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Grammar book Semester 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Spanish 3 Grammar Book
    Emanuel Elsar
    5th Period
    SP3H
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS
    El Pretérito
    Pretérito Trigger Words
    El Imperfecto
    Imperfecto Trigger Words
    Comparativos y Superlativos
    Connecting/Transition Words
    Verbs like Gustar
    Snake-y & Snake Verbs
    Spock Verbs
    Car/Gar/Zar Verbs
    Ser vs Estar
    El Futuro
    Future Trigger Words
    Irregular-Futuro
    Por
    Para
    Cucaracha Verbs
    La Condicional
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T)
    19. Present Perfect Tense/Irregulares
    20. Past Perfect Tense
    21. Subjunctive Perfect Tense
    22. Tan y Tanto
    23. Impersonal “se”
    24. Saber vs. Conocer
    25. Los Mandatos/Informal y Formal/Affirmative, Negative, e irregulares/DOP & IOP Placement
    26. Nosotros Commands/-mono Verbs
    27. Subjunctive & Irregulares
    28. Trigger Phrases/Impersonal Expressions, Expressions of Emotion, & Conjunction of Time
  • 4. El Pretérito: Action
    The Preterite is a completed action. It narrrates past and specific events. The events are usually single, state the beginning and end of an action, and are usually a chain of events. Sometimes, they may repeat.
    Para ejemplo: Fueron a Buenos Aires en el ano pasado. (It’s a completed event in the past.
  • 5. Preterite Trigger Words
  • 6. El Imperfecto: Ongoing condition
    The Imperfect is a continouts event, that has no reference to beginning or end. Imperefect events are often habitual, and describe physical and emotional states. Imperfect verbs include background info like time, weather, and location.
    Para ejemplo: Vivíamos en una casa mas grande. (Continuous action.)
  • 7. Imperfect Trigger Words
  • 8. Comparatives/Superlatives
    Comparatives come in four different forms.
    • Mas… que (More than)
    • Menos… que (Less than)
    • Tan… como
    • Tanto… como (Both of equal nature)
    Ejemplos:
    La casa es grande- 1st
    El granero es más grande que la casa-2nd
    El castillo es el más grande de todos-3rd MORE THAN!
    Este dinosaurio es feraz.
    Este dinosaurio es menos feraz que el otro.
    Este dinosaurio es menos feraz que en el mundo.
    LESS THAN!
    Este carro es rápido.
    Este carro es tan rápido que el otro.
    EQUALITY!
    When using numbers, you write mas DE & menos de!
  • 9. Connecting/Transition Words
  • 10. Verbs like Gustar
    When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used.
    You conjugate the verbs in the exact way how you conjugate gustar in the preterite, present, and imperfect.
    Ejemplos:
    A Adela lee encanta la música de Shakira.
    A nos nosotros fascinan los grupos de pop latino.
    David y Juan les molestan levantan temprano.
    Lucia le encantan las películas de terror.
    A nosotros todos nos importan le educación.
  • 11. SNAKE & SNAKEY
  • 12. SPOCK VERBS
    SER
    DAR
    IR
    VER
    HACER
  • 13. CAR/GAR/ZAR VERBS
    Verbs that end in gar change to gu.
    Verbs that end in zar change to c.
    Verbs that end in car change to qu.
    They have the same endings as regular preterite verbs, i.e. é. They only change in the yo form.
  • 14. SER
    SOY
    ERES
    ES
    SOMOS
    SON
    SER describes things that won’t change. Use SER if you want to talk about what something is.
  • 15. ESTAR: TO BE
    ESTOY
    ESTAS
    ESTA
    ESTAMOS
    ESTAN
    Addresses condition. Use Estar to talk about how something is.
  • 16. El Futuro
    What will/shall happen?
  • 17. Future Trigger Words
  • 18. Future Irregular Verbs
    DECIR DIR é
    HACER HAR
    PONER PONDR ás
    SALIR SALDR
    TENER TENDR á
    VALER VALDR
    VENIR VENDR
    PODER PODR
    QUERER QUERR emos
    SABER SABR
    CABER CABR án
    HABER HABR
  • 19. POR
    Por differs from Para slightly.
    Ejemplos:
    Passing Through/Movement: PORtal. (Este tren pasa POR Tejas.)
    General Location: PORtugal. (No se si hay una piscina POR aqui.)
    The duration: POREVER. (Viajamos por tres semanas.)
    The cause of something: PORpuse. (Me caí por la nieve.)
    Doing something in place of: (I’m POR, pay for me.)
    Transportation: (Viajaré por el avión.)
  • 20. PARA
    For the Benefit of someone: PARAty. (Compraremos un regalo PARA Sara.)
    Going to a specific place: PARAguay. (Voy a Paraguay para la navidad.)
    Purpose for which something is done: PARAsites. (Compré anteojos PARA ver mejor.)
    Expressing opinion: PARAdon me, pero. (Para mí, los ejercicios son fantásticos.)
    Contrast/Compare: (Para maestro, no sabe mucho de las matematicas.)
  • 21. CUCARACHA VERBS
  • 22. The Conditional is used to express probability, possibility, or wonderment.
    Irregulars: Caber, Decir, Hacer, Haber, Poder, Querer, Saber, Poner, Salir, Tener, Valer, Venir.
    The Conditional
  • 23. Present Perfect Tense
    The Present Perfect Tense is used to talk about events that have happened in the past. It’s different from the Preterite though, because it uses the auxiliary verb haber, which means to have.
    Para ejemplo: Cuando lo he visto, no he podido creerlo. (When I saw it, I couldn’t believe it.
    To have the past particle, you add either –ido or –ado at the end of the verb. Ar verbs end in –ado, and Er & Ir verbs end in –ido.
    Irregulares: Abrir= Abierto, Escribir= Escrito, Poner= Puesto, Hacer= Hecho, Decir=Dicho
  • 24. Past Perfect Tense
    To form the past perfect, use the imperfect of haber plus the masculine singular form of the past participle.
    Juan dijo que habia viajado a Mexico.(John said that he had traveled to Mexico.
  • 25. Subjunctive Present Tense
    • Used when a verb or expression requires the subjunctive in the main clause when it is in the present, future, or present perfect tense. It’s normally used to indicate the action as completed with governing verbs in the present or future tense.
    • 26. Ejemplo: Me alegro de que él haya llegado. (I’m glad he has arrived.)
  • Tan y Tanto
    To form the comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverbs, use this formula:
    Tan + adjective or adverb + como
    El libro es tanbuenocomo la película.
    TANTO = Used with a noun followed by como.
    Juan tiene tantodinerocomo Maria.
  • 27. Impersonal “Se”
    Third-person reflexive pronoun. People use it to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb. It can be used in all tenses.
    Ejemplo: Se habla español.
  • 28. Saber vs. Conocer
    Saber= KNOWLEDGE
    CONOCER= KNOWING PEOPLE
    Ejemplo: Yo no sé tu número de teléfono.
    Yo no conozco a Maria.
  • 29. Los Mandatos: Informal & Formal, Affirmative & Negative
    Mandatos(Commands) are used to address someone or something to do a specified action.
    Informal Commands are used in the TU FORM. Use the present indicative also.
    Ejemplo: Compra los libros.
    Formal Commands are used in the USTED FORM. Use the present indicative also.
    Affirmative: Usted= Take the Yo, drop the –o, add opposite ending. Tu= Drop –s on the original tu form. Negative: Usted= Take the Yo, drop the –o, add opposite ending + n. Tu= Take the Yo, drop the –o, add opposite ending + s.
  • 30. Nosotros Commands/ Mono/DOP & IOP Placement
    -AR VERBS: EMOS/IMOS. –ER/IR VERBS: AMOS.
    How to construct the –mono: Drop the final –s of the command form and add reflexive pronoun.
    Ejemplo: Levantémonos ahora!
  • 31. Subjunctive & Irregulares
    The subjunctive is used for the following acronym.
    Wishing/Wanting
    Emotions
    Doubt/Disbelief
    Impersonal Expressions
    Negation
    God/Grief
    To conjugate it, you start with the –yo form, then take off the o. Ejemplo: Hablar= Hable, Hables, Hablemos, Haben.
    Irregulares: -car, -gar, -zar. Estar = esté, estés, esté, estemos, estén.
    Es muy importante queaprendas el subjuntivo.
    CONNECTOR.
    MAIN CLAUSE.
    SUBORDINATE CLAUSE.
  • 32. Subjunctive & Irregulares Con’t.
    Irregulares/TV-DISHES:
    Tener-Tenga, Venir-Venga, Decir-Diga, Dar-De, Ir-Vaya, Ser-Se, Hacer-Haga, Haber-Haya, Estar-Este, Saber-Sepa
  • 33. Trigger Phrases/Impersonal Expressions, Expressions of Emotion, Conjunction of Time
    Impersonal Expressions:
    Es necessarioque…
    Es maloque…
    Es importanteque…
  • 34. The subjunctive is made with a subordinate clause in the beginning, and the main clause at the end.
    Hope
    Fear
    Joy
    Pity
    Surprise
    ¡Nosalegramosque te gustan las flores!
    Temo llegar tarde.
  • 35. Conjunction of Time
    Cuando = when
    Tan Pronto Como/LuegoQue = as soon as
    Despues de Que= After
    Asíque = So
    Antes de que = Before
    Ejemplo: A poco de quese encendió la computadora, aparecieronlasprimerasimágenes.