15. I can do most things if I try – very much and pretty much
18. I can work out my problems. Very much and pretty much true
58. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you not go to school because you felt you would be unsafe at school or on your way to school. 1 or more times
During the past 30 days, have you ever been harassed at school or on the way to or from school because someone thought you were gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
16. There is at least one teacher or other adult in my school that really cares about me. Very much and petty much true
51. During the past 12 months, did you ever feel so sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks or more in a row that you stopped doing some usual activities? Yes answers
14. During the past 12 months, did you have any emotional or mental health care needs that were not met? yes
22 E. Has a doctor, nurse or other professional ever told you that you have one or more of the following: an emotional condition such as depression or anxiety. Yes answers
During the past 12 months, how many times did you actually attempt suicide? One or more
97. During your life has any adult ever intentionally hit or physically hurt you? yes
89. During the past three months, with how many people did you have sexual intercourse? 2 or more (answers combined)
91. The last time you had sexual intercourse, did you or your partner use a condom? Yes answers
96. During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap, or physically hurt you on purpose?
94. Have you ever given in to sexual activity when you didn’t want to because of pressure? Yes answers
93. Have you ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when you did not want to?
Lgbt risks presentation
Lessons from School: LGB Students & the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey Del Quest, LCSW Ben Anderson-Nathe, PhD
Purpose Literature reveals that LGB youth face significant relational challenges at school and elsewhere. OHT asks self-identified sexual orientation in the 11th grade survey. Understanding how LGB youth report relational factors (self- concept, emotional health, safety, and sexual/intimate behavior) differently from straight peers gives a snapshot of how adults can help. Circle of Courage provides a framework to contextualize and support youth.
Presentation Overview Wisdom from research and practice Theoretical foundation (Circle of Courage) OHT context and content Methods Findings Implications for practice
What do we already know? LGB youth face ridicule from teachers, violent harassment from peers, and administrators’ refusal to enforce anti-bullying protocols (van Wormer & McKinney, 2003) Anti-gay harassment and bullying at school contribute to academic, social, and emotional problems for LGB students (Fisher, et al., 2008) LGB youth are often emotional distressed, evaluate themselves negatively, or withdraw to avoid disapproval and rejection (Wilkinson & Pearson, 2009)
What we know, cont. LGB youth connect their distress from homophobia to suicide attempts, self-harm practices, risky sexual practices, and excessive drinking and drug-taking (McDermott et al., 2008) LGB youth have fewer social supports or fewer resources for coping with victimization experiences (Almeida et al., 2008) LGB youth contemplate suicide more often than their straight peers; the disparity seems to be increasing (Saewyc et al., 2007)
Theoretical Foundation The Circle of Courage (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern) Framework for development and relational health Drawn from Lakota Sioux tradition, reflects Western notions of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and development (Coopersmith, 1967) Based on notions of: Belonging Independence Mastery Generosity We reap the seeds of the ground in which we grow
Belonging (Young) people need to know they matter, to belong, and to experience significance within their communities. Indicators of healthy Belonging: Attached, loving, friendly, intimate, cooperative, trusting Indicators of distorted or absent Belonging: Isolated, distrustful, lonely, rejected, guarded
Independence (Young) people need to feel powerful and independent, supported to make decisions, solve problems, and show personal (and collective) responsibility. Indicators of healthy Independence: Confident, assertive, responsible, inner control Indicators of distorted or absent Independence: Inferiority, helpless, manipulative, bullying
Mastery (Young) people need to be recognized and see themselves as capable and able to take risks, make mistakes, and work toward successes. Indicators of healthy Mastery: Creative, successful, competent, motivated Indicators of distorted or absent Mastery: Risk avoidant, compulsive, failure oriented, arrogant
Generosity (Young) people need to be invited to meaningfully contribute to their communities and relationships. Healthy development results in part from willingly giving to healthy relationships. Indicators of healthy Generosity: Altruistic, caring, empathic, prosocial, supportive Indicators of distorted or absent Generosity: Selfish, narcissistic, antisocial, exploitative
Circle of Courage in OHT Context OHT asks questions related to young people’s physical, mental, emotional, relational, and sexual health. Specific to Circle of Courage, we looked at: Self concept (Mastery/Independence) Emotional health (Belonging/Independence) Safety (Belonging/Independence) Sexual and intimate relationships (Generosity/Independence)
Methods Background of OHT: Developed to learn more about risks to students’ health and safety. Surveys are administered annually to more than a third of 8th and 11th grade Oregonians Sample: Schools randomly selected each year; participation is voluntary (some opt out because of questions about sex, suicide, drug/alcohol use) Subsample: We only looked at 11th grade data Analysis presented here is very preliminary and basic.
Methods cont. Ran descriptives for sample: race, gender, age, sexual orientation Chi squares sig. to .01 (did not include those questions/ variables which were not sig.) Created subsample of 11th graders and split file by gender so we could look at differences by gender
Sexual behaviors: multiple partners20.0% 17.7%18.0%16.0%14.0% 12.2% 12.1%12.0%10.0% Males8.0% Females 6.4% 6.8% 5.6% 5.7%6.0%4.0% 2.6%2.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
Sexual behaviors: condom use40.0% 36.4% 35.8% 34.7%35.0% 30.2%30.0% 28.1% 27.9%25.0%20.0% Males Females15.0%10.0% 7.3% 6.8%5.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
Sexual behaviors: partner violence16.0% 15.1%14.0% 13.3%12.0% 9.7%10.0% 8.9% 9.3%8.0% Males 6.5% 5.7% Females6.0%4.0%2.0% 1.5%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
Sexual behaviors: pressured to have sex45.0% 41.0%40.0%35.0%30.0% 24.2%25.0% 22.2% 20.5% Males20.0% 18.3% Females15.0% 10.0%10.0% 6.8% 5.5%5.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
Sexual behaviors: forced to have sex30.0% 27.9%25.0%20.0% 15.6%15.0% Males 12.8% 10.9% Females 10.0%10.0% 8.0% 7.2%5.0% 3.0%0.0% Heterosexual Bisexual Gay/lesbian Not sure
Implications Clearly, LGB (and specifically, bisexual) youth face challenges at rates substantially higher than their straight peers. Schools are not adequately addressing these challenges. The Circle of Courage offers a framework for schools to develop institutional cultures affirming of and welcoming to LGB youth, attending to all youths’: Belonging Independence Mastery Generosity
Implications, cont. Specific to the concerns identified by this review of OHT data: Self-concept INTERVENTION IDEAS Emotional and mental health INTERVENTION IDEAS Safety INTERVENTION IDEAS Sexual and intimate relationships INTERVENTION IDEAS
Contact Information Del Quest Portland State University firstname.lastname@example.org Ben Anderson-Nathe Portland State University email@example.com
References Almeida, J., Johnson, R.M., Corliss, H.L., Molnar, B.E., & Asrael, D. (2009). Emotional distress among LGBT youth: the influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 38, 1001-14. Fisher, E.S., Komosa-Hawkins, K., Saldana, E., Thomas, G.M., Hsiao, C., Rauld, M., & Miller, D. (2008). Promoting school success for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning students: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and intervention strategies. The California School Psychologist, 13, 79-91. McDermott, E., Roen, K., & Scourfield, J. (2008). Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviors. Culture, Health, and Sexuality, 10(8), 815-829. Saewyc, E.M., Skay, C.L., Hynds, P., Pettingell, S., Bearinger, L.H., Resnick, M.D., & Reis, E. (2007). Suicidal ideations and attempts in North american school-based surveys: are bisexual youth at increainsg risk? Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(2), 25-36. Van Wormer, K. & McKinney, R. (2003). What schools can do to help gay/lesbian/bisexual youth: a harm reduction approach. Adolescence, 38(151) 409- 420. Wilkinson, L. & Pearson, J. (2009). School culture and the well-being of same-sex attracted youth. Gender and Society. 23, 542-568.
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