Towards better pronunciation


Published on

Main features of English phonology

Published in: Education, Technology

Towards better pronunciation

  1. 1. Towards Better English Pronunciation
  2. 2. Objectives: Participants will be able to:  define the main features of good pronunciation,  Improve their implementation of the English sounds     system, Identify problems of English sounds, Select and implement teaching techniques to teach good pronunciation, Demonstrate recognition/production drills with problem sounds, Implement appropriate pronunciation correction techniques.
  3. 3. Phonetics and Phonology Phonetics Phonology Language independent Language dependent Study of all sounds Phonetic is different to Phonology in matter that it is the production of sounds. Phonology is a subset of phonetics. Phonology, in the other hand refers to the sound systems of a language
  4. 4.  Phonemics: narrow study of sounds  Phonetics: broad study of sounds
  5. 5. What is Phonetics?  Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics – how speech sounds are produced  Acoustic phonetics – the transmission and physical properties of speech sounds  Auditory phonetics – perception of speech sounds   Phonetic transcriptions – one sound = one symbol.
  6. 6. Why do I need to learn Phonetics?  Phonetics increases your knowledge in matters of pronunciation.  By knowing how languages are produced you can better your pronunciation.  It facilitates the acquisition of new words.  It helps you to read the dictionary using the correct sounds inscripted in the words.
  7. 7. Task Sheet 1 What are the main features of good Pronunciation?
  8. 8. Features of good Pronunciation  Correct articulation of speech sounds.  Correct stress.  Correct intonation.  Proper pauses.
  9. 9. Task Sheet 2  Why should teachers know how sounds are made?  Can pronunciation written down?  What is the term used for written pronunciation?  Do teachers need to know how to read “written pronunciation”? Why?
  10. 10. Task Sheet 3  Do your teachers/students have pronunciation problems?  What difficulties do they have?  What are their problematic English sounds? Vowels Diphthongs Consonants
  11. 11. The Points of Articulation 1. Nasal Cavity 1 2. Oral Cavity 3. Lips 4. Teeth 6 5. Alveolar ridge 2 5 6. Hard palate 7. Soft palate 8. Tip of the tongue 9. Blade of the tongue 10. Back of the tongue 7 9 4 10 8 13 3 11 11. Epiglottis 12. Vocal folds 13. Pharinx 12
  12. 12. The Articulators
  13. 13.  You should know: Segmental  (vowels – diphthongs – consonants ) Suprasegmental ( Intonation – Stress – Length) word sentence
  14. 14. Segmental  Individual sounds  Includes tongue height and advancement, manner and place of articulation, lip rounding, etc.  Can be identified by viewing a single segment
  15. 15. Suprasegmental  Supra- means ‘over’ or ‘above’  These are things that “ride on top of” individual sounds  Include length, intonation, tone, and stress  Almost impossible to identify in single segment
  16. 16. Suprasegmentals ! What are those?  Length High vowels shorter than low vowels  Voiceless consonants longer than voiced consonants  Voiceless fricatives longest  Length is influenced by the surrounding sounds  Tone  Can change meaning in some languages (like Chinese)  Stress  Stressed syllables more prominent than unstressed ones  Stressed syllables usually contain tense vowels  Stressed syllables are often longer  Unstressed syllables reduce vowel  Intonation  Rising and falling intonation can change meaning 
  17. 17. Segmentals ! What are those?
  18. 18. Vowels  Vowels are all made in the mouth (place), with little or no air flow constriction (manner) and are always voiced in English  So the system that describes vowels does so in terms 3 characteristics:    tongue placement tongue height lip rounding
  19. 19. Diphthongs Smooth glide from one vowel position to another as /au/ in now also made up of 2 vowels as /ou/, /oi/ Major  /aɪ/  /ɔɪ/  /aʊ/ Minor (if at all)  /eɪ/  /oʊ/
  20. 20. Consonants  The descriptions of the sounds we call consonants are based on the human articulatory system (lungs to pump air in and out, vocal folds, oral cavity including tongue and lips, and nasal cavity).  Consonants are described using 3 characteristics: vocal quality (voiced/voiceless)  point of articulation  manner of articulation ‫النطق‬ 
  21. 21. How to distinguish phonemes?  Place of articulation Ex. /p/ VS /t/ pop VS top  Manner of articulation Ex. /b/ VS /m/ Bob VS mob  Voicing Ex. /s/ VS /z/ Sue VS zoo
  22. 22. Minimal Pairs and Minimal Sets  Sometimes listening activities are complicated because of the minimal pairs. MPs are two word that just differ in one phoneme. Some of them are very similar in pronunciation and context helps a lot to identify what word they are referring to:     Sheep-ship Sheet-shit Bet-bat Soup-soap
  23. 23. Minimal Pairs and Minimal Sets  A minimal set is a group of words that can be differentiated by changing one phoneme. Feat, fit, fat, fate, fought, foot.  Big, pig, rig, gig, dig, wig 
  24. 24. Minimal Pairs A pair of words that differ by just one phoneme in the same position and have different meanings. Ex. sip VS zip
  25. 25. Important Rules
  26. 26.  Nouns and adjectives of 2 syllables usually have the stress on the first syllable. As: father, happy, window ,children, yellow, lovely  Verbs of 2 syllables usually have the stress on the second syllable. As:suggest , invite , reply , prepare , decide , agree  Words borrowed from other languages usually have the stress on the last syllable.
  27. 27. As:cassette , shampoo , degree , refugee  Words with many syllables usually have the stress on the syllable before the last. As: information , accommodation , photographic ,terrific Nouns usually have the stress on the first syllable Verbs usually have the stress on the second syllable
  28. 28.  There are many exceptions to all these guidelines.  A very common exception is report ,it is the same in both the noun and verb form and the stress is on the second part , result is another exception. Nouns: record , object , produce , import Verbs: record , object , produce , import