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Conservation for big cats

Conservation for big cats






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    Conservation for big cats Conservation for big cats Document Transcript

    • CONSERVATION FOR BIG CATSProtect land where big cats live (habitats)Identify and monitor high priority animal populations on which immediate conservationefforts should be focusedRegional planning of animal reserves to foster ecological connectivity between protectiveareas through restorative inputs with integrated land-use planningMake and sign petitions regarding big cat conservationBan tourism to the reserves to give lions and tigers chances of survivalHave law enforcement, wildlife monitoring, and community involvementGovernment set up a task force to tackle rampant wildlife crime and stamp out poachingand cross-border encroachmentWildlife conservation groups and big cat specialists need adequate resources to monitorreserves and enforce anti-poaching lawsIncrease crackdown on illegal poachingIncrease protection and guarding of reserves including a reduction in illegal fires, logging,hunting of the big cats’ prey speciesCreate more reserves, including the joining together of existing reserves
    • Bio-diversity - A CrisisEveryday bio-diversity is being lost at up to 1,000 times the natural rate. Some of thethreats for this crisis are; extinction of individual species, habitat destruction, landconversion for agriculture and development, climate change, pollution and the spread ofinvasive species. Some of the most threatening invasive species can happen deliberately orunintentionally, for example, by organisms “hitch-hiking” in containers, ships, cars or soil.Habitat loss and degradation affects 86% of all threatened birds, 86% of the threatenedmammals assessed and 88% of the threatened amphibians.The abundance of all species declined by 40% between 1970-2000.Over the past decade alone, nearly 60 million hectares (231,661 sq. mi.) of primary forest(including old-growth trees that provide the basis of many forest ecosystems) have beenlost.“We humans continue to drive species extinct at up to 1,000 times the natural rate, whichis undermining the stability of ecosystems across the planet and thereby threatening ourown well-being.13 million hectares (50,193 sq. mi.) of the world’s forests are lost due to deforestation eachyear.To reduce the direct pressures on bio-diversity/promote sustainable use the goal is eitherhalving or bringing close to zero the rate of loss, degradation and fragmentation of naturalhabitats.
    • August 11 2010WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) conducted Uganda’s first ever carnivore survey. Thecountry’s lions have declined by almost 40 percent in less than a decade. Only 415 of thebig cats remain in the network of national parks. In the largest of them all, Murchison FallsN.P., just 132 remain.ICUN Red List of Threatened Species - Wild cat species are gradually becoming extinct!Lion-Vulnerable, Tiger-Endangered (Cites Appen I), Sumatran Tiger-Critical, Leopard-NearThreatened (Cites Appen I), Jaguar-Near Threatened (Cites Appen I), Cheetah-Vulnerable(Cites Appen I-Asia only)Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals andplants They are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade inspecimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial, forinstance for scientific research. In these exceptional cases, trade may take place providedit is authorized by the granting of both an import permit and an export permit (or re-exportcertificate).
    • Threats To Big CatsUncontrolled human population growth in those countries where the majority of wild catspecies live erodes wild cat habitat. We should not live side by side with wild cats. It is atotally impractical arrangement with no solution.A great threat to wild cat species particularly the tiger is Chinese medicine. The ingredientsfor it are actual body parts of tigers and other rare animals. Substitutes are available butnot always used. The Bengal tiger is endangered and protected under CITES Convention (aban of body parts), but there is a lack of commitment to enforcement.Tiger and lion bones being used to make wine in China. Brewers are importing lion bonesfrom South Africa as a legally obtainable and cheaper substitute for tiger bones. Merchantsare mostly getting their supplies under government permit from hunting farms on whichcaptive-bred lions are released to be shot as trophies.February 2 2010World’s top predators have been gunned down, poisoned, speared, and decimated acrosstheir habitats. Even where large areas of habitat are protected, top predators are oftenmissing. Predators are vital to ecosystems, control pops of prey animals, control smallerpredators, protect river banks from erosion and provide nutrient hot spots. Top predatorsare indispensable to a working ecosystem and sit at an apex of an ecosystem’s food chain.Tigers are on the edge of extinction, classified as Endangered by IUCN Red List. Two of thesix surviving subspecies of tiger are considered Critically Endangered. Tiger populations aredropping in both India and Russia.Other top predators on the edge of extinction:The Amur leopard, the Indo Chinese tiger, the Arabian leopard, the Javan leopard, and theAsiatic cheetah could all vanish during this century. In some parts of the world, populationsof large mammalian carnivores have dropped a staggering 95-99 percent!The decline in surviving trees and the loss of particular species of plants due to predatorloss can have varied impacts on the ecosystem, affecting everything from erosion to fire.
    • Conservation For Amur LeopardThere are only a few Amur leopards remaining in the wild due to logging, farming, buildingand poaching. 20-30 in Russia, 10 in China. Amur leopard suffers daily risks from: poaching(and poaching of their prey, like deer), forest-fires which reduce their habitat, enragedfarmers when livestock killed by tigers and leopards.There still exist large tracts of forest which are ideal leopard habitat. If these areas areprotected from logging companies there is a chance to increase wild leopard numbers.However, the Amur leopard lost 80% of its range in the 13 years from 1970-1983 and loggingisn’t the only threat to the Amur leopard habitat.
    • Conservation For Leopards and CheetahsAfriCat Foundation runs the largest cheetah and leopard rescue-and-release program in theworld.In the last 17 years over 1000 of these predators have been rescued with over 85% beingreleased back into the wild.Namibia is situated along the South West coast of Africa and covers an area of 321,500 sq.mi. All regions of Namibia are populated with wildlife, including large carnivores, althoughpopulation numbers vary dramatically in different parts of the country.Namibia is home to approximately 25% of the worlds cheetah population of which 90% liveon farmland. Namibias other large carnivores, namely, leopards, lions, wild dogs and brownand spotted hyenas, are not believed to consist of such large percentages of the worldspopulation.AfriCat is active throughout Namibia. The organization operates from 2 locations, one onOkonjima in central Namibia, near the town of Otjiwarongo and the second, known asAfriCat North, from Kaross, bordering Etosha National Park.
    • Conservation For CheetahsCheetahs are more numerous in Namibia than anywhere else. This could change as 95% ofthem are found outside of protected reserves on commercial livestock farmlands. InNamibia, wildlife belong to the landowner.The goal is to secure the long-term survival of the cheetah and its ecosystem through multi-disciplined, integrated programs in research, conservation and education. This researchaims are to provide the baseline data and long-term studies necessary to understand factorsaffecting the cheetah’s survival on these farmlands and to develop policies and programs tosustain Namibian cheetah populations.
    • Conservation For LionsSeptember 3, 2009 - Wildlife Direct and Born Free Foundation joined in the official launchof the Pride of Kenya campaign at the Nairobi Natl Pk. To this campaign Wildlife Direct’scall is to have all carbofurans-especially Furadan, a lethal agricultural pesticide that isbehind the death of 75 lions in the last 4 years-banned in Kenya.2,100 lions remaining in Kenya.Kenya’s lion population is declining at an alarming pace and climate change, habitatdestruction and conflict with humans have been the key drivers for this precipitous fall innumbers.August 17, 2009 - Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) says Kenya’s lion population has beendeclining by an average 100 animals per year in the last 7 years and now stands at a littleover 2,000 individuals. In the 1970s there were about 30,000 lions in Kenya. This declinerate means lions will become extinct in Kenya in just 2 decades.Africa has lost 180,000 lions in the past 30 years alone due to habitat loss, hunting andkilling using poisons. That is a decline of 90% of the lion population.Hunting Farms Around The CountryDuring June and July every year, an international event in South Africa offers football fansthe opportunity to bag wild animals on many of the game ranches for two decades.Ranch owners and hunting operators are pocketing from trophy hunting, especially of lions.They are gaining foreign currency, especially U.S. dollars.Some cases it comes down to canned hunting the practice whereby animals bred incaptivity get released into enclosed areas of a limited size where their trust of humansmakes them easy targets. Some hunters use bows and arrows to kill their prey. In somecases the animals are drugged, making them sitting targets to the naive hunters who areurged to “shoot shoot!” as the helpless creatures are about to escape. In this way thehunters are assured of satisfaction and the operators of their money.The Growing Trade Of Lion BonesMerchants are mostly getting their supplies under government permit from hunting farms onwhich captive-bred lions are released to be shot as trophies (see hunting farms above). Asthe trade grows, it could lead to already endangered lion populations in the wild gettingpoached for their bones.Another worry is that it could serve as further encouragement to the commercial lion-breeding industry which the government is trying to curb because of the bad image itcreates of a country that has tourism, particularly nature tourism, as its fastest growingindustry.This trend added with animal species in South Africa being under threat from poacherscashing in on enduring, primitive beliefs that the physical attributes of animals can beacquired by ingesting their body parts.
    • Taking Action To Save The LionThere are 20,000 lions. Lions have been shot, speared, trapped, and poisoned. Theirhabitats have been chopped up, introduced diseases. Humans are swamping them by oursheer numbers. The 20,000 lions cling to the last remaining habitat our 7 billion peoplehave not yet got to.This tragic loss of lions is an emergency and need to TAKE ACTION NOW!!!! Otherwise wewill tragically witness the extinction of wild lions by 2020. This extinction of lions will causea cascade of ecological impacts. The first impact would be an increase in some of the lionsprey, such as wildebeest and buffalo, which will also become less alert and less active inthe absence of a fearsome predator. These larger, more stagnant populations of herbivorescould overgraze their habitat, leading to soil erosion that in turn causes poor water qualitydownstream and aids the invasion of weeds and exotic plant species. Finally the bloatedpopulations of prey could collapse as the degraded habitat can no longer support them.There would be economic and social costs to people too. In Ghana, for example, when fishstocks declined and men turned to meat poaching to feed their families, they wiped out thecompetition for game, lions, and started chipping away at wildlife populations. As a resultof the disappearance of predators, baboons got bolder and their numbers exploded. In turn,these bolder and more numerous baboons started raiding crop farms and attacking farmers.Research indicates that if big cats were no longer featured on that dream safari, far fewerpeople would come to Africa. Without the $80 billion annual revenue stream communitiesand some governments would start failing and poverty would increase. The biggest task wehave is convincing people that those killer cats are lovable and important. This is especiallydifficult convincing people living on the edge in lion country who understandably find itdifficult to be tolerant of 400-pound predators that burst out at a herd of buffalo, or cattle,at 35 mph and collide with a bone-breaking force. It is hard for these people to enjoy lionsthe way others do. It is like telling them you need to lose the odd family member, cow orforfiet your livelihood.Trophy hunting needs to be banned, especially when the target is one of the last 4,500 malelions on Earth with high-powered rifles merely to serve the pleasure of ego, sport, andpower.Each year an average of about 500 lion trophies or skins enter the United States fromtrophy hunting in Africa. This is not sustainable. Because male lions operate in coalitions of2 or 3, each male lion that is shot leaves the remaining male outmatched in the nextterritorial fight, and he is expelled. There is no future for expelled lions. So one licenceeffectively kills 2 males. At the same time his 8 females (on average) and their 24 cubs areleft without defenders. The new alpha males are genetically wired to kill all cubs and startthe breeding again with their genes. So one license is really cleaning out between 20 and 30lions each time – example: 500 licenses effectively kill lions at an enormous rate!
    • Conservation For Asiatic Lions359 left in wild (Gir Natl Pk) April 2010A five yearly concensus at April 2010 will show there is a population of 400 in the park ICUNRed List of threatened species - there are approximately 175 mature individuals. 34 animalswere reported killed in 2007 (Jackson 2008)72 have died in the past 2 years.Asiatic lions occupies the Gir Forest sanctuary in north east India, in the state of Gujarat.The Saurashtra region of Gujarat is the only abode of Asiatic lions today. Red List - thisisolated population extends beyond the boundaries of the sanctuary (617 sq mi in area -1,986 mi ). This area is a dry teak forest.With the entire wild population of Asiatic lions confined to just one area, that population ishighly vulnerable to any kind of biological, climactic or man-made catastrophe. A majordisaster within the Gir PA could wipe out the entire subspecies at a stroke. Likewise adisease outbreak could decimate the lion population. Without the possibility oftranslocation the Gir lion population is at risk.
    • Conservation For Tigers1990s, 3,500 tiger population. However their numbers have dropped 90% in the pasthundred years. 2008 census held by Government of India revealed that the tiger populationdropped to 1,411.At the turn of the 19th century, the tiger population in India about 45,000. 1972, only1,827.Fewer than 3,500 tigers remain in the wild, of which only about 1,000 are breedingfemales. There are about 42 tiger source sites, which are sites that contain breedingpopulations of tigers and have the potential to seed the recovery of tigers across widerlandscapes.India is the most important country for tigers with 18 source sites. Sumatra, 8 source sites,Russia Far East, 6 source sites.These sites have law enforcement, wildlife monitoring, community involvement, and otherfactors. Much of these are provided by range state governments, supplemented byinternational support. About $35 million is needed to intensify proven methods ofprotection and monitoring on the ground.A key goal for us is to help identify the most efficient path forward so countries can achievetheir global bio-diversity conservation objectives. In spite of decades of effort byconservationist, tigers continue to be threatened by over hunting of both tigers and theirprey, and by loss and fragmentation of habitat. Much of the decline is being driven by thedemand for tiger body parts used in traditional medicines.Wildlife conservation and habitat protection are the key to the endangered tiger’s survival.Economical and political circumstances within many of the tiger countries also requireattention and international support. One of the most threat to tigers is the damand andmarket for tiger parts in traditional Chinese medicine. Also, tiger farms are another drasticthreat to tigers.Global Tiger Forum of Range States brings together representatives from 14 remaining tigerrange-countries to develop regional strategies to save the tiger. Their vital efforts are toreduce the demand for tiger parts and strengthen protected-area laws for wildlifeconservation and protection which remains at the heart of the strategy to save the tiger inthe wild!StrategyIdentify and monitor high priority tiger populations on which immediate conservationefforts should be focused.Tiger to survive in the wild: large area of habitat with sufficient water to drink, animals toeat, vegetative cover for hunting. Optimal tiger habitat includes a core area of at least 386sq. mi. that is free from most human activities.Scientists can locate key tiger populations by surveying habitats that meet the long-termecological requirements of tigers. Specialists must also improve research methods ofgathering vital information on tiger behavior and ecology for the development of long-termsolutions.
    • Conservation For Tigers ContdStrategy ContdManage key tiger habitat for the protection of tigers. On-the-ground protection is essentialto protect tigers from poachers seeking tiger parts for the profitable market in traditionalChinese medicine. Enforcement officers, park guards, and staff need to be hired, funded,organized, trained, equipped and legally en-powered to protect the tiger from illegalhunters, day and night.Develop community-based sustainable development and conservation programs. Individualrural households whose livelihoods depend on use of the forests where tigers live, isessential to sustain an effective tiger conservation strategy.Educational conservation programs are needed to inform, empower and inspire localcommunities to participate in the protection of the tiger. Educate consumers around theworld that conservation efforts at home help reduce the demand for natural resourcesabroad.Captive BreedingConservation groups and tiger specialists are researching tiger nutrition, health, andreproduction and zoo facilities and management so that zoo tigers will breed futuregenerations of healthy cubs.Captive-breeding programs such as GASP (Global Animal Survival Plan) are a part of makingsure there is captive-breeding to maintain a reservoir of genetic material on tigers.Zoos provide insurance against such long-term threats as genetic deterioration that couldaffect the small populations of tigers left in fragmented reserves.Wildlife conservation groups and tiger specialists need adequate resources to monitorreserves and enforce anti-poaching laws.Preservationist Approach For TigersRegional planning of Tiger Reserves to foster ecological connectivity between protectiveareas through restorative inputs with integrated land-use planning.The management plan of a Tiger Reserve needs to be integrated in larger regionalmaintenance plans.
    • September 20, 2010Tigers In BhutanWild tigers have been filmed in the mountains of Bhutan. A high-altitude sanctuary couldprovide a refuge for the endangered tiger and act as a wildlife “corridor”.With hidden cameras, a BBC Natural history team recorded in several months, a male andfemale at 2.49 miles above sea level. A height previously thought to be too high for thejungle animals to inhabit. This film was the first evidence the tigers could live and breed inmountains.Footage shows the female tiger lactating while the male appears to be marking its territory.This suggests the tigers are not just passing through the area. The tigers’ behavior suggeststhey are breeding and that there must now be cubs somewhere on this mountain.Villagers told BBC team that tiger tracks have been seen in the area. Earlier this year, aWWF survey team found a 4.2 inch-wide tiger print, suggesting a male tiger weighing morethan 440 pounds and about 9.8 feet in length.Conservationists believe this sparsely populated, high-altitude habitat is relativelyunthreatened by human development and could provide a “tiger corridor” that would linkanimals in other parts of Asia. There is pressure on tigers’ habitats from all sides. Yet wenow know they can live and breed at this altitude which is a safer habitat for them. Bhutanwas the missing link in this “tiger corridor”.There still is a long way to go to save the tiger. Bhutan has a tiger population of about 120-150 animals. We need to study and save wildlife by creating a series of ecological corridors.Putting An End To Tiger PoachingWWF is working with TRAFFIC to curb the trade in tiger parts and products, so that thistrade is no longer driving poaching and threatening wild tigers.Our longer-term strategic activities include:- Closing markets for tiger parts and products both in and outside tiger range countries,focusing on trade-routes, processors, and consumers- Closing all existing tiger farms, especially in China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand- Preventing any legal commercialization of dead tiger body parts- Ensuring all tiger range countries have fully CITES-compliant national legislation and fullyimplement such legislation as well as other CITES Resolutions and Decisions on tigers andAsian big cats
    • Putting An End To Tiger Poaching contd- Establishing trans-boundary customs posts to foster international cooperation and liaison,focusing on the Russia/China, China/Vietnam, India/Myanmar, Bangladesh/Myanmar andIndia/Bangladesh borders- Establishing and coordinating intelligence networks and ensuring intelligence-based lawenforcement in strategic locations, including Southeast Asia (particularly Malaysia andThailand), Sumatran landscapes, and the Greater Mekong Landscape (Thailand, Laos,Cambodia, Vietnam)- Developing the first phase of a Global Tiger Trade Information System for overall enhancedenforcement effectiveness through better trade-route hot spot detection.Conserving Tiger HabitatsWWF is working to restore tiger populations and distributions to at least 20% of their formerrange in 13 priority landscapes. This involves:- Recovering tiger and prey populations through better management of protected areas andengaging a wider range of local stake holders in anti-poaching measures- Managing tiger habitat, including restoration and management of corridors between coreareas through land-uses compatible with tiger conservation- Creating additional or expanding existing protected areas to support viable, breeding tigerpopulations, and link them with habitat corridors- Engaging business, industry, and development groups to support tiger conservation andadopt environmentally sensitive approaches that avoid negative impacts on habitat andtiger populations- Performing economic valuations of the ecological services and sustainable use of naturalresources derived from tiger landscapes to mainstream tigers and tiger conservation-related values into development planning process and policy formulation- Strengthening community engagement in: habitat management and tiger conservation byproviding economic incentives; multi-stakeholder forums to discuss, mediate, and resolveconservation issues such as land and natural resource management; revenue sharing;community-led anti-poaching strategies; and human wildlife conflict- Using innovative wildlife research and monitoring techniques to learn more about thetiger and prey biology in order to improve tiger conservation approaches, reduce conflict,and prioritize interventions- Establishing sustainable funding mechanisms to support tiger conservation, including fromphilanthropic funding, carbon financing, and government grantsMaking Tigers A Political PriorityWWF is working to mainstream tiger conservation into national and regional economic anddevelopment plans.We are working with a number of influential groups in tiger range states – includinggovernments, regional coalition, and international and multilateral institutions – to:- Integrate tiger habitats into land-use plans as a legitimate category so that project anddevelopment processes will treat them as conservation areas during project planning, andemploy the World Banks tiger filter- Ensure ongoing discussions on tiger conservation into strategic engagements anddevelopmental dialogues with governments at national, regional and local levels- Get endorsement of trans-boundary agreements at highest levels of governments toaddress tiger landscape conservation, anti-poaching, and international trade of tiger parts- Help to develop and capitalize a region-wide Trust Fund for tiger conservation
    • Conservation For TigersColor Codes For The Future Prospects For Tigers In Each Landscape:GREEN The prospects for tigers are good; numbers are stable or increasing; conservationefforts are succeeding.YELLOW Prospects for tigers are fair; numbers are stable but are increasingly threatened;significant conservation challenges lie ahead.RED Prospects for tigers are poor; Tiger numbers are declining; major threats are growingand, if not addressed, will continue to drive tiger numbers down.Western GhatsThere are around 200 tigers in the Western Ghats. The tigers habitat is mountainousforests. There are also Asian elephants, sloth bears, lion-tailed macaques, and langurmonkeys.Many of the big cats move between territories in the Western Ghats, making interconnectedhabitats key to their survival. The area is also rich in tiger prey such as deer, wild pigs, andwild cattle.The Western Ghats offers one of the best hopes for conserving this endangered species,because of such a relatively large population of tigers in one spot.In 2009, the WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society)-India program helped to develop a newsoftware program allowing researchers to quickly identify an individual tiger from itsunique stripe pattern and may also locate the origin of tigers from skins confiscated frompoachers. Techniques like these can be used to survey tiger populations across theirremaining range in Asia. The software that converts camera photographs into 3-D modelsbased on each tiger’s unique stripe pattern is enabling scientists to quickly identifyindividual tigers. WCS conservationists keep tabs on tigers by employing a new fecal DNAsampling technique. Tiger scat is collected and provides researchers with unique DNAsignatures allowing them to accurately and non-invasively identify individual tigers, andestimate tiger populations.With 30 million people living in the region, habitat loss and fragmentation pose the mostserious danger and threat to tigers, as farmland and roads expand across the wilderness,and livestock compete with tigers for space.In Western Ghats, tigers are benefiting from increased support from the Government ofIndia, and the State Governments, sustained conservation measures, local advocacy, and acontinuing WCS commitment to securing their future in the wild. As a result, the outlookfor tigers in this landscape look good.
    • Russia and China - Sikhote-Alin and Changbaishan Trans-boundary LandscapesTogether, these landscapes cover 164,093 sq. mi., represent the most biologically diverseecosystems in Northern Asia, and are home to the last populations of wild Siberian Tigers.Recent data indicates numbers are declining, and in some places, potentially sharply.Tigers regularly cross from Russia into China, where they are heavily impacted by poachingof prey and other threats.WCS’s 17-year long Siberian Tiger Project across the Russian landscape has enabledconservationists to plan and manage the landscape for tigers inside and outside ofprotected areas and build local ecosystem understanding. WCS launched efforts to recoverviable tiger populations in China and engage in discussions to establish trans-boundaryreserves that connect tiger populations in Russia and China. Unfortunately, despitenumerous successes, recent signs show that Siberian Tigers are once again under increasedthreat. Policy changes in Russia have decreased enforcement, and poaching of both tigersand their prey appear to be increasing.
    • Change In Forest Cover Of China Map
    • Conservation For TigersCambodia - Eastern Plains LandscapeThis landscape is 5,792 sq. mi. mix of semi-evergreen and deciduous forest. Years of warand strife in the region have decimated what once was a thriving wildlife population. Tigershave suffered from the loss of their prey and targeted poaching. They are likely down tofewer than 10 individuals. After 10 years of the Royal Government of Cambodia and WCScollaborating, recently they culminated in the designation of the Seima Protection Forest(SPF), which covers more than 11,000 sq. mi. of Cambodia’s eastern border shared withVietnam. Seima, a former logging concession the size of Yosemite National Park, protectsnot only tigers but also threatened primates and elephants.The long-term prospects for tigers in the Eastern Plains are dire because of their lownumbers. Yet large areas of habitat remain, prey is recovering and if breeding tigers stillexist, a long-term recovery for the population may still be possible. WCS is working withthe Cambodian government on enforcement and land-use planning at the community andprovincial levels.Tiger landscapes in the Greater MekongThe Eastern Plains still has very high forest cover, and the nature of the Dry Forests habitatmakes it ideal for large ungulate and other prey species populations such as wild cattle,deer, and pig. An adult tiger needs about 50 medium-sized animals each year to survive, solarge populations of prey are needed to supply enough food to ensure the tiger populationcan recover. This is exactly what the Cambodian government and WWF are focusing on nowin the protected areas.
    • Conservation For TigersNumber Of Tigers in Palamau Tiger Reserve in JharkhandThe number of big cats in the Maoist-infested Palamau Tiger Reserve in Jharkhand hasdeclined from 17 to 6, confirmed by research carried out through scat analysis. The scatanalysis by the Hyderabad-based Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology has confirmedthe presence of 6 tigers only in the tiger reserve. Scat analysis is an examination of thefaeces of animals done in order to determine their biological and genetic details. Census in2007 confirmed the presence of 17 tigers in the reserve spread over an area of 1,026 sq.km. In Jharkhands Palamau district (described by the National Tiger Conservation Authorityas a low-density tiger reserve).The actual number of big cats might be more since the analysis had not been done on thebasis of exhaustive samples.They had sent about 15 to 20 scat samples apart from general observation data from areasin different ranges in the reserve to the Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India.The presence of Maoists in the area posed problems for free movement of forest personneldue to which proper monitoring could not be carried out in the interiors of the reserve.90 percent of the field staff consists of local people who somehow manage to visit theinterior ranges.The Palamau tiger reserve has 7 ranges – Betla, Garu east and west, Chhipadohar east andwest, Baresnar and Kutku, while Mahuadar is outside its area.Conservation For Tigers
    • The St. Petersburg Tiger Summit of World LeadersA Challenge and an Opportunity to Save Wildlife for Human Well BeingHosted by Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and actively promoted by World Bank GroupPresident Robert Zoellick, world leaders will assemble in St. Petersburg, Russia, to forgenational and international commitments to double the number of tigers in the next 12years. At the same time, global supporters and financiers will commit to providing theincremental resources to support this critical, urgent program.Asia’s most iconic animal faces imminent extinction in the wild. In the past century, tigernumbers plummeted from 100,000 to about 3,500, and continue to fall. Tiger habitat hasdeclined by 40 percent in the last ten years alone. In an egregious illegal wildlife trade,criminals earn huge profits selling tiger parts, taking advantage of poor people living aroundtiger reserves to recruit poachers. People hunt the prey tigers need to survive. Adversehuman activities, including infrastructure development without concern for wildlife andnature, has fragmented the tiger’s habitat and threatens to take it all. We must “stop thebleeding” now before the wild tiger’s extinction become inevitable.
    • Conservation For TigersThe St. Petersburg Tiger Summit of World LeadersA Challenge and an Opportunity to Save Wildlife for Human Well BeingWild tigers give a face to the larger crisis of biodiversity loss in Asia and around the world—a crisis that threatens human well being as much as it does declining wildlife and wildlands. Tiger landscapes are pockets of deep poverty, and the poor have the most to losewhen they are destroyed. These landscapes provide vast and undervalued ecologicalservices such as watershed protection and the genetic base for food security andpharmaceuticals, as well as carbon sequestration, helping to mitigate climate change.To address this looming crisis, the World Bank, the Global Environmental Facility, theSmithsonian Institution, and other partners launched the Global Tiger Initiative (GTI)1inJune 2008. The World Bank led this effort because it is committed to balancing economicdevelopment with nature conservation and environmental protection, and tigers are at thevery heart of the matter in many parts of Asia. The World Bank is also using its conveningpower to strengthen political will for tiger conservation and influence public policy insupport of strong national leadership on this agenda.Since then, the GTI has become an alliance of governments, including all 13 tiger rangecountries (TRCs)2, international organizations, and civil society. The alliance was deepenedat a global workshop in Nepal in October 2009, which led to the First Asian MinisterialConference on Tiger Conservation in Thailand in January 2010 and is now taking us to theTiger Summit. These milestones are a result of all 13 TRCs and the international communityworking together for the first time on a cooperative platform, sharing knowledge andexperience and developing a collaborative program.What must be done to save tigers? The Global Tiger Recovery Program (GTRP) beingdeveloped for launch at the Tiger Summit will support two type of actions: (i) scaling uppractices already proven effective in one or more TRC that need wider policy support and,usually, resources; and (ii) new transnational actions that enhance the effectiveness ofindividual TRCs’ actions. Taken together, the GTRP will aim to achieve the agreed globalgoal of doubling wild tiger populations by 2022, the next Year of the Tiger. The GTRP will bebuilt from a foundation of robust National Tiger Recovery Programs that will selectively aimto scale up, as appropriate for each TRC, proven practices grouped in four themes:• Landscape Management: The most critical essential remaining tiger habitat—areas wherewild tigers breed—will be made inviolate to human activities. Core areas will be connectedby green corridors and surrounded by well managed buffer zones. Principles of “SmartGreen Infrastructure” will be applied to make infrastructure development outside of coreareas tiger friendly.• Technology for Wildlife: Technology-backed management monitoring systems and forensicscience capabilities, as well as performance incentives ,will be introduced into tigerreserve management to control poaching of tigers and prey and reduce encroachment ontiger habitat.• Community Engagement: Alternative livelihood programs, such as community-managedecotourism, will be introduced in communities around tiger reserves as incentives forturning poachers into protectors and gaining widespread local support for tigerconservation. Systems to fairly compensate people for injury and economic loss from wildtigers will be implemented, along with education programs to give people the toolsnecessary to minimize tiger depredations.• Cooperative Management of International Landscapes: A special focus on critical tigerlandscapes that cross borders will be introduced. Promising trans-boundary landscapes arethose between India and Nepal, China and the Russian Far East, and Malaysia, Thailand, andVietnam.1See Global Tiger Initiative2Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, RussianFederation, Thailand, and Vietnam.
    • Conservation For TigersThe St. Petersburg Tiger Summit of World LeadersA Challenge and an Opportunity to Save Wildlife for Human Well BeingIn addition, the GTRP will support global action on new frontiers in a bid to fundamentallychange the current dynamic threatening the extinction of the wild tiger. Key among theseare:• Create an effective and technologically savvy institutional architecture to help TRCseliminate the huge illegal wildlife trade, focusing on effective interdiction and on wildlifelaw enforcement capacity building. The GTRP will support the International Consortium toCombat Wildlife Crime being formed by INTERPOL, UN Office on Drugs and Crime, WorldCustoms Organization, CITES Secretariat, and the World Bank.• Persuade people to stop consuming tigers through a well designed, hard-hitting globalawareness campaign to stigmatize using tiger parts and products as medicine, food, andadornment.• Enhance the professional capacity of policy makers and practitioners for effective tigerand wildlife conservation in TRCs, building on the foundation laid by the recentlyestablished Smithsonian Institution- and World Bank-led Global Conservation andDevelopment Network.• Develop sustainable long-term financing mechanisms for conservation, including schemesfor payment for ecosystem services, biodiversity offsets from infrastructure development,resources from REDD+ carbon markets, and creation of a new market platform to recognizeand monetize the value of wildlife.
    • Conservation For Tigers
    • Conservation For TigersTiger Habitats
    • Conservation For Amur (Siberian) TigerIn the early 20th century, the Amur tiger was almost driven to extinction, as expandinghuman settlements, habitat loss and poaching wiped out this biggest of cats from over 90%of its range.By the 1940s just 20 to 30 individuals survived in the wild.A ban on hunting and remarkable conservation effort slowly helped the Amur tiger recover.Today, up to 500 are thought to survive in the wild, while 421 cats are kept in captivity.Nuclear DNA that was sampled within the scat samples of an estimated 95 individuals foundthroughout the Amur tiger’s range, likely constituting up to 20% of the remainingpopulation.The study sampled the amount of variation with the DNA from more tigers, across a broadergeographic than any previous research.Census population size of Amur tigers is closer to 500 individuals, but the population isbehaving like a size of 27 to 35 individuals. That’s the lowest genetic diversity everrecorded for a population of tigers.The effective population size is lower than the census size. The remaining Amur tigers aresegregated into two populations that rarely intermingle.Some of the tigers cross the divide of which two groups are separated by a developmentcorridor between Vladivostok and Ussurisk. This reduces the effective size of the wildpopulation further. There is little sharing of genes across the development corridor. Itseems Amur tigers are residing in two fairly independent populations on either side of thedevelopment corridor, further lowering the effective size for each from 26 to 28 forSikhote-Alin and 2.8 to 11 for Southwest Primorye.More work needs to be done to open up this barrier segregating the tigers. If this does’nthappen the smallest group will continue to dwindle.The captive program has done a good job of preserving the genetic diversity of thesubspecies. Since it is known which individuals possess which gen variants, managers will beable to selectively breed to help preserve the unique and rare gene variants. This variationmay be used to re-infuse the wild population sometime in the future if reintroductionstrategies are deemed warranted.The Amur Tiger Programme (TATP)Amur Tiger Programme to research the Amur tiger in Russias Far East is an independentproject carried out as part of the Russian Academy of Sciences ongoing expedition to studyanimals that have been placed on Russias Red List of Threatened Species and otherparticularly important species of animals in Russia.TATP aims to develop a scientific platform for the conservation of the Amur tiger living inRussias Far East.TATP Programme Objectives for Amur Tiger:Study distribution range of populations; the number and migration routes and the way thesebig cats use their reproductive biology, habitat, feeding patterns and food resources, thedistribution and dynamics of the populations of the main prey species and the tigersrelationships with rival predators. To gain a more detailed insight into the tigers ability toadapt to the ever-changing conditions of the modern environment, scientist need toresearch their habitat structure and analyze the long-term trends prevalent in Russias FarEast forest ecosystems.Scientists also need to simulate tiger habitats by using geo-information technologies topredict the Amur tigers distribution ranges. The programme focuses on the study of thestructural and functional organization of the populations of the main prey species (wildboars, roe deer, Manchurian deer and sika deer) and those of the main rival predators(brown bears, Asiatic black bears, wolves); it also aims to research the specifics and theimplications of inter-populations interaction between 2 species of big cats, namely, theAmur tiger and the Far Eastern leopard.
    • Conservation For Amur (Siberian) TigerThe Amur Tiger Programme (TATP) contdThe existing method of counting tiger populations needs to be revised. Ex: the issue ofcreating a state-run information center to store all the information obtained about thecondition of tiger populations and other rare species of animals.TATP addresses popular science, educational and social issues. Raise awareness among thepeople living in the areas near Russias rare species of animals about the environment andthe animals behavior.Tools To Research Amur TigersPhoto-traps(the Lif River/Reconix models)These are cameras used for making observations at a distance. They are located in thetiaga at fixed intervals along the tigers likely routes.Each tiger has a unique coat pattern (like each persons fingerprints). A photo-trap has aspecial flash card. Based on data supplied by photo-traps (similar to fingerprint analysis),scientists make individual cards to enter information on each tiger living in the area.Photo-traps are installed in order to photograph animals simultaneously from both sides asthis is the only way to make an individual portrait of each predator.Special LoopsIn order to attract a tiger, a special mark is left on a tree under which the loop is installed.Like all cats, tigers are attracted by the smell of valerian. The trap is carefully concealedso that the tiger does not detect anything suspicious. It is important that the tigers frontpaw gets caught in the loop, so the tiger wont have a chance to break free from the trapbecause it does not have enough room to leap. When the tiger gets caught in the loop, atransmitter connected to the loop by a special string changes its signal. The snare cable isattached to an anchor cable through a swivel that allows the captured animal to rotatefreely. This swivel is critical to prevent injury. To avoid injuries, a slide stop is added to thecable to prevent loop from closing too tightly, and cutting off circulation in the foot.Air Rifles To Immobilize TigersScientists use air rifles with telescopic sights from the Dan-Inject company to immobilizetigers that get caught in the loops so that they can carry out research. The special injectionrifle is intended to shoot syringe darts. Gas pressure is adjusted with the help of a specialpressure gauge depending on the shooting distance. It can shoot at an animal at a distanceof up to 40 meters (131 feet). Zoletil and Medetomidin are the drugs which are currentlybeing used to immobilize all large predators, including tigers. The dose depends on theanimals weight. The drugs cause the animal to sleep for 30 to 40 minutes. All proceduresrelating to immobilization and veterinary checkups of tigers are conducted by expertveterinarians. The chief veterinarian of the Moscow Zoo, Mikhail Alshinetsky, takes part inthe research.First, veterinarians perform ultrasounds of all captured animals and take blood tests. Then,they fasten a satellite-tracked collar around the animals neck.Satellite-tracked CollarsInformation about the position of the tiger will be transmitted to a computer in real time.Tigers quickly get used to wearing the transmitter, which is relatively light. The GPS collarsbattery life is about 18 months, after which the collar will automatically unfasten.Molecular and Genetic MethodsThese methods are based on the analysis of the microsatellite parts of nuclear DNA (ananimals blood and feces are used for this purpose). The structure of these parts of DNA isunique for each animal. The microsatellite parts of DNA that are used to identify an animalhave different numbers of di- tri- and tetranucleotide (relative mutation-rates ofmicrosatellite loci) sequences and consequently different lengths.
    • Conservation For Amur (Siberian) TigersThe Amur Tiger Programme (TATP) contdAmur Tiger Research In The Ussuri Nature ReserveScientists take samples of blood, hair and feces from each captured tiger for furthermolecular, genetic and hormone analysis. In addition, all animals get ear marks and startwearing GPS-Argos collars.August 31, 2008 – A satellite was fastened around a tigress neck, who they named Serga,and she was let go. A couple of months on in November, Serga got trapped again. One photoof Serga, showed a syringe dart with tranquilizer that hit the tigress ear.October 20, 2009 – Serga was captured again. Scientists unfastened the collar, whichfunctioned for exactly 12 months and replaced it with a new one. Sergas cubs had bittenthe satellite antenna off the old collar and the scientists could only track the tigress withthe help of a USW transmitter. The tigress was measured again, her biological samples weretaken and the old collar was replaced with fresh batteries.The old collars data on Sergas wanderings through the year: 1,222 locations, 16,500 activeperiods and 6 full 24-hour periods (when she has no sleep, no food, no rest, nothing). Datafrom the collar provided detailed information about the tigress migration routes throughoutthe past year. Serga ranged in the area covering 900 sq. km. (559 miles). 56% of alllocations were within the aUssuri National Reserve. The tigress also often wandered intoterritories in close proximity to human communities, such as villages of Kamenushka andMnogoudobnoye.On October 26, 2009, another tiger was captured in the Ussuri National Reserve. It wasgiven the name Boxer. The tiger was about 18 months old and weighed 120kg. (264 lbs.).Scientists suggested that it was one of Sergas 3 cubs. Subsequent genetic tests conductedat the institutes laboratory have supported the idea that Boxer was Sergas son.Spring 2009 – a weak 18 month old cub, left along after its mothers death, was captured inthe reserve. It was named Oleg. After a course of rehabilitative therapy in captivity, thecub was released into the wild on September 16, 2009. It was the first time in recordedhistory that an experiment was carried out to release a tiger back into the wild after aperiod in captivity.End of May 2009 – the cub, which weighed 60 kg. (132 lbs.), was taken for rehabilitation toa spacious enclosure in the forest, where it could regularly chase after sika deer to acquirehunting skills. Mid-September – the tigers mild teeth had been replaced with permanentones; the tiger had gained 30 kg. (66 lbs.) and had learnt to effectively hunt hoofedanimals.Today, scientists are already observing a whole group of tigers of different ages wearingsatellite collars. The results of tiger identification by use of photographs from photo-traps,the results of molecular, genetic and hormone analysis and the traces of the tigers lifeactivities are entered into a database compiled by the scientists.aUssuri National Reserve – Situated near Ussurisk city and about 150 km (93 miles) far from Vladivostok.
    • Conservation For Amur (Siberian) TigersThe Amur Tiger Programme (TATP) contdUssuri National Reserve, which has been carrying out a program to protect the Amur tiger.
    • Wildlife ConservationImportant Elements In Wildlife Protection And Control- Mapping and plotting the relative spatial abundance of wild animals- Identification of risk factors- Proximity to risk factors- Sensitivity categorization- Crime mapping and immediate action for apprehending the offenders based oneffective networking and communicationWildlife Habitat And Population Evaluation System- Mapping, data acquisition and GIS modeling- Field data collection and validation− Data maintenance, Dissemination and Use
    • Resource SitesBio-Diversity A Crisishttp://www.iucnredlist.org/news/biodiversity-crisishttp://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20101013e1.htmlTiger Bones For Chinese medicine/Tiger And Lion Bones To Make Wine In Chinahttp://www.tehelka.com/story_main30.asp?filename=Ne120507Stalking_the.aspConservation For Amur Leopardhttp://wildlifebook.info/2010/02/wildlifesaving-the-critically-endangered-amur-leopard/Conservation For Leopards and Cheetahshttp://www.africat.org/Conservation For Lionshttp://baraza.wildlifedirect.org/category/lions/page/2/Hunting Farms Around The Countryhttp://blogs.nationalgeographic.com/blogs/news/chiefeditor/2010/06/south-africa-lion-hunting-scandal.htmlThe Growing Trade Of Lion Boneshttp://blogs.nationalgeographic.com/blogs/news/chiefeditor/2010/07/lion-bone-wine-threatens-big-cats.htmlTaking Action To Save The Lionhttp://www.defenders.org/newsroom/defenders_magazine/fall_2010/can_we_save_lions.phpConservation For Asiatic Lionhttp://www.pictures-of-cats.org/asiatic-lion.html#Threats_and_ConservationConservation For Cheetahshttp://www.yourgoodnature.com/project.php?orgid=18&projid=5Conservation For Tigershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Tigerhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/20/wild-tigers-bbc-bhutanhttp://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100914171323.htmhttp://www.tigersincrisis.com/habitat_protection.htmhttp://wwf.ca/conservation/species/tigers/what_wwf_is_doing/Preservationist Approach For Tigershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_TigerColor Codes Of Tiger Landscape ProspectsWestern Ghats, Russia And China-Sikhote-Alin and Changbaishan Trans-boundary Landscapes,Cambodia - Eastern Plains LandscapeTiger Report 0210_r4 11.pdfNumber of Tigers in Palamau Tiger Reserve In Jharkhandhttp://www.hindustantimes.com/Only-six-tigers-in-Palamau-Reserve/Article1-620254.aspxConservation For Amur (Siberian) Tigershttp://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8128000/8128738.stm
    • The Amur Tiger Programme (TATP)http://premier.gov.ru/tiger/eng/program/Wildlife ConservationImportant Elements In Wildlife Protection And Control/Wildlife Habitat And Population Evaluation System/Wildlife Bone Tradehttp://www.traffic.org/home/2010/9/20/police-in-viet-nam-uncover-wildlife-bone-trade-network.htmlBio-Diversity A Crisishttp://www.iucnredlist.org/news/biodiversity-crisishttp://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20101013e1.html