MANAJ M N ST     E E    RAT GIS               E   RUM SAK       AH    IT dr.Adib Abdullah Yahya,MARS.
PEMBAHASAN- PENGERTIAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS- ELEMEN DARI MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS- PERAN KEPEMIMPINAN- PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI DI RU...
PENGERTIANETIMOLOGI :   - YUNANI :“STRATEGOS” BERARTI :        . JENDRAL        . TENTARA        . MEMIMPIN“STRATEGEO” BER...
STRATEGI ADALAH PENDEKATAN POLA PIKIR,PERENCANAAN DAN PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSANDALAM SITUASI BISNIS YANG MENGHARUSKANMANAJER U...
MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS ADALAH KEGIATAN KOLEKTIF YANG    MENYANGKUT PEMAHAMAN TENTANG HAKEKAT DANIMPLIKASI DARI PERUBAHAN EKST...
ELEMEN DARI MANAJEMEN STRATEGISPENDEKATAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS  PADA ORGANISASI YANG KOMPLEKS SEPERTI RUMAH SAKIT,  DALAM M...
MODEL MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS YANG MENCAKUP PENDEKATAN ANALITIS DAN EMERGENT BIASANYA TERDIRI DARI TIGA ELEMEN : POLA PIKIR ST...
STRATEGIC THINKINGMENGENALI KENYATAAN TENTANG PERUBAHANMEMPERTANYAKAN ASUMSI DAN KEGIATANTERKINIMEMBANGUN PEMAHAMAN SISTEM...
STRATEGIC THINKING MELAKUKAN ASESMEN TERHADAP: PERUBAHAN KEBUTUHAN DARI STAKE HOLDERS (PEMANGKU KEPENTINGAN) PERUBAHAN MEN...
“STRATEGIC THINKERS” SELALU  MEMPERTANYAKAN: “WHAT ARE WE DOING NOW THAT WE SHOULD STOP    DOING?” “WHAT ARE WE NOT DOING ...
STRATEGIC PLANNING  STRATEGIC PLANNING ADALAH PROCESS SECARA     PERIODIK DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN SATUPERANGKAT LANGKAH-LANGKA...
STRATEGIC PLANNING :– MENYIAPKAN PROSES LANGKAH DEMI LANGKAH YANG   BERURUTAN UNTUK MENCIPTAKAN STRATEGI– MELIBATKAN KEGIA...
STRATEGIC MOMENTUMSTRATEGIC MOMENTUM MENYANGKUT KEGIATANSEHARI-HARI UNTUK MENGELOLA STRATEGI GUNA       PENCAPAIAN SASARAN...
STRATEGIC MOMENTUM:– KEGIATAN NYATA UNTUK MENCAPAI SASARAN SPESIFIK– MENYANGKUT PROSES PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN DAN   DAMPAKN...
MANFAAT MANAJEMEN STRATEGISKETIGA KEGIATAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS (STRATEGICTHINKING, STRATEGIC PLANNING DAN STRATEGIC MOMENT...
PERAN KEPEMIMPINANKEPEMIMPINAN MEMEGANG PERAN PENTING DALANMPENGEMBANGAN STRATEGISTRATEGI TIDAK BISA DICIPTAKAN HANYA DENG...
TIAP MANAJER/LEADER SEBAGAIBAGIAN DARI TUGASNYA HARUSPEDULI DENGAN PERUBAHAN, INOVASIDAN KEUNGGULAN, SERTAMENGAJUKAN PERTA...
PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI RUMAH SAKITPENYUSUNAN STRATEGI ADALAH SUATU PROSESPENETAPAN POLA KEGIATAN YANG MENJADIPANDUAN BAGI ORG...
PROSES PERENCANAAN STRATEGISPROSES DIMULAI DENGAN ASESMEN    YANG MENDALAM TENTANG    ORGANISASI, MISINYA DAN        LINGK...
LANGKAH-LANGKAH :– LANGKAH 1 PERENCANAAN PROSES:   ASESMEN TENTANG MISI, KEKUATAN DAN   KELEMAHAN INTERNAL, PELUANG DAN A...
– LANGKAH 2  MENGEMBANGKAN DAN/ATAU  ASESMEN TERHADAP “MISSION STATEMENT”   “MISSION STATEMENT” YANG BERBASIS NILAI      ...
– LANGKAH 3  MELAKUKAN ASESMEN EKSTERNALLINGKUNGAN EKSTERNAL DAPAT BERUPA :   MACRO-ENVIRONMENT   REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT ...
– LANGKAH 4  MELAKSANAKAN ASESMENTINTERNALKOMPONEN YANG DIEVALUASI:   MANAGEMENT   HUMAN RESOURCES   FINANCE   MARKETING ...
– LANGKAH 5  MENETAPKAN “GOALS” DAN                 OBJECTIVES   GOALS (OBJEKTIVES) ADALAH TITIK AKHIR YANG   HARUS DICAP...
– LANGKAH 6  MENYUSUN PILIHAN-PILIHAN                 STRATEGI   MENGEMBANGKAN DAFTAR STRATEGI YANG   REALISTIS YANG DAPA...
– LANGKAH 7  MENYELEKSI DAN MENGEMBANGKAN                 STRATEGI   PILIHAN STRATEGI (STRATEGIC OPTIONS) HARUS   MERUPAK...
– LANGKAH 8  MENGEMBANGKAN IMPLEMENTASI                 PERENCANAAN   TIAP KEGIATAN DALAM IMPLEMENTASI   PERENCANAAN STRA...
STRATEGICSTAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT
CUSTOMER vs. STAKEHOLDERCUSTOMER IS ANYONE WHO HAS ANEXPECTATION ABOUT THE OUTPUT OF APROCESS( JAMES 1989 )STAKEHOLDER IS ...
STAKEHOLDERSORGANIZATIONS,GROUPS, AND INDIVIDUALS THAT HAVE AN INTEREST OR “STAKE” IN  THE SUCCESS OF THE ORGANIZATION.
HOSPITAL’S STAKEHOLDERSHospitals stakeholders can include its patients, families and the larger community.Stakeholders als...
NONLOCAL       NONLOCAL                SCHOOL OFPATIENTS       PHYSICIANS               MEDICINE                          ...
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSISBASED ON THE BELIEF THAT  THERE IS A RECIPROCALRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANORGANIZATION AND CERTAIN  OTHER ...
THE STEPS TO STRATEGIC      STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT1.   IDENTIFY ALL RELEVANT EXTERNAL,     INTERFACE, AND INTERNAL STAKEHO...
THE STEPS TO STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT . . .4. FORMULATE GENERIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES :      - INVOLVE...
STEP 1IDENTIFY ALL RELEVANT    STAKEHOLDERS
EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS1.    COMPETITORS2.    RELATED HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS3.    GOVERNMENT REGULATORY/ LISENSING AGENCI...
INTERFACE STAKEHOLDERS1.   NONMANAGEMENT MEDICAL STAFF2.   HOSPITAL BOARD3.   STOCKHOLDERS/ TAXPAYERS/     CONTRIBUTORS4. ...
INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS1.   MANAGEMENT :      - TOP MANAGERS      - CLINICAL MANAGERS      - PHYSICIAN MANAGERS      - NONCL...
STEP 2CLASSIFY EACH STAKEHOLDER
DIFFERENT TYPES OF STAKEHOLDERSTYPE 1 : THE MIXED BLESSING STAKEHOLDER :  - MEDICAL STAFF  - PHYSICIAN NOT ON THE STAFF  -...
TYPE 2 : THE SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER :  - BOARD OF TRUSTEES  - MANAGERS  - STAFF EMPLOYEES  - PARENT COMPANY  - LOCAL COMMU...
TYPE 3 : THE NONSUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER  - COMPETING HOSPITALS  - FREESTANDING ALTERNATIVES  - EMPLOYEE UNIONS  - GOVERNMEN...
TYPE 4 : THE MARGINAL STAKEHOLDER  - VOLUNTEER GROUP  - STOCKHOLDERS  - PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
STEP 3DIAGNOSE EACH STAKEHOLDER
STEP 4           FORMULATEGENERIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT           STRATEGIES
STAKE HOLDER’S                       POTENTIAL FOR THREAT TO THE HOSPITAL                       High                      ...
SYNERGY AS A STRATEGIC MANGEMENTPROGRAM TO COLLABORATE WITH   HOSPITAL STAKEHOLDERS
synergyWebster (1991) defines synergy as   the action of two or more substances,organs, or organisms to achieve an effecto...
Synergy can be defined as the   breakthroughs in thinking and action that   are produced when a collaborative   process su...
Synergism, in the world of people, is sometimesused to reference a team.In other words, the effects of synergism are alway...
components of synergyThere are some components of synergy that   must be followed in order to make it effective,   especia...
for the phenomenon of synergy to functioneffectively, members must speak clearly topersonal points and perspectives whilea...
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SYNERGYA partnership creates synergy bycombining the complementary knowledge,skills, and resou...
At a practical level, the limited capacity ofpartnerships to create synergy appears tobe related to three factors: (1) who...
Who is Involved in the PartnershipThe people and organizations involved in a partnership are the buildingblocks of synergy...
Together, a broad array of participants can:     * Obtain more accurate information (e.g., about theconcerns and prioritie...
How Partners Are InvolvedTwo types of partnerships:   - the "lead agency" model and   - the "community engagement" model
The "lead agency" model refers to partnershipsthat are established to help a public- or private-sector organization carry ...
In the "community engagement" model, a broad array of     community stakeholders work together in all phasesof the partner...
Leadership and Management of PartnershipsThe kinds of leadership and managementcapacities that synergistic partnershipsreq...
What does the leadership of a partnership need to do   to enable a diverse group of participants to   create synergy and, ...
foster respect, trust, inclusiveness, andopenness in the partnership and need to helpthe participants develop a commonlyun...
STAGES OF COLLABORATION           COMMON     DEPENDABILITYFACTORS                               SUSTAINABILITY           P...
THE UNDERLYING DYNAMIC OF THE NEWLYFORMED INTER-ORGANIZATIONALARRANGEMENT IS NOT “COMMAND ANDCONTROL” BUT ONE THAT IS BETT...
TERIMAKASIH
Manajemen strategis rumah sakit
Manajemen strategis rumah sakit
Manajemen strategis rumah sakit
Manajemen strategis rumah sakit
Manajemen strategis rumah sakit
Manajemen strategis rumah sakit
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Manajemen strategis rumah sakit

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Manajemen strategis rumah sakit

  1. 1. MANAJ M N ST E E RAT GIS E RUM SAK AH IT dr.Adib Abdullah Yahya,MARS.
  2. 2. PEMBAHASAN- PENGERTIAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS- ELEMEN DARI MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS- PERAN KEPEMIMPINAN- PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI DI RUMAH SAKIT- STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT - SYNERGY AS A STRATEGIC MANGEMENT PROGRAM
  3. 3. PENGERTIANETIMOLOGI : - YUNANI :“STRATEGOS” BERARTI : . JENDRAL . TENTARA . MEMIMPIN“STRATEGEO” BERARTI : “ MERENCANAKAN UNTUKMENGHANCURKAN MUSUH MELALUI PEMANFAATAN SUMBER DAYA SECARA EFEKTIF “
  4. 4. STRATEGI ADALAH PENDEKATAN POLA PIKIR,PERENCANAAN DAN PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSANDALAM SITUASI BISNIS YANG MENGHARUSKANMANAJER UNTUK MENGETAHUI, MEMAHAMI,MENERIMA DAN MENDUKUNG MISI ORGANISASI,ATAU UNIT DI DALAM ORGANISASI, DANMENGHUBUNGKAN MISI TERSEBUT DENGANLINGKUNGAN DITEMPAT KEPUTUSAN-KEPUTUSANTERSEBUT AKAN DIIMPLEMENTASIKAN.“DRIVING FORCE” DI BALIK POLA PIKIR, PERENCANAAN DAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS ADALAH MISIORGANISASI.
  5. 5. MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS ADALAH KEGIATAN KOLEKTIF YANG MENYANGKUT PEMAHAMAN TENTANG HAKEKAT DANIMPLIKASI DARI PERUBAHAN EKSTERNAL, KEMAMPUANUNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN STRATEGI YANG EFEKTIF DALAMMENGHADAPI PERUBAHAN, DAN KEMAUAN SERTAKEMAMPUAN UNTUK MENGELOLA SECARA AKTIFMOMENTUM ORGANISASISUATU KEHARUSAN BAGI MANAJER RUMAH SAKIT, UNTUKMEMAHAMI PERUBAHAN-PERUBAHAN YANG TERJADI DILINGKUNGANNYA; MEREKA TIDAK HANYA RESPONSIF TERHADAPPERUBAHAN TETAPI HARUS MAMPU MENCIPTAKAN MASADEPANMANAJEMEN STRATEGIS DISUSUN SEBAGAI PENDEKATAN ATAU FILOSOFI UNTUK MENGELOLA ORGANISASI YANG SANGAT KOMPLEKS
  6. 6. ELEMEN DARI MANAJEMEN STRATEGISPENDEKATAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS PADA ORGANISASI YANG KOMPLEKS SEPERTI RUMAH SAKIT, DALAM MELAKSANAKAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS DIPERLUKAN PENDEKATAN ANALITIS MAUPUN PENDEKATAN KEDARURATAN ( EMERGENT/CONTINGENCY) : – PENDEKATAN ANALITIK ATAU RASIONAL BERGANTUNG PADA PENGEMBANGAN LANGKAH-LANGKAH ATAU PROSES YANG LOGIS (LINEAR THINKING) – MODEL EMERGENT, BERGANTUNG PADA PEMIKIRAN INTUITIF, KEPEMIMPINAN, DAN PEMBELAJARAN DAN MERUPAKAN BAGIAN DARI MANAJEMEN KEDUA PENDEKATAN INI DIBUTUHKAN DAN DIPANDANG SEBAGAI SATU “SINGLE MODEL” PENDEKATAN ANALITIS DAPAT DISAMAKAN DENGAN “PETA”,SEDANGKAN MODEL EMERGENT MERUPAKAN “KOMPAS”NYA
  7. 7. MODEL MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS YANG MENCAKUP PENDEKATAN ANALITIS DAN EMERGENT BIASANYA TERDIRI DARI TIGA ELEMEN : POLA PIKIR STRATEGIS (STRATEGIC THINKING) PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS (STRATEGIC PLANNING) MOMENTUM STRATEGIS (STRATEGIC MOMENTUM)
  8. 8. STRATEGIC THINKINGMENGENALI KENYATAAN TENTANG PERUBAHANMEMPERTANYAKAN ASUMSI DAN KEGIATANTERKINIMEMBANGUN PEMAHAMAN SISTEMMELIHAT KEMUNGKINAN MASA DEPANMENCIPTAKAN IDE-IDE BARUMEMPERTIMBANGKAN KESESUAIAN ORGANISASI DENGAN LINGKUNGAN EKSTERNAL
  9. 9. STRATEGIC THINKING MELAKUKAN ASESMEN TERHADAP: PERUBAHAN KEBUTUHAN DARI STAKE HOLDERS (PEMANGKU KEPENTINGAN) PERUBAHAN MENYANGKUT TEKNOLOGI, SOSIAL DAN DEMOGRAFI, EKONOMI, POLITIK/PERUNDANGAN TUNTUTAN KOMPETITIF
  10. 10. “STRATEGIC THINKERS” SELALU MEMPERTANYAKAN: “WHAT ARE WE DOING NOW THAT WE SHOULD STOP DOING?” “WHAT ARE WE NOT DOING NOW, BUT SHOULD START DOING?” “WHAT ARE WE DOING NOW THAT WE SHOULD CONTINUE TO DO BUT PERHAPS IN A FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT WAY?”
  11. 11. STRATEGIC PLANNING STRATEGIC PLANNING ADALAH PROCESS SECARA PERIODIK DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN SATUPERANGKAT LANGKAH-LANGKAH DALAM ORGANISASI UNTUK MENCAPAI MISI DAN VISINYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN POLA PIKIR STRATEGIS
  12. 12. STRATEGIC PLANNING :– MENYIAPKAN PROSES LANGKAH DEMI LANGKAH YANG BERURUTAN UNTUK MENCIPTAKAN STRATEGI– MELIBATKAN KEGIATAN-KEGIATAN “PERIODIC GROUP STRATEGIC THINKING (BRAINSTORMING)”– MEMBUTUHKAN DATA/INFORMASI– MEMBANGUN FOKUS UNTUK ORGANISASI– MEMFASILITASI PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN YANG KONSISTEN– KONSENSUS AKAN KEBUTUHAN GUNA PENYESUAIAN ORGANISASI DENGAN LINGKUNGAN EKSTERNAL– HASILNYA ADALAH PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS YANG TERDOKUMENTASI
  13. 13. STRATEGIC MOMENTUMSTRATEGIC MOMENTUM MENYANGKUT KEGIATANSEHARI-HARI UNTUK MENGELOLA STRATEGI GUNA PENCAPAIAN SASARAN STRATEGIS DARI ORGANISASI
  14. 14. STRATEGIC MOMENTUM:– KEGIATAN NYATA UNTUK MENCAPAI SASARAN SPESIFIK– MENYANGKUT PROSES PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN DAN DAMPAKNYA– MENGHASILKAN BUDAYA DAN STYLE– MEMUNCULKAN ANTISIPASI, INOVASI DAN KEUNGGULAN– MENGEVALUASI KINERJA STRATEGI MELALUI PENGENDALIAN– SUATU PROSES PEMBELAJARAN– BERGANTUNG PADA PENINGKATAN POLA PIKIR STRATEGIS DAN PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS PERIODIKMOMENTUM STRATEGIS MENJAMIN FILOSOFI YANG BERKELANJUTAN DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN DAN MENGATUR PERENCANAAN, KEGIATAN DAN PENGENDALIAN DARI ORGANISASI
  15. 15. MANFAAT MANAJEMEN STRATEGISKETIGA KEGIATAN MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS (STRATEGICTHINKING, STRATEGIC PLANNING DAN STRATEGIC MOMENTUM)AKAN MEMBERIKAN MANFAAT BAGI RUMAH SAKIT:– MENGHUBUNGKAN ORGANISASI DENGAN TUJUAN YANG RASIONAL DAN NILAI-NILAI YANG BERLAKU– MEMPERBAIKI KINERJA KEUANGAN– ADANYA KONSEP YANG JELAS, TUJUAN YANG SPESIFIK DAN PANDUAN SERTA PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN YANG KONSISTEN– MEMBANTU MANAJER MEMAHAMI KONDISI SAAT INI, MEMIKIRKAN MASA DEPAN DAN MENGENALI TANDA-TANDA PERLUNYA PERUBAHAN– PERLUNYA MANAJER BERKOMUNIKASI SECARA VERTIKAL DAN HORISONTAL MEMPERBAIKI KOORDINASI DALAM ORGANISASI SECARA MENYELURUH– MENDORONG INOVASI DAN PERUBAHAN DALAM ORGANISASI UNTUK MEMENUHI KEBUTUHAN DARI SITUASI YANG DINAMIS
  16. 16. PERAN KEPEMIMPINANKEPEMIMPINAN MEMEGANG PERAN PENTING DALANMPENGEMBANGAN STRATEGISTRATEGI TIDAK BISA DICIPTAKAN HANYA DENGAN ANALISIS, TETAPI PENGEMBANGANNYA DAPAT DIPERKUAT DENGAN PENDEKATAN YANG LOGISPERAN KRITIS KEPEMIMPINAN :– MENGAJUKAN PERTANYAAN YANG TEPAT KETIMBANG MENEMUKAN JAWABAN YANG BENAR– MENGAJUKAN ALTERNATIF KONSEP INTERPRETASI SITUASI– BERTINDAK SELAKU KATALISATOR, MENDORONG MANAJER UNTUK MEMIKIRKAN MASA DEPAN DENGAN CARA YANG KREATIF– MEMBANTU MENGENALI DAN MENYEDIAKAN INFORMASI TENTANG ISU-ISU STRATEGIS PENTING– MENYAMPAIKAN STRATEGI DENGAN CUKUP JELAS UNTUK KEPENTINGAN OPERASIONALISASI– MENGURAIKAN STRATEGI KE DALAM SUB STRATEGI, PROGRAM- PROGRAM DAN RENCANA AKSI UNTUK MEREALISAIKAN TIAP STRATEGI– MEMPERTIMBANGKAN DAMPAK PERUBAHAN STRATEGI DALAM OPERASIONAL ORGANISASI– MENGKOMUNIKASIKAN DAN MENGENDALIKAN STRATEGI
  17. 17. TIAP MANAJER/LEADER SEBAGAIBAGIAN DARI TUGASNYA HARUSPEDULI DENGAN PERUBAHAN, INOVASIDAN KEUNGGULAN, SERTAMENGAJUKAN PERTANYAAN KRITIS :– “SHOULD WE BE DOING THIS IN THE FUTURE?”– “HOW SHOULD WE BE DOING THIS?”– “WHAT NEW THINGS SHOULD WE BE DOING?”
  18. 18. PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI RUMAH SAKITPENYUSUNAN STRATEGI ADALAH SUATU PROSESPENETAPAN POLA KEGIATAN YANG MENJADIPANDUAN BAGI ORGANISASI UNTUK BERGERAK KESATU TUJUANEMPAT KOMPONEN YANG MEMPENGARUHIPENYUSUNAN STRATEGI : – PELUANG PASAR (MARKETING OPPORTUNITY) – KOMPETENSI KORPORAT DAN SUMBER DAYA (CORPORATE COMPETENCE AND RESOURCES) – NILAI-NILAI DAN ASPIRASI PERSONAL (PERSONAL VALUES AND ASPIRATIONS) – KEWAJIBAN SOSIAL (SOCIETAL OBLIGATIONS)
  19. 19. PROSES PERENCANAAN STRATEGISPROSES DIMULAI DENGAN ASESMEN YANG MENDALAM TENTANG ORGANISASI, MISINYA DAN LINGKUNGANNYA
  20. 20. LANGKAH-LANGKAH :– LANGKAH 1 PERENCANAAN PROSES: ASESMEN TENTANG MISI, KEKUATAN DAN KELEMAHAN INTERNAL, PELUANG DAN ANCAMAN EKSTERNAL IDENTIFIKASI SASARAN-SASARAN MENGEMBANGKAN ALTERNATIF STRATEGI UNTUK PENCAPAIAN SASARAN MONITOR PERILAKU ORGANISASI DAN KEMAJUAN TERHADAP PEMENUHAN MISI LANGKAH PERTAMA INI ADALAH MEMBANGUN “ROAD MAP” ATAU SERING DI SEBUT “ PLAN TO PLAN”
  21. 21. – LANGKAH 2  MENGEMBANGKAN DAN/ATAU ASESMEN TERHADAP “MISSION STATEMENT” “MISSION STATEMENT” YANG BERBASIS NILAI MENJADI FONDASI DARI PROSES PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS “MISSION STATEMENT” DIKEMBANGKAN SEBAGAI RESPON TERHADAP KEBUTUHAN DAN KEPENTINGAN DARI STAKE HOLDERS
  22. 22. – LANGKAH 3  MELAKUKAN ASESMEN EKSTERNALLINGKUNGAN EKSTERNAL DAPAT BERUPA : MACRO-ENVIRONMENT REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
  23. 23. – LANGKAH 4  MELAKSANAKAN ASESMENTINTERNALKOMPONEN YANG DIEVALUASI: MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES FINANCE MARKETING CLINICAL SYSTEM ORGANIZATION CULTURE PHYSICAL PLANT INFORMATION SYSTEMS LEADERSHIP ABILITIES
  24. 24. – LANGKAH 5  MENETAPKAN “GOALS” DAN OBJECTIVES GOALS (OBJEKTIVES) ADALAH TITIK AKHIR YANG HARUS DICAPAI OLEH PERENCANAAN ORGANISASI DALAM SATU PERIODE WAKTU TERTENTU KARAKTERISTIK GOALS (OBJECTIVES) : – GOALS HARUS BISA DI CAPAI – GOALS HARUS BISA DIUJI (VERIFIABLE) – GOALS HARUS SPESIFIK DAN EKSPLISIT
  25. 25. – LANGKAH 6  MENYUSUN PILIHAN-PILIHAN STRATEGI MENGEMBANGKAN DAFTAR STRATEGI YANG REALISTIS YANG DAPAT MENUNTUN KE PENCAPAIAN TIAP GOAL KATEGORI STRATEGI ALTERNATIF : – PRACTICAL ALTERNATIVES – INCREMENTAL ALTERNATIVES – RADICAL ALTERNATIVES
  26. 26. – LANGKAH 7  MENYELEKSI DAN MENGEMBANGKAN STRATEGI PILIHAN STRATEGI (STRATEGIC OPTIONS) HARUS MERUPAKAN LANGKAH TERPISAH DENGAN PENGEMBANGAN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGI TIAP OPSI HARUS DIEVALUASI
  27. 27. – LANGKAH 8  MENGEMBANGKAN IMPLEMENTASI PERENCANAAN TIAP KEGIATAN DALAM IMPLEMENTASI PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS HARUS BERSIFAT STRATEGIS PENUGASAN PENANGGUNG JAWAB SPESIFIK TENTUKAN WAKTU PENYELESAIAN TENTUKAN CHECK POINT UNTUK MENGUKUR KEMAJUAN KEMAJUAN SELALU DIMONITOR DAN DIEVALUASI
  28. 28. STRATEGICSTAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT
  29. 29. CUSTOMER vs. STAKEHOLDERCUSTOMER IS ANYONE WHO HAS ANEXPECTATION ABOUT THE OUTPUT OF APROCESS( JAMES 1989 )STAKEHOLDER IS ANYONE WITH INTERESTIN OR WHO IS AFFECTED BY THE WORK OFAN INDIVIDUAL, A DEPARTMENT, OR ANORGANIZATION.MAHASISWA,CO –ASS,RESIDEN ….?
  30. 30. STAKEHOLDERSORGANIZATIONS,GROUPS, AND INDIVIDUALS THAT HAVE AN INTEREST OR “STAKE” IN THE SUCCESS OF THE ORGANIZATION.
  31. 31. HOSPITAL’S STAKEHOLDERSHospitals stakeholders can include its patients, families and the larger community.Stakeholders also include employees, physicians, businesses and other community health care providers, all of which have an interest in seeing the hospital succeed.
  32. 32. NONLOCAL NONLOCAL SCHOOL OFPATIENTS PHYSICIANS MEDICINE STUDENTS &PROFESSIONAL HOSPITAL RESIDENTSASSOCIATIONS STATE & GOV.BODY PHYSICIANS LOCALREGULATORS THIRD PARTYINSURANCE COMPANY HOSPITAL PAYORS LOCALINDIGENT PAYINGPATIENTS PATIENTS ADMINISTRATION PROFESSIONAL SERVICES ORG. EMPLOYEES MANAGING CARE STAKEHOLDER MAP
  33. 33. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSISBASED ON THE BELIEF THAT THERE IS A RECIPROCALRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANORGANIZATION AND CERTAIN OTHER ORGANIZATIONS, GROUPS,AND INDIVIDUALS
  34. 34. THE STEPS TO STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT1. IDENTIFY ALL RELEVANT EXTERNAL, INTERFACE, AND INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS2. CLASSIFY EACH STAKEHOLDER AS : SUPPORTIVE, MIXED BLESSING, NONSUPPORTIVE,OR MARGINAL2. DIAGNOSE EACH STAKEHOLDERS IN TERMS OF - POTENTIAL FOR THREAT AND - POTENTIAL FOR COOPERATION
  35. 35. THE STEPS TO STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT . . .4. FORMULATE GENERIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES : - INVOLVE THE SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER; - COLLABORATE WITH THE MIXED BLESSING STAKEHOLDER; - DEFEND AGAINST THE NONSUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER; AND - MONITOR THE MARGINAL STAKEHOLDER5. DEVELOP SPECIFIC IMPLEMENTATION TACTICS AND PROGRAMS FOR EACH STRATEGY- STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT6. IDENTIFY WHICH EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE INVOLVED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS.
  36. 36. STEP 1IDENTIFY ALL RELEVANT STAKEHOLDERS
  37. 37. EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS1. COMPETITORS2. RELATED HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS3. GOVERNMENT REGULATORY/ LISENSING AGENCIES4. PRIVATE ACCREDITATION ASSOCIATIONS5. PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS6. LABOR UNION7. PATIENTS8. THIRD PARTY PAYORS9. HOSPITAL SUPPLIERS10. MEDIA11. FINANCIAL COMMUNITY12. RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS13. LOCAL COMMUNITY
  38. 38. INTERFACE STAKEHOLDERS1. NONMANAGEMENT MEDICAL STAFF2. HOSPITAL BOARD3. STOCKHOLDERS/ TAXPAYERS/ CONTRIBUTORS4. RELATED HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS
  39. 39. INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS1. MANAGEMENT : - TOP MANAGERS - CLINICAL MANAGERS - PHYSICIAN MANAGERS - NONCLINICAL MANAGERS2. NONMANAGEMENT EMPLOYEES : - PROFESSIONAL - PARAPROFESSIONAL - SUPPORT PERSONNEL
  40. 40. STEP 2CLASSIFY EACH STAKEHOLDER
  41. 41. DIFFERENT TYPES OF STAKEHOLDERSTYPE 1 : THE MIXED BLESSING STAKEHOLDER : - MEDICAL STAFF - PHYSICIAN NOT ON THE STAFF - INSURANCE COMPANIES - INSURED PATIENTS - HOSPITAL WITH COMPLEMENTARY
  42. 42. TYPE 2 : THE SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER : - BOARD OF TRUSTEES - MANAGERS - STAFF EMPLOYEES - PARENT COMPANY - LOCAL COMMUNITY - NURSING HOMES
  43. 43. TYPE 3 : THE NONSUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER - COMPETING HOSPITALS - FREESTANDING ALTERNATIVES - EMPLOYEE UNIONS - GOVERNMENT REGULATORY AGENCIES - INDIGENT PATIENTS - THE NEWS MEDIA - EMPLOYER COALITIONS
  44. 44. TYPE 4 : THE MARGINAL STAKEHOLDER - VOLUNTEER GROUP - STOCKHOLDERS - PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
  45. 45. STEP 3DIAGNOSE EACH STAKEHOLDER
  46. 46. STEP 4 FORMULATEGENERIC STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
  47. 47. STAKE HOLDER’S POTENTIAL FOR THREAT TO THE HOSPITAL High Low High MIXED BLESSING STAKEHOLDER SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER STAKE ? HOLDER’S COLLABORATE INVOLVE POTENTIAL FORCOOPERATION WITH NON- MARGINAL HOSPITAL SUPPORTIVE STAKEHOLDER STAKEHOLDER Low DEFEND MONITOR
  48. 48. SYNERGY AS A STRATEGIC MANGEMENTPROGRAM TO COLLABORATE WITH HOSPITAL STAKEHOLDERS
  49. 49. synergyWebster (1991) defines synergy as the action of two or more substances,organs, or organisms to achieve an effectof which each is individually incapable.
  50. 50. Synergy can be defined as the breakthroughs in thinking and action that are produced when a collaborative process successfully combines the complementary knowledge, skills, and resources of a group of participants(Lasker, Weiss, and Miller, 2000; Fried and Rundall, 1994; Gray, 1998; Mattesich and Monsey, 1992; Richardson and Allegrante, 2000).
  51. 51. Synergism, in the world of people, is sometimesused to reference a team.In other words, the effects of synergism are alwaysinterdependent (Corning, 1996) and the result ofcooperation.synergy is the close coordination of efforts and resources ofindividuals working together so that the outcomeor performance of the whole is greater than thesum of the parts (PathQuest, 2001).
  52. 52. components of synergyThere are some components of synergy that must be followed in order to make it effective, especially in the arena of health care.Some of these elements are : - establishing a clear purpose, - listening actively by focusing on the individual who is speaking, and - having a sympathetic consciousness of another’s distress and a desire to alleviate that distress. - flexibility and openness to another person’s viewpoint
  53. 53. for the phenomenon of synergy to functioneffectively, members must speak clearly topersonal points and perspectives whileacknowledging that they are, merely, apersonal perspective.There may be times, as well, that teammembers may have to agree to disagreeagreeably when their perspectives differ.
  54. 54. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SYNERGYA partnership creates synergy bycombining the complementary knowledge,skills, and resources of different peopleand organizations.
  55. 55. At a practical level, the limited capacity ofpartnerships to create synergy appears tobe related to three factors: (1) who is involved in the partnership; (2) how they are involved; and (3) how well the leadership andmanagement of the partnership supportthe interaction of the partners.
  56. 56. Who is Involved in the PartnershipThe people and organizations involved in a partnership are the buildingblocks of synergy.the community stakeholders involved in synergistic partnerships oftengo well beyond the "usual suspects," including :- service providers- people who use services,- youth and low-income residents who are directly affected by problems,- formal and informal community leaders,- academics in different disciplines,- government agencies,- schools,- businesses, and- faith-based organizations
  57. 57. Together, a broad array of participants can: * Obtain more accurate information (e.g., about theconcerns and priorities of people in the community): * See the "big picture" (e.g., appreciate how differentservices, programs, and policies in the community relateto each other and to the problems the partnership istrying to address); * Break new ground (e.g., combine statistical andqualitative information to get a better understanding ofthe root causes of problems and discover innovativeapproaches to solving problems); and * Understand the local context (e.g., appreciate thevalues, politics, assets, and history of the localenvironment and use this information to identifystrategies that are most likely to work in thatenvironment.
  58. 58. How Partners Are InvolvedTwo types of partnerships: - the "lead agency" model and - the "community engagement" model
  59. 59. The "lead agency" model refers to partnershipsthat are established to help a public- or private-sector organization carry out a predeterminedprogram. These kinds of partnerships are quitecommon in the health and human services areasbut, unfortunately, have a very limited capacityto create synergy regardless of how diverse theparticipants are.
  60. 60. In the "community engagement" model, a broad array of community stakeholders work together in all phasesof the partnerships work-understanding the problem,developing plans, taking collective action, and refiningthe partnerships actions over time.The "community engagement" model has a muchgreater potential to create synergy than the "leadagency" model because diverse participants have anopportunity to influence the thinking and plans of thepartnership as well as its actions.As a result, a broad array of community stakeholderscan create new ideas and strategies together and theway the group ultimately understands issues and theactions it takes to address issues are usually verydifferent from the way any single participant in thepartnership started out.
  61. 61. Leadership and Management of PartnershipsThe kinds of leadership and managementcapacities that synergistic partnershipsrequire go beyond those involved incoordinating services or running aprogram or organization.Consequently, these capacities differ fromthe leadership and management that mostpeople have been exposed to or havebeen trained to provide.
  62. 62. What does the leadership of a partnership need to do to enable a diverse group of participants to create synergy and, thus, make the most of their collaborative efforts?reach out to and recruit a broad range of communitystakeholders, providing the partnership with theperspective, skills, and resources that it needs.inspire and motivate participants by articulating what theycan accomplish together and how their joint work willbenefit not only the community but also each of themindividually.facilitate a collaborative process that empowersparticipants by assuring that they have real influence inthe way the partnership address problems that affect theirlives.help participants from different backgrounds developrelationships with each other and engage in ongoingmeaningful discourse.
  63. 63. foster respect, trust, inclusiveness, andopenness in the partnership and need to helpthe participants develop a commonlyunderstood jargon-free language.create an environment in which differencesof opinion can be voiced.create something new and valuable togetherby stimulating them to challengeconventional wisdom and look at thingsdifferently, by relating and synthesizing theirdifferent ideas, and by finding effective waysto combine their complementary skills andresources.
  64. 64. STAGES OF COLLABORATION COMMON DEPENDABILITYFACTORS SUSTAINABILITY PROBLEM N E TSTAGES EMERGENCE TRANSITION MATURITY W O R K -ACHIEVE DEV.STRATEGY OBJECTIVSMANAGER DEFINE COORD./ PURPOSE -SUSTAIN TASK COMMITMENT COMMITMENT INTER ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  65. 65. THE UNDERLYING DYNAMIC OF THE NEWLYFORMED INTER-ORGANIZATIONALARRANGEMENT IS NOT “COMMAND ANDCONTROL” BUT ONE THAT IS BETTERDESCRIBED AS ONE OFTRUST,COMMITMENT AND SYNERGY.GOOD PARTNERSHIPS, LIKE GOODMARRIAGES,DON’T WORK ON THE BASIS OFOWNERSHIP OR CONTROL.IT TAKES EFFORT AND COMMITMENTAND ENTHUSIASM FROM BOTH SIDES IFEITHER IS TO REALIZE THE HOPED FORBENEFITS.
  66. 66. TERIMAKASIH
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