Lessons from School: LGB Students & the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey                             Del Quest, LCSW           ...
Purpose   Literature reveals that LGB youth face significant relational    challenges at school and elsewhere.   OHT ask...
Presentation Overview   Wisdom from research and practice   Theoretical foundation (Circle of Courage)   OHT context an...
What do we already know?   LGB youth face ridicule from teachers, violent    harassment from peers, and administrators’ r...
What we know, cont.   LGB youth connect their distress from homophobia    to suicide attempts, self-harm practices, risky...
Theoretical Foundation   The Circle of Courage (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van    Bockern)       Framework for development a...
Belonging   (Young) people need to know they matter, to    belong, and to experience significance within their    communi...
Independence   (Young) people need to feel powerful and    independent, supported to make decisions, solve    problems, a...
Mastery   (Young) people need to be recognized and see    themselves as capable and able to take risks, make    mistakes,...
Generosity   (Young) people need to be invited to meaningfully    contribute to their communities and relationships.    H...
Circle of Courage in OHT Context   OHT asks questions related to young people’s    physical, mental, emotional, relationa...
Methods   Background of OHT: Developed to learn more about    risks to students’ health and safety. Surveys are    admini...
Methods cont.   Ran descriptives for sample: race, gender, age,    sexual orientation   Chi squares sig. to .01 (did not...
Self Concept102.0%                                           100.0%100.0% 98.0%           95.6% 96.0% 94.0%               ...
Self Concept94.0%          91.8%92.0%90.0%88.0%         87.4%86.0%                                    85.5%               ...
Safety at school: skipping25.0%                                    19.5%20.0%                                            1...
Safety at School: Harassment40.0%                        36.4%37.0%35.0%                                      32.0%30.0%  ...
Safety: trusted adult at school82.0%              80.7%                              80.6%80.0%78.0%                      ...
Emotional Health: sad/hopeless60.0%                           50.7%50.0%                                                47...
Emotional Health: unmet MH needs45.0%                           41.4%40.0%35.0%                                           ...
Emotional Health: diagnosis50.0%45.0%                      43.2%40.0%35.0%30.0%                                           ...
Suicide Attempts25.0%                                         22.7%                            21.1%20.0%                 ...
Adult violence60.0%                      56.6%50.0%                                                     45.0%             ...
Sexual behaviors: multiple partners20.0%                            17.7%18.0%16.0%14.0%                        12.2%     ...
Sexual behaviors: condom use40.0%                       36.4%        35.8%                           34.7%35.0%         30...
Sexual behaviors: partner violence16.0%                   15.1%14.0%                                   13.3%12.0%         ...
Sexual behaviors: pressured to have sex45.0%                           41.0%40.0%35.0%30.0%                               ...
Sexual behaviors: forced to have sex30.0%                           27.9%25.0%20.0%                                       ...
Implications   Clearly, LGB (and specifically, bisexual) youth face    challenges at rates substantially higher than thei...
Implications, cont.   Specific to the concerns identified by this review of    OHT data:   Self-concept     INTERVENTION...
Questions
Contact Information   Del Quest   Portland State University   adq@pdx.edu   Ben Anderson-Nathe   Portland State Unive...
References   Almeida, J., Johnson, R.M., Corliss, H.L., Molnar, B.E., & Asrael, D. (2009).    Emotional distress among LG...
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Lgbt risks presentation

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  • 15. I can do most things if I try – very much and pretty much
  • 18. I can work out my problems. Very much and pretty much true
  • 58. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you not go to school because you felt you would be unsafe at school or on your way to school. 1 or more times
  • During the past 30 days, have you ever been harassed at school or on the way to or from school because someone thought you were gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
  • 16. There is at least one teacher or other adult in my school that really cares about me. Very much and petty much true
  • 51. During the past 12 months, did you ever feel so sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks or more in a row that you stopped doing some usual activities? Yes answers
  • 14. During the past 12 months, did you have any emotional or mental health care needs that were not met? yes
  • 22 E. Has a doctor, nurse or other professional ever told you that you have one or more of the following: an emotional condition such as depression or anxiety. Yes answers
  • During the past 12 months, how many times did you actually attempt suicide? One or more
  • 97. During your life has any adult ever intentionally hit or physically hurt you? yes
  • 89. During the past three months, with how many people did you have sexual intercourse? 2 or more (answers combined)
  • 91. The last time you had sexual intercourse, did you or your partner use a condom? Yes answers
  • 96. During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap, or physically hurt you on purpose?
  • 94. Have you ever given in to sexual activity when you didn’t want to because of pressure? Yes answers
  • 93. Have you ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when you did not want to?
  • Lgbt risks presentation

    1. 1. Lessons from School: LGB Students & the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey Del Quest, LCSW Ben Anderson-Nathe, PhD
    2. 2. Purpose Literature reveals that LGB youth face significant relational challenges at school and elsewhere. OHT asks self-identified sexual orientation in the 11th grade survey. Understanding how LGB youth report relational factors (self- concept, emotional health, safety, and sexual/intimate behavior) differently from straight peers gives a snapshot of how adults can help. Circle of Courage provides a framework to contextualize and support youth.
    3. 3. Presentation Overview Wisdom from research and practice Theoretical foundation (Circle of Courage) OHT context and content Methods Findings Implications for practice
    4. 4. What do we already know? LGB youth face ridicule from teachers, violent harassment from peers, and administrators’ refusal to enforce anti-bullying protocols (van Wormer & McKinney, 2003) Anti-gay harassment and bullying at school contribute to academic, social, and emotional problems for LGB students (Fisher, et al., 2008) LGB youth are often emotional distressed, evaluate themselves negatively, or withdraw to avoid disapproval and rejection (Wilkinson & Pearson, 2009)
    5. 5. What we know, cont. LGB youth connect their distress from homophobia to suicide attempts, self-harm practices, risky sexual practices, and excessive drinking and drug-taking (McDermott et al., 2008) LGB youth have fewer social supports or fewer resources for coping with victimization experiences (Almeida et al., 2008) LGB youth contemplate suicide more often than their straight peers; the disparity seems to be increasing (Saewyc et al., 2007)
    6. 6. Theoretical Foundation The Circle of Courage (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern)  Framework for development and relational health  Drawn from Lakota Sioux tradition, reflects Western notions of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and development (Coopersmith, 1967)  Based on notions of:  Belonging  Independence  Mastery  Generosity  We reap the seeds of the ground in which we grow
    7. 7. Belonging (Young) people need to know they matter, to belong, and to experience significance within their communities. Indicators of healthy Belonging:  Attached, loving, friendly, intimate, cooperative, trusting Indicators of distorted or absent Belonging:  Isolated, distrustful, lonely, rejected, guarded
    8. 8. Independence (Young) people need to feel powerful and independent, supported to make decisions, solve problems, and show personal (and collective) responsibility. Indicators of healthy Independence: Confident, assertive, responsible, inner control Indicators of distorted or absent Independence: Inferiority, helpless, manipulative, bullying
    9. 9. Mastery (Young) people need to be recognized and see themselves as capable and able to take risks, make mistakes, and work toward successes. Indicators of healthy Mastery: Creative, successful, competent, motivated Indicators of distorted or absent Mastery: Risk avoidant, compulsive, failure oriented, arrogant
    10. 10. Generosity (Young) people need to be invited to meaningfully contribute to their communities and relationships. Healthy development results in part from willingly giving to healthy relationships. Indicators of healthy Generosity: Altruistic, caring, empathic, prosocial, supportive Indicators of distorted or absent Generosity: Selfish, narcissistic, antisocial, exploitative
    11. 11. Circle of Courage in OHT Context OHT asks questions related to young people’s physical, mental, emotional, relational, and sexual health. Specific to Circle of Courage, we looked at: Self concept (Mastery/Independence) Emotional health (Belonging/Independence) Safety (Belonging/Independence) Sexual and intimate relationships (Generosity/Independence)
    12. 12. Methods Background of OHT: Developed to learn more about risks to students’ health and safety. Surveys are administered annually to more than a third of 8th and 11th grade Oregonians Sample: Schools randomly selected each year; participation is voluntary (some opt out because of questions about sex, suicide, drug/alcohol use) Subsample: We only looked at 11th grade data Analysis presented here is very preliminary and basic.
    13. 13. Methods cont. Ran descriptives for sample: race, gender, age, sexual orientation Chi squares sig. to .01 (did not include those questions/ variables which were not sig.) Created subsample of 11th graders and split file by gender so we could look at differences by gender
    14. 14. Self Concept102.0% 100.0%100.0% 98.0% 95.6% 96.0% 94.0% 92.0% 92.3% 92.0% 91.5% 91.4% Males 90.0% Females 88.6% 88.2% 88.0% 86.0% 84.0% 82.0% Hetereosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    15. 15. Self Concept94.0% 91.8%92.0%90.0%88.0% 87.4%86.0% 85.5% Males 84.8%84.8% 83.6%83.6% 84.0% Females84.0%82.0%80.0%78.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    16. 16. Safety at school: skipping25.0% 19.5%20.0% 18.9%15.0% 12.5% 11.0% Males10.0% 9.2% 9.1% Females5.0% 3.7% 3.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    17. 17. Safety at School: Harassment40.0% 36.4%37.0%35.0% 32.0%30.0% 25.9%25.0% 23.3%20.0% 17.6% Male Female15.0%10.0% 7.2%5.0% 3.7%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/Lesbian Not sure
    18. 18. Safety: trusted adult at school82.0% 80.7% 80.6%80.0%78.0% 77.1% 77.1%76.0% 75.5% 74.6% Males 73.8%74.0% 73.4% Females72.0%70.0%68.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    19. 19. Emotional Health: sad/hopeless60.0% 50.7%50.0% 47.3%40.0% 37.8% 31.3%30.0% 26.1% Males 23.0% Females20.0% 17.4% 12.8%10.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    20. 20. Emotional Health: unmet MH needs45.0% 41.4%40.0%35.0% 29.7%30.0% 27.1% 25.5%25.0% Males20.0% 17.2% 17.8% 18.0% Females15.0%10.0% 8.9%5.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    21. 21. Emotional Health: diagnosis50.0%45.0% 43.2%40.0%35.0%30.0% 28.7% 25.0%25.0% Males 20.2%20.0% 17.6% Females 15.1%15.0%10.0% 6.6% 6.6%5.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    22. 22. Suicide Attempts25.0% 22.7% 21.1%20.0% 16.6% 16.3% 14.8%15.0% 10.7% Male10.0% Female 5.6%5.0% 3.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/Lesbian Not sure
    23. 23. Adult violence60.0% 56.6%50.0% 45.0% 41.1%40.0% 31.9%30.0% 28.4% 26.3% Males 24.4% Females 18.8%20.0%10.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    24. 24. Sexual behaviors: multiple partners20.0% 17.7%18.0%16.0%14.0% 12.2% 12.1%12.0%10.0% Males8.0% Females 6.4% 6.8% 5.6% 5.7%6.0%4.0% 2.6%2.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    25. 25. Sexual behaviors: condom use40.0% 36.4% 35.8% 34.7%35.0% 30.2%30.0% 28.1% 27.9%25.0%20.0% Males Females15.0%10.0% 7.3% 6.8%5.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    26. 26. Sexual behaviors: partner violence16.0% 15.1%14.0% 13.3%12.0% 9.7%10.0% 8.9% 9.3%8.0% Males 6.5% 5.7% Females6.0%4.0%2.0% 1.5%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    27. 27. Sexual behaviors: pressured to have sex45.0% 41.0%40.0%35.0%30.0% 24.2%25.0% 22.2% 20.5% Males20.0% 18.3% Females15.0% 10.0%10.0% 6.8% 5.5%5.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    28. 28. Sexual behaviors: forced to have sex30.0% 27.9%25.0%20.0% 15.6%15.0% Males 12.8% 10.9% Females 10.0%10.0% 8.0% 7.2%5.0% 3.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
    29. 29. Implications Clearly, LGB (and specifically, bisexual) youth face challenges at rates substantially higher than their straight peers. Schools are not adequately addressing these challenges. The Circle of Courage offers a framework for schools to develop institutional cultures affirming of and welcoming to LGB youth, attending to all youths’: Belonging Independence Mastery Generosity
    30. 30. Implications, cont. Specific to the concerns identified by this review of OHT data: Self-concept INTERVENTION IDEAS Emotional and mental health INTERVENTION IDEAS Safety INTERVENTION IDEAS Sexual and intimate relationships INTERVENTION IDEAS
    31. 31. Questions
    32. 32. Contact Information Del Quest Portland State University adq@pdx.edu Ben Anderson-Nathe Portland State University banders@pdx.edu
    33. 33. References Almeida, J., Johnson, R.M., Corliss, H.L., Molnar, B.E., & Asrael, D. (2009). Emotional distress among LGBT youth: the influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 38, 1001-14. Fisher, E.S., Komosa-Hawkins, K., Saldana, E., Thomas, G.M., Hsiao, C., Rauld, M., & Miller, D. (2008). Promoting school success for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning students: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and intervention strategies. The California School Psychologist, 13, 79-91. McDermott, E., Roen, K., & Scourfield, J. (2008). Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviors. Culture, Health, and Sexuality, 10(8), 815-829. Saewyc, E.M., Skay, C.L., Hynds, P., Pettingell, S., Bearinger, L.H., Resnick, M.D., & Reis, E. (2007). Suicidal ideations and attempts in North american school-based surveys: are bisexual youth at increainsg risk? Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(2), 25-36. Van Wormer, K. & McKinney, R. (2003). What schools can do to help gay/lesbian/bisexual youth: a harm reduction approach. Adolescence, 38(151) 409- 420. Wilkinson, L. & Pearson, J. (2009). School culture and the well-being of same-sex attracted youth. Gender and Society. 23, 542-568.
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