evolves from various efforts to sustain human Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming food production and simultaneously preserve the RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems and their vital RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES functions to mankind CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE  It considers farming systems to support livelihood to increase farmer income PPMilan
  31. 31. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Lanzones Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  32. 32. Table 1. Economic and environmental benefits of Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest selected RF sites Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION * calculated in the frame of the Clean Development Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES ** price for permanent CER is assumed $10 (based from PointCarbon 2004) an is calculated CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE using a discounted rate of 8.2% within a period of 10 years of RF implementation PPMilan
  33. 33. Rainforestation Farming: A Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration PPMilan
  34. 34. Global Warming Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  35. 35. Consequences of Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Climate Change Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sea level rise Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation   Ocean acidification INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests  Rise in temperature RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF  Loss of biodiversity Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION  High health risk RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE  Poor productivity  Habitat loss PPMilan
  36. 36. Strategies to Mitigate and Adapt Climate Change Rainforestation Farming: WATER Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest •Water conservation Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for •Rainwater harvesting and storage Sustainability and Climate Forest is a rainwater harvesting Change Mitigation ecosystem •Better management of water supply systems AGRICULTURE INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests •Conserve soil RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme •Forecasts and early warning Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming •More resistant crop varieties RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION •Irrigation solutions RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE •Develop simple measures for handling rapid harvesting and postharvesting PPMilan
  37. 37.  During Rainy Season WHEN WATER IS TOO MUCH! Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Flooding of Paradigm Shift in Forest Excessive Increasing Agricultural Restoration Restoration in the Runoff Flood Peaks Areas Philippines for High Intensity Sustainability and Climate Rainfall Change Mitigation Severe Landslides ? Silted Rivers Erosion /reduced capacity of irrig. sys. INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests  During Dry Season WHEN WATER IS TOO RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme LITTLE! Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Reduced RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES Stream flow CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE High Temp & evaporation; Insufficient • Reduction in Dry soils Water for Yield Irrigation • Total Crop Loss Declining GW PPMilan Level
  38. 38. •Improve fish cage management Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A HEALTH A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the •Improve access to health care Philippines for Sustainability and Climate •Disease monitoring and Change Mitigation emergency responses ECOSYSTEMS INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests •Rainforestation •Rehabilitate habitats RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE •Create protected areas and CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES migration corridors •Conserve ecosystems CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  39. 39. •Integrate coastal resource management Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A •Integrate adaptation to planning A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the •Construct sea walls Philippines for •Raise housing Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INCREASED FLOODING •Elevate major thorougfare INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests •Flood-proof building RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme •Provide flood hazard mapping and flood warnings Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES •Empower community and CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE institutions PPMilan
  40. 40. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Challenges and Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation Perspective INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  41. 41. Baybay, Albuera ,Ormoc & San Miguel, Leyte • VSU demo farm = 5.44 has • 20 RF adopters = 29.50 has Rainforestation Farming: • Private adopters = 7.00 has A Paradigm Shift in Forest • TransCo = 10.00 has • CBFM (Cienda) = 15.00 has Restoration • NSTP = 2.70 has TOTAL = 69.60 has Maasin, Macrohon, St. Bernard & Silago, So. Leyte • Diocese of Maasin = 5.00 has • 6 PO’s in St. Bernard = 9.00 has • GTZ supported = 340.00 has • NatureLife Int’l. = 5.00 has TOTAL = 359.00 has Biliran, Biliran • Private adopters = 9.00 has • NIT -Biliran = 11.00 ha TOTAL = 20.00 has PPMilan
  42. 42. Major Accomplishments • After 16 years of Rainforestation Rainforestation Farming: advocacy and implementation, a A Paradigm Shift in Forest total of 183.34 hectares demo Restoration farms were established • Issuance of DENR MC 2004-06 • Rainforestation is used as a strategy in establishing biodiversity corridors in existing national parks and certificates of ancestral domain claim or title • Rainforestation is used as a strategy for the implementation of ROAD 2020 • Rainforestation evolved in different typologies Geographical distribution of Rainforestation Farms in the Philippines PPMilan
  43. 43. Improve our program on: Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the -education of local communities Philippines for Sustainability and Climate -promotion of sustainable use of Change Mitigation resources, responsible entrepreneurship and ecotourism -compensation of displaced people through training in better agriculture INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests production RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF -establishing research facilities for Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE training, local scientists, guides and CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES forest collaborators CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE PPMilan
  44. 44. Rainforestation Farming: Rainforestation: A A ParadigmShift in Forest Paradigm Shift in Forest Restoration Restoration in the Philippines for Sustainability and Climate Change Mitigation INTRODUCTION Status of Philippine Forests RAINFORESTATION CONCEPT Planting Scheme Native Tree Species used in RF Rainforestation Farming RAINFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION RAINFORESTATION INITIATIVES CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE Thank you! PPMilan
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