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Cn tu12 10_mohamedv_assessment_of_swc_practices_chaker Cn tu12 10_mohamedv_assessment_of_swc_practices_chaker Presentation Transcript

  • The DESIRE WB3 process The DESIRE-WOCAT method to assess promising SLM technologies and facilitate their adoption and dissemination The case of the Sehoul region, Morocco Xi’an 2010 MOROCCAN DESIRE TEAM CHAKER Miloud
  • The Sehoul Plateau is located between the Mamora forest in the north, and the Grou valley in the south West. It is a part of the Palaeozoic Atlantic Meseta
  • The Sehoul region, an agro-pastoral system
    • In the pastures and forests, over-grazing leads to the degradation of the vegetation cover and to the reduction of palatable species;
    • In the cultivated area, the problems are more related to techniques of land use , not adapted to the climate, to the weak soils and to the slope gradients.
  • The Sehoul region, an agro-pastoral system
    • We observe :
    • Actually the proliferation of fences , the structuration of plots by irrigation and new perennial crops such as olive trees remove animals to the marginal area leading to more catastrophic erosion in multiple forms.
    • the abandonment of the most degraded lands and flood in downstream
    • The forest becomes subject to depredation by uncontrolled use. Its restoration through assisted regeneration is not yet leading to widespread ecological restoration.
    • An individualistic behavior of the farmers and a weak involvement in any action, those promoted by the government, but also the participatory action developed in the DESIRE project
  • WB3 process
    • The goal of the 1st workshop was to:
    • Initiate collaboration and mutual learning among local and external participants of the DESIRE research team
    • To identify existing and new strategies to prevent or mitigate land degradation and desertification and select some of them to evaluate their efficiency.
    • The workshop identified a set of technologies which we decided to assess using the WOCAT tools.
  • Assessment (May – October 2008)
    • Based on 3 most promising solutions identified in stakeholder workshop 1.
    • Use of the internationally recognized WOCAT questionnaires on SLM technologies and approaches.
    • Interactive between land users and experts.
    • Q‘s help to understand reasons behind successful or failure , own experiences .
    • Standardized assessment and documentation, allow quality assurance
    • Access to a global database.
    • Basis for knowledge sharing.
    Photo Gudrun Schwilch
  • SLM Technologies
    • Agronomic, vegetative, structural, management
    • To control land degradation and enhance productivity in the field
    • Questionnaire: ( light, basic, professional )
    • ( what are the specification…, where is it used )
    • Description and specifications of the technology purpose, classification, design and costs
    • Natural and human environment
    • Benefits, advantages and disadvantages, impacts, acceptance, adoption
    • Ways and means of support that help introduce, implement, adapt and apply technologies
    • Focus on implementation
    • Questionnaire : (how T. was imple..?, who achieved it?)
    • objectives, operation, participation by land users,
    • financing and direct and indirect subsidies ,
    • monitoring and evaluation methods,
    • impact analysis
    • QT and QA complement each other
    SLM Approaches
  • The assessed SLM technologies Crop rotation lupine Rainfed tree plantation Assisted regeneration of cork oak
  • I- Crop rotation : Cereal / Leguminous
    • Compared to the monoculture of cereal, it has the advantage of :
    • Providing the capitalization of land use and improve people's food system,
    • Allowing better water and soil conservation ,
    • Improving yields and income per hectare
    • Increasing soil protection by providing better cover 65,5%
    • Enhancing the structure of the arable layer
    • Improving the resistance of soil to compaction and limiting the surface crusting
    • Improving soil moisture
    • Increasing the nitrogen content and organic matter
    •  But it requires a lot of labour
  • II- R ained fruit trees
    • The olive assures a permanent covering of soil on average 66% of the soil surface; whereas the seasonal covering of rotation Cereal / Cereal does not exceed 52%, with rills in autumn
    • In the olive plot, runoff becomes scarce related to the alignment of trees, the installation of catchment , the contour ploughing and the conservation of crop residues.
    • Improves the soil and organic matter
    • However, this choice makes the removal of livestock necessary: this is why, rainfed tree plantations do not seem to be a viable alternative in this region.
  • III - Assisted regeneration of cork oak
    • In side the forest, the social situation of the population explains the rapid retreat and clearing of the vegetation cover, the non natural regeneration of cork oak and the spread of poor species
    • The assisted regeneration had proved to be a promising alternative for two reasons:
      • it reduces the degradation by improving soil structure, reducing surface crust and enriching the soil with organic matter, therefore allowing a better infiltration.
      • it increases plant biodiversity and plant biomass, improves fodder quality and restores the grass carpet and pasture capacity.
  • Documentation constraints
    • Difficulty to quantify costs and benefits
    • Demanding work, but enriching:
      • new insights into applied technologies + approaches
      • accessible worldwide
  • 2nd workshop – December 2008
    • The 2nd workshop had as objectives :
      • To select promising strategies for SLM to be tested and monitored during at least 2 years.
      • To strengthen trust and collaboration among involved stakeholders, in order to assure the adoption and dissemination of the successfully implemented technologies
    • The evaluation results were presented to the stakeholders who discussed their validity, with the aim to select the most positive options.
    • Eight options were presented and ranked depending on their effectiveness.
    • In all cases, farmers’ choice goes with cereal crops with livestock, that is to say, the maintenance of the current system.
    • After several attempts, it was finally possible for them to accept the idea of introducing a few innovations:
      • Planting fodder shrubs in heavily degraded marginal lands,
      • Improving grain culture by the technique of mulching and minimum or no tillage.
  • Conclusion
    • Crop rotation Cereal / Leguminous seems to be a good strategy to use in Sehoul. But there is need for providing fodder for livestock . The cost of labour and the availability of workers is a problem.
    • Planting fruit trees is also a good opportunity , but it excludes the flocks from the planted plots, which must be fenced.
    • In the end, the results of the participative approach experiments have not been satisfactory . Indeed, what seemed to be a success of the participative methodology only proved to be a mere provisory acceptance . In fact, the dynamics remain driven by what the farmer believes to be for his best interest, but which actually is a very short term vision .
    Thanks