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Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
Geologic storage02
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Geologic storage02

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  • 1. Geologic Storage of CO 2 : Leakage Pathways and Environmental Risks
    • Michael A. Celia, Catherine A. Peters, and Stefan Bachu
    Princeton University and Alberta Geological Survey May 2002
  • 2. CO 2 Injection and Trapping Mechanisms Stratigraphic Trapping Solubility Trapping Mineral Trapping Hydrodynamic Trapping Precipitated Carbonate Minerals ~800 m Confining Layer(s) Injection Well Supercritical CO 2 Dissolved CO 2
  • 3. Research Questions
    • How effective are the various trapping mechanisms?
    • What is the likelihood and magnitude of CO 2 leakage?
    • What are the environmental impacts of CO2 leakage?
    • Today: Solubility trapping
    • Today: Abandoned wells
    • Today: Mammoth Mtn, and groundwater quality
  • 4. Simulation of Injection of Supercritical CO 2
    • TOUGH2 Simulator
    • Radial symmetry
    • Isothermal conditions
    • Confining layer permeability of 0.1 mD
    • Target formation porosity 10% and permeability of 100 mD.
    CO 2 injection = 20 kg/s 50 m 10 m 790 m CO 2 Brine
  • 5. Simulation of Injection of Supercritical CO 2
    • After 4 years of CO 2 injection
    • CO 2 injection combined with injection of brine above the confining layer
    Radial distance [m] Depth [m] Mass of CO 2 /Volume [kg/m 3 ] Q brine = 40 kg/s Radial distance [m] Depth [m] Mass of CO 2 /Volume [kg/m 3 ]
  • 6. Simulation of Injection of CO 2 Dissolved in Water
    • After 1 year
    • After 50 years
    seal Total Mass CO 2 injected = 3.1x10 7 kg seal Total Mass CO 2 injected = 1.2x10 9 kg Mass of CO 2 /Volume [kg/m 3 ] Mass of CO 2 /Volume [kg/m 3 ]
  • 7. Leakage Pathways and Trapping Mechanisms Injected Carbon Dioxide Surface Ecosystems Confining Layer(s) Atmosphere lateral migration Localized vertical migration fractures, faults, wells Potable Water
  • 8. Leakage Pathways: Abandoned Wells in the Alberta Basin
  • 9. Simulation of leakage through a single abandoned well
    • Permeability of a typical well cement ~ 10 -17 m 2
    • Permeability of a medium sand ~ 10 -10 m 2
    Depth [m]
  • 10. Potential Effect on GW Quality -50 50 150 250 distance, m 2 yr. 4 yr. 6 yr. 8 yr. 10 yr. groundwater flow CO 2 leakage deep brine aquifer drinking-water aquifer 0.0E+00 3.0E-08 6.0E-08 9.0E-08 1.2E-07 Pb 2+ concentration, mol/L
  • 11.
    • On the Long Valley Caldera in eastern California
    • Soil gas surveys revealed CO 2 concentrations as high as 95%. (CO 2 concentrations > 10% toxic to humans.)
    Mammoth Mountain
  • 12. Changes in Metal Uptake in Plants Elevated soil CO 2 Ca 1989 Zn Mn c b 2001 Ambient soil CO 2 Mn Zn Ca 1989 2001
  • 13. Acknowledgements
    • Funding from BP and Ford .
    • Equations of State: R. Bruant
    • TOUGH2 Simulations: A. Guswa, S. Gasda
    • Leakage Estimates: A. Duguid
    • Groundwater Simulations: P. Jaffe, S. Wang
    • Mammoth Mountain: S. Myneni, S.J. White

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