Grammar book Semester 2

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Grammar book Semester 2

  1. 1. Spanish 3 Grammar Book<br />Emanuel Elsar<br />5th Period<br />SP3H<br />
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />El Pretérito<br />Pretérito Trigger Words<br />El Imperfecto<br />Imperfecto Trigger Words<br />Comparativos y Superlativos<br />Connecting/Transition Words<br />Verbs like Gustar<br />Snake-y & Snake Verbs<br />Spock Verbs<br />Car/Gar/Zar Verbs<br />Ser vs Estar<br />El Futuro<br />Future Trigger Words<br />Irregular-Futuro<br />Por<br />Para<br />Cucaracha Verbs<br />La Condicional<br />
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T)<br />19. Present Perfect Tense/Irregulares<br />20. Past Perfect Tense<br />21. Subjunctive Perfect Tense<br />22. Tan y Tanto<br />23. Impersonal “se”<br />24. Saber vs. Conocer<br />25. Los Mandatos/Informal y Formal/Affirmative, Negative, e irregulares/DOP & IOP Placement<br />26. Nosotros Commands/-mono Verbs<br />27. Subjunctive & Irregulares<br />28. Trigger Phrases/Impersonal Expressions, Expressions of Emotion, & Conjunction of Time<br />
  4. 4. El Pretérito: Action<br />The Preterite is a completed action. It narrrates past and specific events. The events are usually single, state the beginning and end of an action, and are usually a chain of events. Sometimes, they may repeat.<br />Para ejemplo: Fueron a Buenos Aires en el ano pasado. (It’s a completed event in the past.<br />
  5. 5. Preterite Trigger Words<br />
  6. 6. El Imperfecto: Ongoing condition<br />The Imperfect is a continouts event, that has no reference to beginning or end. Imperefect events are often habitual, and describe physical and emotional states. Imperfect verbs include background info like time, weather, and location.<br />Para ejemplo: Vivíamos en una casa mas grande. (Continuous action.)<br />
  7. 7. Imperfect Trigger Words<br />
  8. 8. Comparatives/Superlatives<br />Comparatives come in four different forms.<br />• Mas… que (More than)<br />• Menos… que (Less than)<br />• Tan… como<br />• Tanto… como (Both of equal nature)<br />Ejemplos: <br />La casa es grande- 1st<br />El granero es más grande que la casa-2nd<br />El castillo es el más grande de todos-3rd MORE THAN!<br />Este dinosaurio es feraz.<br />Este dinosaurio es menos feraz que el otro.<br />Este dinosaurio es menos feraz que en el mundo.<br /> LESS THAN!<br />Este carro es rápido.<br />Este carro es tan rápido que el otro.<br /> EQUALITY!<br /> When using numbers, you write mas DE & menos de!<br />
  9. 9. Connecting/Transition Words<br />
  10. 10. Verbs like Gustar<br />When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used.<br />You conjugate the verbs in the exact way how you conjugate gustar in the preterite, present, and imperfect. <br />Ejemplos:<br /> A Adela lee encanta la música de Shakira.<br /> A nos nosotros fascinan los grupos de pop latino. <br /> David y Juan les molestan levantan temprano.<br />Lucia le encantan las películas de terror.<br />A nosotros todos nos importan le educación.<br />
  11. 11. SNAKE & SNAKEY<br />
  12. 12. SPOCK VERBS<br />SER<br />DAR<br />IR<br />VER<br />HACER<br />
  13. 13. CAR/GAR/ZAR VERBS<br />Verbs that end in gar change to gu.<br />Verbs that end in zar change to c.<br />Verbs that end in car change to qu.<br />They have the same endings as regular preterite verbs, i.e. é. They only change in the yo form.<br />
  14. 14. SER<br />SOY<br />ERES<br />ES<br />SOMOS<br />SON<br />SER describes things that won’t change. Use SER if you want to talk about what something is.<br />
  15. 15. ESTAR: TO BE<br />ESTOY<br />ESTAS<br />ESTA<br />ESTAMOS<br />ESTAN<br />Addresses condition. Use Estar to talk about how something is. <br />
  16. 16. El Futuro<br />What will/shall happen?<br />
  17. 17. Future Trigger Words<br />
  18. 18. Future Irregular Verbs<br />DECIR DIR é <br />HACER HAR <br />PONER PONDR ás<br />SALIR SALDR <br />TENER TENDR á<br />VALER VALDR<br />VENIR VENDR <br />PODER PODR<br />QUERER QUERR emos<br />SABER SABR<br />CABER CABR án<br />HABER HABR <br />
  19. 19. POR<br />Por differs from Para slightly.<br />Ejemplos: <br />Passing Through/Movement: PORtal. (Este tren pasa POR Tejas.)<br />General Location: PORtugal. (No se si hay una piscina POR aqui.)<br />The duration: POREVER. (Viajamos por tres semanas.)<br />The cause of something: PORpuse. (Me caí por la nieve.)<br />Doing something in place of: (I’m POR, pay for me.)<br />Transportation: (Viajaré por el avión.)<br />
  20. 20. PARA<br />For the Benefit of someone: PARAty. (Compraremos un regalo PARA Sara.)<br />Going to a specific place: PARAguay. (Voy a Paraguay para la navidad.)<br />Purpose for which something is done: PARAsites. (Compré anteojos PARA ver mejor.)<br />Expressing opinion: PARAdon me, pero. (Para mí, los ejercicios son fantásticos.)<br />Contrast/Compare: (Para maestro, no sabe mucho de las matematicas.)<br />
  21. 21. CUCARACHA VERBS<br />
  22. 22. The Conditional is used to express probability, possibility, or wonderment.<br />Irregulars: Caber, Decir, Hacer, Haber, Poder, Querer, Saber, Poner, Salir, Tener, Valer, Venir.<br />The Conditional<br />
  23. 23. Present Perfect Tense<br />The Present Perfect Tense is used to talk about events that have happened in the past. It’s different from the Preterite though, because it uses the auxiliary verb haber, which means to have.<br />Para ejemplo: Cuando lo he visto, no he podido creerlo. (When I saw it, I couldn’t believe it.<br />To have the past particle, you add either –ido or –ado at the end of the verb. Ar verbs end in –ado, and Er & Ir verbs end in –ido.<br />Irregulares: Abrir= Abierto, Escribir= Escrito, Poner= Puesto, Hacer= Hecho, Decir=Dicho<br />
  24. 24. Past Perfect Tense<br />To form the past perfect, use the imperfect of haber plus the masculine singular form of the past participle.<br />Juan dijo que habia viajado a Mexico.(John said that he had traveled to Mexico.<br />
  25. 25. Subjunctive Present Tense<br /><ul><li>Used when a verb or expression requires the subjunctive in the main clause when it is in the present, future, or present perfect tense. It’s normally used to indicate the action as completed with governing verbs in the present or future tense.
  26. 26. Ejemplo: Me alegro de que él haya llegado. (I’m glad he has arrived.)</li></li></ul><li>Tan y Tanto<br />To form the comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverbs, use this formula:<br />Tan + adjective or adverb + como<br />El libro es tanbuenocomo la película.<br />TANTO = Used with a noun followed by como.<br />Juan tiene tantodinerocomo Maria.<br />
  27. 27. Impersonal “Se”<br />Third-person reflexive pronoun. People use it to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb. It can be used in all tenses.<br />Ejemplo: Se habla español. <br />
  28. 28. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Saber= KNOWLEDGE<br />CONOCER= KNOWING PEOPLE<br />Ejemplo: Yo no sé tu número de teléfono.<br />Yo no conozco a Maria.<br />
  29. 29. Los Mandatos: Informal & Formal, Affirmative & Negative<br />Mandatos(Commands) are used to address someone or something to do a specified action.<br />Informal Commands are used in the TU FORM. Use the present indicative also.<br /> Ejemplo: Compra los libros.<br />Formal Commands are used in the USTED FORM. Use the present indicative also.<br />Affirmative: Usted= Take the Yo, drop the –o, add opposite ending. Tu= Drop –s on the original tu form. Negative: Usted= Take the Yo, drop the –o, add opposite ending + n. Tu= Take the Yo, drop the –o, add opposite ending + s.<br />
  30. 30. Nosotros Commands/ Mono/DOP & IOP Placement<br />-AR VERBS: EMOS/IMOS. –ER/IR VERBS: AMOS.<br />How to construct the –mono: Drop the final –s of the command form and add reflexive pronoun.<br />Ejemplo: Levantémonos ahora! <br />
  31. 31. Subjunctive & Irregulares<br />The subjunctive is used for the following acronym.<br />Wishing/Wanting<br />Emotions<br />Doubt/Disbelief<br />Impersonal Expressions<br />Negation<br />God/Grief<br />To conjugate it, you start with the –yo form, then take off the o. Ejemplo: Hablar= Hable, Hables, Hablemos, Haben.<br />Irregulares: -car, -gar, -zar. Estar = esté, estés, esté, estemos, estén.<br />Es muy importante queaprendas el subjuntivo.<br />CONNECTOR.<br />MAIN CLAUSE.<br />SUBORDINATE CLAUSE.<br />
  32. 32. Subjunctive & Irregulares Con’t.<br />Irregulares/TV-DISHES:<br /> Tener-Tenga, Venir-Venga, Decir-Diga, Dar-De, Ir-Vaya, Ser-Se, Hacer-Haga, Haber-Haya, Estar-Este, Saber-Sepa <br />
  33. 33. Trigger Phrases/Impersonal Expressions, Expressions of Emotion, Conjunction of Time<br />Impersonal Expressions:<br />Es necessarioque…<br />Es maloque…<br />Es importanteque…<br />
  34. 34. The subjunctive is made with a subordinate clause in the beginning, and the main clause at the end.<br />Hope<br />Fear<br />Joy<br />Pity<br />Surprise<br />¡Nosalegramosque te gustan las flores!<br />Temo llegar tarde.<br />
  35. 35. Conjunction of Time<br />Cuando = when<br />Tan Pronto Como/LuegoQue = as soon as<br />Despues de Que= After<br />Asíque = So<br />Antes de que = Before<br />Ejemplo: A poco de quese encendió la computadora, aparecieronlasprimerasimágenes.<br />

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