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Global deforestation

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Global Deforestation. Protecting Wildlife Habitats

Global Deforestation. Protecting Wildlife Habitats

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Global deforestation Global deforestation Document Transcript

  • Global Deforestation The world’s total forest area is just over 4 billion hectares (15,444,086 sq. mi.) or 31% of the total land area. The net loss of forests (when the sum of all gains in forest area is smaller than all losses) for 2000-2010 period was 5.2 million hectares (20,077 sq. mi.) per year. An area about the size of Costa Rica. The extent of forest resources is the first measure of sustainable forest management. It relates to the overall goal of maintaining adequate forest resources.
  • Area of permanent forest estate The area of permanent forest estate indicates the area of forest designated to be retained as forest. As such, trends in this variable over time are a better indicator of progress towards sustainable forest management than trends in the total forest area in countries where certain forest areas have been set aside for future conversion to other uses (e.g. agriculture, infrastructure or urban expansion) through a transparent and technically sound decision-making process. FRA 2010 was the first time countries were asked to report on the area of permanent forest estate and some countries clearly had difficulties identifying the equivalent designation in their national classification systems. Nevertheless, a total of 122 countries, together accounting for 84 percent of the total forest area provided information on this variable. At the global level, an estimated 52 percent of the total forest area is designated as permanent forest estate or its equivalent in 2010. A number of countries were unable to provide a full data series (for 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010). However, information from 107 countries and areas (representing 77 percent of the world’s forests) indicates that the permanent forest estate increased by almost 15 million hectares per year in the 1990s and close to 10 million hectares per year since 2000. Area of forest with a management plan The area of forest with a management plan provides another indication of progress towards sustainable forest management, although it must be noted that areas without a plan – including inaccessible areas – may also be conserved and sustainably managed, while the mere existence of a plan does not provide assurance that the plan is sound, is being implemented, or has the intended effect. A total of 121 countries, representing 79 percent of the global forest area, reported on this variable. These reports indicate that at least 1.6 billion hectares of forest are covered by a management plan with a duration of ten years or more. Information on trends over time was more limited with a full data series only available for 94 countries and areas, covering 64 percent of the world’s forests. However, there was a clear increasing trend in the area of forest with a management plan in all regions and subregions over the last 20 years. Particularly noteworthy is the rapid increase in this area over the last ten years, primarily in East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Area of forest under sustainable forest management FRA 2010 is the first time countries have been asked to provide an estimate of the area of forest considered to be under sustainable forest management in the FRA process. Because there is no agreed definition or assessment methodology, this was considered a pilot assessment and countries were also asked to provide the definition, criteria and method used to assess the area under sustainable forest management. The purpose of this pilot was to obtain information on how countries might define and assess this indicator as an input to future discussions on the topic at subregional, regional and global levels, in anticipation of the need for countries to report on it as part of the assessment of progress towards the Global Objectives on Forests by 2015.
  • Area of forest under sustainable forest management CONTD Where countries did not have established assessment criteria, it was suggested that they might wish to use or adapt those applied by ITTO in its assessment of the Status of Tropical Forest Management (ITTO, 2006), which were as follows: “Forest areas that fulfill any of the following conditions: • have been independently certified or in which progress towards certification is being made; • have fully developed, long-term (ten years or more) forest management plans with firm information that these plans are being implemented effectively; • are considered as model forest units in their country and information is available on the quality of management; • are community-based forest management units with secure tenure for which the quality of management is known to be of high standard; • are protected areas with secure boundaries and a management plan that are generally considered in the country and by other observers to be well managed and that are not under significant threat from destructive agents.” Although this was not an easy task, 104 countries and areas, together accounting for 62 percent of the world’s forests provided estimates of the area under sustainable forest management for 2010, and 110 countries covering 81 percent of the global forest area provided an estimate for at least one point in time. Unfortunately, they did not all provide information on the definition, assessment criteria and method used. Due to differences in definitions, it is not possible to compare the results by country or to generate regional or global totals and no attempts have been made to do so. The 82 countries that provided a full data series clearly indicated a positive trend in the total forest area considered to be under sustainable forest management. A separate publication (FAO, 2010c) provides a more detailed analysis of the definitions, assessment criteria and methods applied by countries.
  • PROGRESS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT To obtain a broad picture of progress towards sustainable forest management, a subset of indicators was selected for each of the seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management and data on trends were compiled and compared at global, regional and subregional levels across the seven themes. The results are summarized below and illustrated in Tables 1 and 2.
  • TABLE 2 CONTD Progress towards sustainable forest management by subregion, 1990–2010
  • Key aspects of sustainable forest management The Non-legally Binding Instrument on all Types of Forests, the most recent agreement related to forests, lists the following seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management and suggests that member states should consider these as a reference framework: • Extent of forest resources • Forest biological diversity • Forest health and vitality • Protective functions of forest resources • Productive functions of forest resources • Socio-economic functions of forests • Legal, policy and institutional framework
  • Countries and areas included in FRA 2010 A total of 233 countries and areas are included in FRA 2010. This is based on the list used by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) (United Nations, 2010a). Four reporting units included in the UNSD list were excluded from FRA 2010: 1. Aaland Islands (included under Finland); 2. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (included under China); 3. Macao Special Administrative Region of China (included under China); 4. Channel Islands (listed separately as Guernsey and Jersey in FRA 2010). Compared with FRA 2005, four reporting units were excluded from FRA 2010 (British Indian Ocean Territory, Channel Islands, Serbia and Montenegro, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands) and eight were added (Guernsey, Jersey, Montenegro, Norfolk Islands, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin (French part), Serbia, and Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands). For each of the 233 countries and areas a country report has been prepared and issued as an FRA 2010 working paper. A further breakdown was created to provide more detail for three of the regions: Africa, Asia, and North and Central America. Each of these regions is divided into three subregions, bringing the total number of reporting groups to 12.2 The subregional divisions are somewhat arbitrary, but are intended to represent areas with similar environmental and socio- economic conditions. Table 1.2 summarizes key statistics for the regions and subregions, and Figure 1.1 provides a graphic illustration of the countries included in each.
  • The Scope of FRA 2010 FRA 2010 Reporting Tables Seventeen reporting tables were developed to address the thematic elements of sustainable forest management (Table 1.1). The tables, including variables and definitions, ere subject to intensive review by the FRA advisory group and national correspondents. Detailed specifications of the tables, variables and definitions, as well as the guidelines for reporting, are available online in English, French, Spanish, Arabic and Russian (FAO, 2007b,c,d). Countries were asked to provide information for the 17 tables for four points in time: 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 with the exception of a few variables for which forecasting to 2010 was inappropriate).
  • The Scope of FRA 2010 FRA 2010 Reporting Tables CONTD Countries and areas included in FRA 2010 A total of 233 countries and areas are included in FRA 2010. This is based on the list used by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) (United Nations, 2010a). Four reporting units included in the UNSD list were excluded from FRA 2010: 1. Aaland Islands (included under Finland); 2. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (included under China); 3. Macao Special Administrative Region of China (included under China); 4. Channel Islands (listed separately as Guernsey and Jersey in FRA 2010). Compared with FRA 2005, four reporting units were excluded from FRA 2010 (British Indian Ocean Territory, Channel Islands, Serbia and Montenegro, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands) and eight were added (Guernsey, Jersey, Montenegro, Norfolk Islands, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin (French part), Serbia, and Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands). For each of the 233 countries and areas a country report has been prepared and issued as an FRA 2010 working paper.
  • Regions and subregions Reporting for FRA 2010 is broken down into six regions. These regions are the same as those used in other FAO publications, including FRA 2005, and follow wellestablished delineations. However, because of the difference in size of individual countries, his breakdown means that the results in some regions are dominated by one or a few countries. The Russian Federation is included in Europe and dominates those statistics; he Caribbean and Central America are combined with North America and tend to be overshadowed by Canada and the United States of America; Brazil dominates the regional results from South America, and Australia those from Oceania. A further breakdown was created to provide more detail for three of the regions: Africa, Asia, and North and Central America. Each of these regions is divided into three subregions, bringing the total number of reporting groups to 12.2 The subregional divisions are somewhat arbitrary, but are intended to represent areas with similar environmental and socio-economic conditions. Table 1.2 summarizes key statistics for the regions and subregions, and Figure 1.1 provides a graphic illustration of the countries included in each. The Process FRA 2010 started with the Kotka V Expert Consultation on Global Forest Resources Assessments in June 2006 (FAO, 2006a) and so far has taken four years to implement (Figure 1.2). The outputs include the release of the key findings and the 233 reports (March 2010) and the launch of the present report in October 2010. The results of the global remote sensing survey and the special studies will be released during 2011. FRA 2010 was coordinated by the Global Forest Assessment and Reporting Team at FAO headquarters in Rome. Six staff members, including project and administrative staff, were engaged full time throughout the country reporting process and acted as focal points for each region in order to facilitate communications between the national correspondents and FAO. In some instances, the value for the Russian Federation differs substantially from that for the rest of Europe. n these cases the results for ‘Europe excluding the Russian Federation’ are shown separately from results for Europe as a whole in order to highlight the variation in the region. In line with recommendations from Kotka V and COFO 2007, FAO requested countries to officially nominate a national correspondent to the FRA 2010 process. The response to this request has been very strong from practically all countries. At present, 178 national correspondents are confirmed. These correspondents, and their respective professional networks in the countries, represent a tremendous strength of the FRA 2010 process, and were responsible for coordinating inputs and preparing country reports according to a standard format in English, French or Spanish. A training session, attended by 265 forest assessment specialists, including representatives from 154 countries and 14 key forest-related organizations, was held in March 2008 in Rome, and detailed guidelines, specifications and reporting formats were provided.
  • The Process CONTD The reporting format required countries to provide the full reference for original data sources and an indication of the reliability of the data for each of these, as well as definitions of terminology. Separate sections in these reports deal with analysis of data, including any assumptions made and the methodologies used for estimations and projections of data to the four reference years (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010); calibration of data to the official land area as held by FAO; and reclassification of data to the classes used in FRA 2010. Comments attached to the tables yield additional information, particularly where countries have experienced difficulty in matching national classes to those used in FRA 2010. Regional focal points at FAO headquarters and its regional and subregional offices were in regular contact with national correspondents throughout the process. A list of frequently asked questions were provided on the FRA 2010 web site to further facilitate the reporting process. Once received, the draft country reports underwent detailed reviews to ensure completeness and correct application of definitions and methodologies – including the reclassification of national data into the FRA 2010 classification system. Internal consistency was checked and a comparison made with information provided for FRA 2005, the FAO/UNECE/ITTO/Eurostat Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire and other published sources of information. A total of ten regional and subregional workshops were held to review the draft reports (see Annex 5 for details). These workshops provided an opportunity to share experiences and to address specific questions and issues related to data availability and interpretation. The final reports are thus the result of an iterative process and a collaborative effort. The data were then entered into FAO’s Forestry Information System (FORIS) and global tables were generated. Subject specialists at FAO analyzed these tables and prepared subregional, regional and global overviews for each topic of the main report. Before publishing the key findings and the global tables, all country reports were sent to the head of forestry in the respective country for final validation.
  • For FRA 2010, information was sought on the current status and changes over time (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) of the following six variables related to the extent of forest resources: • Area of ‘forest’ and ‘other wooded land’. Countries were also encouraged to provide information on ‘other land with tree cover’. (Annex 2) • Characteristics of forests according to three classes: primary forests, other naturally regenerated forests and planted forests. For the latter two, countries were also asked to provide data on the area of forest composed of introduced species. • Area of selected forest types: mangroves, bamboo and rubber plantations. • Standing volume of wood, i.e. the total growing stock in forests and other wooded land, and its composition. • Forest biomass. • Carbon stock contained in woody biomass, dead wood, litter and forest soils. See Annex 2 for definitions.
  • Annex 2 Terms and definitions used in FRA 2010 CONTD FOREST OWNERSHIP Category Definition
  • Annex 2 Terms and definitions used in FRA 2010 CONTD FOREST DISIGNATION
  • Annex 2 Terms and definitions used in FRA 2010 CONTD FOREST CHARACTERISTICS Category Definition
  • Annex 2 Terms and definitions used in FRA 2010 CONTD BIOMASS STOCK Category Definition
  • Annex 2 Terms and definitions used in FRA 2010 CONTD DISTURBANCES AFFECTING FOREST HEALTH AND VITALITY Term Definition
  • Annex 2 Terms and definitions used in FRA 2010 CONTD EMPLOYMENT
  • Annex 2 Terms and definitions used in FRA 2010 CONTD
  • Annex 3 Global Tables Go to http://foris.fao.org/static/data/fra2010/FRA2010_Report_1oct2010.pdf for Global Tables Contents Page 1. Basic data on countries and areas 218 2. Extent of forest and other wooded land 2010 224 3. Trends in extent of forest 1990–2010 229 4. Forest ownership and management rights 2005 234 5. Primary designated functions of forest 2010 240 6. Forest management and legal status 2010 245 7. Forest characteristics 2010 250 8. Trends in extent of primary forest 1990–2010 256 9. Trends in extent of planted forests 1990–2010 261 10. Growing stock in forest and other wooded land 2010 266 11. Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990–2010 272 12. Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005 277 13. Trends in removals of wood products 1990–2005 283 14. Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005 289 15. Employment in forestry 1990–2005 294 16. Forest policy and legal framework 2008 299 17. Human resources within public forest institutions 2000–2008 304 18. Forest education and research 2008 309 19. Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005 315 20. Status of ratification of international conventions and 321 agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • Annex 4 FRA 2010 Working papers CONTD
  • Annex 4 FRA 2010 Working papers CONTD