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CHIANG MAI COURSE - Doi Mae Salong lesson / Tawatchai Rattanasorn
 

CHIANG MAI COURSE - Doi Mae Salong lesson / Tawatchai Rattanasorn

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    CHIANG MAI COURSE - Doi Mae Salong lesson / Tawatchai Rattanasorn CHIANG MAI COURSE - Doi Mae Salong lesson / Tawatchai Rattanasorn Presentation Transcript

    • Forest Landscape Restoration at Doi Mae Salong REGIONAL FOREST RESTORATION TRAINING Chiang Mai University Tawatchai Rattanasorn 26 November 2010 International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Landscape: Location- Doi MaeSalong, Chiangrai, Northern Thailand International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Geographic 20°1142.00"N 99°3427.00"E tocoordinates 99°4012.00"E and 20° 612.00"N 99°3427.00"E to 99°4012.00"EMajor land use/ Agriculture, mono-culture tea plantations,cover corn, upland rice, smaller areas of young rubber tree plantations, highly disturbed primary forest, some natural secondary regeneration,Major forest Seasonally dry evergreen forest +/- bamboovegetation and pineElevation 900 – 1,500 mAnnual rainfall 1,800-2,000 mm(mm)Area and 335 sq.km, Mekong river basin, 35,000 peoplepopulation in 33 villages in 2 sub-districtsEthnic groups Akha, Chinese, Lisu, Lahu, Shan, Lawa, Local ThaiMajor threats to Deforestation for shifting cultivation, tea,biodiversity corn, rubber, fire, pesticides International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • The Landscape : Place•  Place: –  Rural, mountainous –  Headwater of Mekong –  Elevation 1200 – 1800 m a.s.l. –  Various ethnic backgrounds, e.g. hill tribes and Chinese Kuomintang•  Land use: –  agriculture, forest patches –  heavily degraded landscape Akha woman with child on her terrace (Lawyo village) © IUCN –  very complex and fragmented land use pattern International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Landscape: place and stakeholders •  Tenure: –  National Reserve Forest –  Military reserve area under control of the Royal Thai Armed Forces (RTAF) –  No legal land rights, but tolerated •  Stakeholders: –  RTAF –  Local NGOs, e.g. HDAF –  Local government –  Villages – mainly hill tribe communities –  Forest Restoration Research Unit (FORRU) of Chiang Mai University –  Royal project International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • SITUATIONS: Chaos, Complex and Dynamic • Migrant labor(5,000 Corn people) causeShifting unexpected population Rubber growth demanding more Cult. land DMS • Price of land increasedTourism Tea • Over use of agro- Cash crops chemicals • Land tenure International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Background: Environmental degradation–  Watershed highly degraded: •  water quality and quantity affected •  erosion, loss of soil fertility •  Downstream communities complained about degradation of water resources–  Significant deforestation–  High population pressure–  Slash and burn practices–  RTAF started to reforest an area where there was already agriculture and faced protests, top-down approach, therefore asked IUCN for advice International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • SECTION A: THE LANDSCAPE Goals–  “Good forest, good water, good food, good income, good life”–  participatory multi-stakeholder land use planning–  Set up a vision of what people want to achieve–  Reforestation–  Watershed rehabilitation–  Soil conservation–  Agroforestry–  Off-farm income generation for poverty reduction–  Promote cooperation btw. upstream and downstream water users International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Good Forests, Good Water,Good Income, Good Food, Good Life Thailand LLS site: Doi Mae Salong International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Driven by the Need for Pragmatic Approaches to Rehabilitation Remnant ForestRemnant Forest Slope Agriculture Rice and Corn Degraded Land Slope Agriculture International Union for Conservation of Nature Rice and Corn International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Beginning Land Use Planning•  Agreements on priority areas -Steep slope areas -headwaters•  Negotiating other Land Uses -Avoid reforesting land used for agriculture -Increase productivity of agricultural land to reduce encroachment and generate income International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • What have been doing•  Planted over 800,000 trees in 3 years total area of 4,000 rai (640 ha). 40 species•  Framework species approach demonstration plot•  School and community nursery•  Participatory land use planning and zoning of forest – agriculture land, participatory formation of land use criteria International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Livelihoods/Poverty Reduction•  Agro-Forestry Practices. Arabica coffee- Macadamia-Bamboo-Rattan-and multi-purpose fast growing species. Trial plots•  Soil and water conservation measure, improve soil fertilities-biofertilizer•  Improvement of small scale irrigation system•  Paddy terrace initiative•  Community-based ecotourism•  Fruit, vegetable ,flower crops promotion International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Participatory Land use planning/land use classification International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Other Agricultural Use Integrated Poverty ApproachDegradation International Union for Conservation of Nature Lack of Land Tenure Migration International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Negotiating and Finding Pragmatic Solutions for Conservation of Nature International Union International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Framework speciesdemonstration plot International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Negotiation of Agricultural UseLearning Nurseries International Union for Conservation of Nature DemonstrationUnion for Conservation of Nature International Sites
    • Terrace paddy field expansion-smallscale irrigation International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Coffee-Macadamia-Bamboo-Rattan-Medicinalplants-Fast growing species/Agro-forestrypractices •  120 farmer / 120 rai established coffee and Macadamia nut trial plot (400 arabica coffee and 16 Macadamia nut per rai) •  SWC measure 500 rai International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Multi purpose/fast growing species trial plots •  20,000 seedlings of Griffith’s Ash (Fraxinus griffithii), Sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana), Camphor Wood (Cinnamomum Camphora) and Taiwan Acacia were planted in the area of about 100 rai (200 tree per rai) for future benefits. International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Participatory ApproachAddressed within a negotiated framework The FLR Approach International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Land use planning /classification International Union for Conservation of NatureInternational Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Creating various Demonstration Sites to Learn From(Learning through actions) International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Livelihoods and LandscapeStrategy (LLS) Principles•  Livelihoods and landscape is an approach to poverty reduction that seeks to enable the rural poor to expand their economic opportunities while sustaining and enhancing forest and other biological resources. By working together, a shared understanding of the value of forests for improving local livelihoods can be built, with a view to influencing policies that can reduce poverty and conserve forest•  Better Forest better life = good forest, good water, good food, good income, good life. International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • The Ecosystem Approach•  The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land,water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • The 12 Principles1.  The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choice2.  Management should be decentralised to the lowest appropriate level3.  Managers should consider the effects of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems4.  Recognising potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context5.  Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem services, should be a priority target6.  Ecosystems must be managed within the limits of their functioning International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • The 12 Principles7.  Action should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales8.  Objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term9.  Management must recognise that change is inevitable10.  Action should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration of, conservation and use of biological diversity11.  Action should consider all forms of relevant information, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and practices12.  The approach should involve all relevant stakeholders of society and scientific disciplines International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Biodiversity and landscape components•  Significant areas of reforestation through FORRU•  Some reforestation through agroforestry –  effective in addressing ecosystem functions as well as income generation Tree planting action, June 2010 © IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Socio-economic components•  No measureable increases to income –  its too early to measure•  Coffee and macadamia trees take several years to mature•  Elements in place for income benefits in future•  Benefits will be there in a couple of year’s time•  Emphasis has been on developing a better fruit tree and crop variety and better farming practices International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Market analysis•  Very good markets exist, expertise exists –  No need to develop the market, reasonable infrastructure, no major policy barriers –  But: need to develop high quality goods, emphasis on quality of products Hill tribe woman weaving a bag for sale © IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Forest and ecosystemgovernance / Institutions •  Multi stakeholder platform is a means of –  making land use plans and –  negotiating land use and –  trade-offs about land International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Major lessons (1)•  Importance of bringing stakeholders together for land use decisions –  Confirmed value of multi-stakeholder processes for land use planning –  New institutional/governance arrangements added to people’s confidence about access to resources –   key to all changes: institutional innovation International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Major lessons (2)•  Unexpected partners (RTAF) •  Military has been highly flexible and open for bottom-up approach•  Success often depends on individual leadership (RTAF commander sopen to radically rethink their approach)•  Small investments can achieve a great deal•  Landscape approach also useful where there are existing markets•  Agroforestry species for reforestation•  Enthusiasm is infectious (multi-stakeholder process)•  Adaptive learning was essential to the evolution of the project, no grand plan from the beginning•  Learning, training and study tours are very valuable in creating interest and to stimulate action   Innovations in farming practices International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • SECTION C: IMPACT Challenges:•  How do we make the operation sustainable? –  RTAF may hand it over to the Royal Forest Department International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Challenges•  Balancing the needs of difference stakeholders- forest-land-water users (Up and down stream)- River Basin Organization - Integrated Basin Management ?•  Developing alternative livelihoods that make a meaningful reduction in poverty while improving conservation of the area•  Holistic approach. Participatory Action Research- Can research leads development ? International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Challenges–  Big gap between the poor and the better off–  Migrant workers/Human rights and national security–  Land use planning model (growth vs. stability)–  Marketing and Production model–  Soil and water conservation and agricultural model (good practices in high slope areas, encroachment of forest reserves–  Forest restoration model (FORRU model, King’s Model, AgroForestry Model). Finding the right mix and convincing people to learn from these practices.–  Water governance and complex regulatory frameworks (law, policy, institutions, process) International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • The National Hydrological Board divides Thailand into 25 major river basins and 254 sub-basins แม่น้ํา โขงลุ่มน้ํากก (MaeKok)8.ลุ่มน้ํากก (เขตจังหวัดเชียงราย) แม่น้ํา ลุ่มน้ําโขง (MaeKong)9.ลุ่มน้ําแม่กรณ์กก 1.ลุ่มน้ํามะ 2. ลุ่มน้ําบริเวณดอยหลวง10.ลุ่มน้ําแม่ลาว แปรเมือง 3.ลุ่มน้ําแม่คํ 4.ลุ่มน้ําแม่จัน 5.ลุ่มน้ําอิง(ที่อยู่ในจังหวัด เชียงราย) 6.ลุ่มน้ํางาว 7.ลุ่มน้ําพุง International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • ลุ่มน้ํา จัน น้ําแม่ คํ ไปอําเภอ แม่สาย ฝายป่า ฝายฮ่า ยาง ไปอําเภอ งต่ํ ฝายแม่ เชียงแสน คี 4 3 2 1 แนวทางการระบาย น้ําฝั่งซ้าย แนวทางการระบาย อ.แม่จั น้ําฝั่งขวา อ่างฯ น อ่างฯบ้าน ห้วยปู สันติคีรีอ่างฯแม่จัน ฝายหลวง ฝายน้ํา ฝาย ประปา โป่งน้ําร้อน อ่างฯป่ยปู ห้ว า ไปอําเภอเมือง อ่างฯ กุ่ม เชียงราย จะผือ International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • ลุ่มน้ําแม่ คํ น้ํา อ่างฯพญา โขง ไพรลิทู่ ไปอําเภอ แม่สาย อ่างฯบ้าน ผาจิ ฝายป่า อ่างฯแม่ อ่างฯบ้าน ถ่อน คําตอนบน เทอดไทย 2 ฝายร่องอ่างฯบ้านหิน อ่างฯบ้าน ธาตุแตก 1 เทอดไทย 1 อ่างฯบ้าน อ่างฯแม่อ่างฯบ้านหิน เทอดไทย 3 คํแตก 2 อ่างฯ ห้วย ฝาย ฝายกล้วย ห้วยหยวก หยวก ปตร.ปากเหมือง ผาม้า คํ อุดม อ่างฯบ้าน บ้านแม่ 4 3 ห้วยผึ้ง อ่างฯห้วย คํ 2 1 อ่างฯบ้านสาม หมาก สูง บ้านแม่คํา หลักเจ็ด ไปอําเภอเมือง น้ําแม่สล อง เชียงราย International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • LANDSCAPE APPROACH Learning – Participation – Adaptation Mul2‐ stakeholder
 plaAorm
 Civil
society
 Reflec2on/
 Working
with
local
 engagement
 Adapta2on
 partners
 • PRA
 • Empowerment
 • Visualisa+on
 • Governance
 • Indicators
 • Capacity
building
 • Scenarios
 • Modeling
Par2cipatory
monitoring
 Interven2ons
 Theory
of
 • Applying
rules

 change
 • Micro‐projects
 • Community
management
 • Ins+tu+onal
support
 International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature
    • Th ank you! International Union for Conservation of Nature International Union for Conservation of Nature