Participants will be able to:
define the main features of good pronunciation,
Improve their implementation of the English sounds
Identify problems of English sounds,
Select and implement teaching techniques to teach
Demonstrate recognition/production drills with
Implement appropriate pronunciation correction
Phonetics and Phonology
Study of all sounds
Phonetic is different to
Phonology in matter that it is
the production of sounds.
Phonology is a subset of
Phonology, in the other
hand refers to the sound
systems of a language
Phonemics: narrow study of sounds
Phonetics: broad study of sounds
What is Phonetics?
Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.
Articulatory phonetics – how speech sounds
Acoustic phonetics – the transmission and
physical properties of speech sounds
Auditory phonetics – perception of speech
Phonetic transcriptions – one sound = one
Why do I need to learn Phonetics?
Phonetics increases your knowledge in
matters of pronunciation.
By knowing how languages are produced
you can better your pronunciation.
It facilitates the acquisition of new words.
It helps you to read the dictionary using the
correct sounds inscripted in the words.
Task Sheet 1
What are the main features of good
Features of good Pronunciation
Correct articulation of speech sounds.
Task Sheet 2
Why should teachers know how sounds are
Can pronunciation written down?
What is the term used for written
Do teachers need to know how to read
“written pronunciation”? Why?
Task Sheet 3
Do your teachers/students have
What difficulties do they have?
What are their problematic English
The Points of Articulation
1. Nasal Cavity
2. Oral Cavity
5. Alveolar ridge
6. Hard palate
7. Soft palate
8. Tip of the
9. Blade of the
10. Back of the
12. Vocal folds
You should know:
(vowels – diphthongs – consonants )
( Intonation –
Includes tongue height and advancement,
manner and place of articulation, lip rounding,
Can be identified by viewing a single segment
Supra- means ‘over’ or ‘above’
These are things that “ride on top of”
Include length, intonation, tone, and stress
Almost impossible to identify in single
Suprasegmentals ! What are those?
High vowels shorter than low vowels
Voiceless consonants longer than voiced consonants
Voiceless fricatives longest
Length is influenced by the surrounding sounds
Can change meaning in some languages (like Chinese)
Stressed syllables more prominent than unstressed
Stressed syllables usually contain tense vowels
Stressed syllables are often longer
Unstressed syllables reduce vowel
Rising and falling intonation can change meaning
Vowels are all made in the mouth (place), with
little or no air flow constriction (manner) and are
always voiced in English
So the system that describes vowels does so in
terms 3 characteristics:
Smooth glide from one vowel position to another as /au/
in now also made up of 2 vowels as /ou/, /oi/
Minor (if at all)
The descriptions of the sounds we call
consonants are based on the human
articulatory system (lungs to pump air in and
out, vocal folds, oral cavity including tongue
and lips, and nasal cavity).
Consonants are described using 3
vocal quality (voiced/voiceless)
point of articulation
manner of articulation النطق
How to distinguish phonemes?
Place of articulation
Ex. /p/ VS /t/
pop VS top
Manner of articulation
Ex. /b/ VS /m/
Bob VS mob
Ex. /s/ VS /z/
Sue VS zoo
Minimal Pairs and Minimal Sets
Sometimes listening activities are complicated
because of the minimal pairs. MPs are two word that
just differ in one phoneme. Some of them are very
similar in pronunciation and context helps a lot to
identify what word they are referring to:
Minimal Pairs and Minimal Sets
A minimal set is a group of words that can be
differentiated by changing one phoneme.
Feat, fit, fat, fate, fought, foot.
Big, pig, rig, gig, dig, wig
A pair of words that differ by just one phoneme
in the same position and have different
sip VS zip
Nouns and adjectives of 2 syllables usually
have the stress on the first syllable.
As: father, happy, window ,children, yellow,
Verbs of 2 syllables usually have the stress
on the second syllable.
As:suggest , invite , reply , prepare , decide ,
Words borrowed from other languages
usually have the stress on the last syllable.
As:cassette , shampoo , degree , refugee
Words with many syllables usually have the
stress on the syllable before the last.
As: information , accommodation , photographic
Nouns usually have the stress on the first
Verbs usually have the stress on the second
There are many exceptions to all these
A very common exception is report
,it is the same in both the noun and verb form
and the stress is on the second part , result is
Nouns: record , object , produce , import
Verbs: record , object , produce , import
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