ClassroomLesson PlansLearning MaterialsCurriculum StandardsProfessionalBest PracticesOnline CoursesNC Professional Teaching StandardsMy LEARN NCEmail UpdatesWeb ConferencesSelecting evidence to support an argumentThis is a strategy lesson to teach students how to select evidence from a text to support anargument for an essay. It was designed to take two class periods and is comprised of threemini-lessons; these lessons include teacher modeling strategy to large group, studentpractice with strategy in small groups, and student practice with strategy individually onwhat will ultimately be the essay that they write.A lesson plan for grades 9–12 English Language ArtsBy Caroline SainLearn moreRelated pagesJonathan Edwards and the art of persuasion: In this lesson, students will study theelements of persuasive writing in Jonathan Edwards “Sinners in the Hands of an AngryGod” according to the following criteria: speaker, audience, occasion, and means ofpersuasion, and then analyze a contemporary piece of writing, such as an advertisement,for similar elements.
To teach students how to select several pieces of evidence, that, when used together, willadequately support the argument of their essay.Teacher planningTime required for lesson2 DaysMaterials/resourcesselection from “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” by Frederick DouglassChief Seattle transparency and handouts with the full text of the “Speech of Chief Seattle”(from The Heath Anthology of American Literature, edited by Paul Lauter). Teacher willalso need a transparency of this handout.write-up of interview with family member, including questions and answersTechnology resourcesoverhead projectorPre-activitiesStudents will need to have read and become familiar with the texts covered in the first twolessons, as well as the text they will write about.Students will also have completed interviews of a family member regarding a journey thats/he had taken or experienced.ActivitiesLesson One: ModelingWhat: Today you will learn to read a passage of information for pieces of evidence. Thesepieces of evidence should work together to support an argument that you choose to makefrom the given information. This strategy is called “Selecting Evidence to Support anArgument.”Why: Students often try to form the argument of an essay before considering how much, ifany, evidence they can find to support that argument. This strategy will save time becauseit reminds you to consider the evidence before forming the argument so that the argumentwill be easier to support.
How: Place the transparency of Chief Seattle’s speech on the overhead projector. There areeight ideas within the passage that are highlighted in bold print; focus on these ideas afteryou have read the passage. Choose the five that are interconnected, and can therefore beused together to support the argument of the passage. For the three unrelated ideas,explain how they contradict or weaken the argument. After selecting evidence askstudents to consider the following questions:What argument can you make from the evidence?How does each piece of evidence support that argument?How do the pieces of evidence relate to and support each other?What is the strongest evidence? the weakest?As a class, articulate the connections among the pieces of evidence, and how each pieceworks to support the argument. Turn on overhead projector and refer to an overhead youhave made of what you have just modeled, and allow students to quickly copy the process.We are going to repeat this strategy as a class, using passages from Douglass’s Narrative.For each passage, use the three steps of the “Selecting Evidence to Support an Argument”strategy: select evidence, consider the 4 questions, and use the evidence you chose tosupport an argument.Lesson Two: Guided PracticeWhat: Now we will practice the “Selecting Evidence to Support an Argument” strategy insmall groups. Remember that the goal of this strategy is to select pieces of evidence from atext that can be used together to support an argument. These pieces of evidence must beinterconnected, otherwise they will contradict and weaken the overall argument. Be sureto consider the 4 questions to identify these connections, which will be important forusing the evidence to support an argument.Why: This activity sheet will allow you to practice the strategy with your classmates sothat you can work together to learn to use it efficiently. Be sure to ask questions when youare confused and to actively participate because you will need to employ this strategywhen writing your interview essay.How: Divide the students into groups of four (plan groups ahead of time to try and balancestronger and weaker writers; the idea is for the students to learn the strategy from oneanother at this point). When they are settled, pass out the “Narrative of the Life ofFrederick Douglass handout (read before for this class). You will need to submit youranswer in writing, as a group.
Review the steps of the strategy:Select evidence from the passage that supports the writer’s argument.Do these pieces of evidence all say the same thing?Are any of them contradictory?Are they all interconnected?Can you easily support an argument from them?At this point they should have practice with all three steps in the strategy: 1. selectevidence, 2. consider the 4 questions, and 3. use evidence to support an argument.Lesson Three: Independent PracticeWhat: Today you will read your findings from the interview you conducted with a familymember regarding a journey that s/he had taken or experienced. From the interview youwill choose five pieces of evidence that you can use to support the argument that you wantto make about journeys, using the “Selecting Evidence to Support an Argument” strategy.Ask students to recall the class and group work from the day before, and allow anyquestions. Once more, review the three steps of the strategy: 1. select evidence, 2. considerthe 4 questions, 3. use evidence to support an argument.Why: Remind students that this strategy will save time and make their writing easierbecause they will avoid arguments that they cannot adequately support with evidence.How: Return the interview questions and answers to students and allow them time inclass to begin searching for evidence. They will have until the end of class to identify thefive pieces of evidence (or more if they find them), and to suggest an argument for theiressays given this support. I will evaluate their findings to determine whether or not theyunderstand the strategy.AssessmentCollect each group?s written evaluations of the evidence at the end of Lesson Two toevaluate the extent to which they are able to make connections among their pieces ofevidence, and to the validity of their argument given these connections.Collect individual evaluations of evidence from their interviews to evaluate how wellstudents identify relevant evidence to support their argument.Supplemental information
CommentsThis lesson was created as part of a class I am taking for the MAT program. It is part of anintegrated unit that I have designed with four of my classmates, and is intended for an11th grade class. It can, however, be adapted to any grade level and/or material that youplan to have your students write about.North Carolina curriculum alignmentEnglish Language Arts (2004)Grade 11Goal 2: The learner will inform an audience by using a variety of media to research andexplain insights into language and culture.Objective 2.03: Respond to informational texts by:- using a variety of strategies for preparation, engagement, and reflection.- paraphrasing main ideas and supporting details present in texts.-explaining significant connections among the speakers/authors purpose, tone, biases,and the message for the intended audience.Goal 3: The learner will demonstrate increasing sophistication in defining issues and usingargument effectively.Objective 3.03: Use argumentation for:- interpreting researched information effectively.- establishing and defending a point of view.- addressing concerns of the opposition.- using logical strategies (e.g., deductive and inductive reasoning, syllogisms, analogies)and sophisticated techniques (e.g., rhetorical devices, parallelism, irony, concrete images).-developing a sense of completion.Common Core State StandardsEnglish Language Arts (2010)
Reading: Informational TextGrade 11-1211-12.RIT.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the textsays explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where thetext leaves matters uncertain.11-12.RIT.2 Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their developmentover the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another toprovide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.11-12.RIT.3 Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specificindividuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.11-12.RIT.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoricis particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power,persuasiveness or beauty of the text.Grade 9-109-10.RIT.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the textsays explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.9-10.RIT.2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the courseof the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; providean objective summary of the text.9-10.RIT.3 Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events,including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed,and the connections that are drawn between them.9-10.RIT.5 Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined byparticular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).9-10.RIT.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how anauthor uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.ArgumentWriting an Argument: Developing SupportGrade Level: 9-12Concept: Use evidence to support a persuasive position
Estimated Duration: 90 minutesObjectivesStudents will be able to•provide evidence to support a position•write a persuasive essay using a coherent whole (topic sentence/position statement, andmain supports)MaterialsVEO SAFE CATS explanationVEO SAFE CATS graphic organizerWhite Board or Chalk board2 Newspaper ArticlesHighlightersDifferentiated StrategiesThese strategies are used to meet the varied needs of all learners:•Varying academic levels: use newspaper articles of varying reading levels•Visual learners: students will use graphic organizers with a mnemonic device to allow tohelp comprehension of the types of evidence used for support•Auditory learners: students will discuss the types of evidence with a partner•Kinesthetic learners: students will highlight key evidence found in the articles they readKey Vocabularyevidencestatisticsanalogiesfactsopinions
anecdotescredibilityProceduresWarm Up•On the board, write the following statement: What rule would you like to see changed atschool? After the class has brainstormed some rules, have them vote on one rule todiscuss. Write that rule on the board the position statement. For example: The schooldress code should be changed.• Have students turn to a peer and brainstorm reasons as to why this change shouldhappen. As a class, ask students to share their ideas and write them on the board.Direct Instruction•Explain to students that they are creating evidence to support a position. Tell them thattheir position is "The school dress code should be changed" and that their reasons why arecalled evidence. Explain that having solid evidence creates credibility in thespeaker/writer.• Distribute the worksheet called VEO SAFE CATS explanation. This is a mnemonic devicein order to help students remember the types of evidence that can be used to support aposition.• Using the worksheet as a reference, label on the board the types of evidence thatstudents have brainstormed. If any types of evidence have not been brainstormed, askstudents to think of new evidence to add to the board. Make sure students understandeach of the types of evidence.Practice• Have students work with a partner. Give each group two different newspaper articles.Articles can be easily downloaded from your local newspaper or from websites such aswww.nytimes.com. Each editorial should be of different degrees of difficulty so thatstudents may choose the reading level most fitting for them.• Give each student a copy of the VEO SAFE CATS graphic organizer and a highlighter.With their partner, students should highlight and note the types of evidence provided in
their article. Next, students should transfer the evidence they found to the correct sectionof the graphic organizer.• As a class, discuss the types of evidence they discovered. Monitor the discussion and askguiding questions to help students correct their misconceptions.Assessment•Have individual students choose a rule at home they would like to change.• Using the VEO SAFE CATS graphic organizer, students complete their position statementon the rule and create three types of evidence to support their position.• Once the graphic organizers are completed and initialed by the teacher, students shouldwrite a persuasive paragraph. The topic sentence of the paragraph should be the positionstatement and the rest of the paragraph should include the evidence from the graphicorganizer.Closure•Remind students that there will be many times in life where they will need to convincesomeone that their opinion should be considered. Explain to them that by using solidevidence as support, their opinions will have a better chance of being viewed as credible.•Applied learning: Ask students to consider using the types of evidence studied today thenext time they need to make a convincing statement to their parents or teachers.Writing to argueLesson Plan1. Starter: Writing to argue - Duration 5-10 mins Episode Learning Objectives Resources•Teacher explains the purpose of writing to argue and that the arguer needs three things:a central argument, reasons for that argument and proof.•Teacher identifies one of the first central arguments we all make as children: "I need anew X". Class discusses the reasons and implications of this argument.•Understand the purpose of writing to argue.•Brainstorm ideas on a given topic.
•Practice the ability to identify language techniques designed to support a particularpurpose.•SlidesTeacher Notes: 1. Starter: Writing to argue2. Tools of arguing - Duration 15-25 mins Episode Learning Objectives Resources•Review mark scheme for writing to argue.•Complete a range of exercises that practice techniques for students to make convincingarguments.•Exercises include brainstorming rhetorical questions for a given scenario, producingintroductions for experts in a newspaper reporting style, writing an anecdote to supportan argument against a topical issue and debating an issue using cohesive devices.•Understand marking criteria for writing to argue.•Review definitions of four major argument techniques.•Practice applying those techniques.•Slides•Student Worksheet 1Teacher Notes: 2. Tools of arguing3. Memorials - Duration 15-20 mins Episode Learning Objectives Resources•Use Slides 11-29 to introduce memorials and the Armed Forces Memorial.•Distribute Student Worksheets 2a which tasks the students with writing to the Yourletters section of a local newspaper arguing that a memorial should be erected in theirlocal area.•Distribute Student Worksheet 3 and play Videos help students to extract facts, figuresand quotes to construct their argument.•Student Worksheet 2b provides a framework for planning their written piece.
•Practice close reading and scanning to obtain relevant pieces of information for varioussources.•Practice identifying facts from a text.•Practice applying text planning skills.•Practice reviewing a plan in order to ensure that all assessment objectives are being met.•Slides 11-30•Student Worksheet 2-3•Video: HRH Prince Charles and remembrance•Video: Personal accounts of lossTeacher Notes: 3. Memorials4. Argument letter - Duration 15-30 mins Episode Learning Objectives Resources•Students write an argument letter.•They must ensure that there is clear structure to achieve a desired effect and they shouldemploy a wide range of argument techniques and details.•Reiterate marking focus.•Students swap their work and grade their partners piece. They should offer three tips tohelp their partner to improve their writing. •Practice writing under timed conditions using information from prior planning andresearch.•Practice evaluating anothers work against a mark scheme.•Practice giving and receiving feedback in an appropriate, supportive and useful manner.•Student Worksheet 2b•Writing paper•SlideTeacher Notes: 4. Argument letter
5. Peer assessment - Duration 5-10 mins Episode Learning Objectives Resources•Reiterate marking focus.•Students swap their work and grade their partners piece. They should offer three tips tohelp their partner to improve their writing.•Practice evaluating anothers work against a mark scheme.•Practice giving and receiving feedback in an appropriate, supportive and useful manner.The Art of Persuasion-Analysis of Argument Sherry SpencerIntroduction Standards Objectives Activities Assessment Results Resourc IntroductionIn this lesson, the students will explore the types of persuasion (arguments) used invarious speeches, letters and advertisements. They will learn to identify arguments bycausation, analogy, authority, emotion and logic. The student will present their ownpersuasive piece in writing and an oral presentation.Subject: Sophomore EnglishTopic: Persuasive argumentsGrade Level: SophomoreStudent Lesson URL: http://ctap295.ctaponline.org/~sspencer/student/California State Standards Addressed1.0 Listening and Speaking Grades 9 and 10Students formulate adroit judgments about oral communication. They deliver focused andcoherent presentations of their own that convey clear and distinct perspectives and solidreasoning. They use gestures, tone, and vocabulary tailored to the audience and purposeAnalysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications1.13 Analyze the types of arguments used by the speaker, including argument bycausation, analogy, authority, emotion, and logic
1.0 Writing Strategies Grades 9 and 10Students write coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective andtightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students awareness of theaudience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process asneeded2.3 Write persuasive compositionsa. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashionb. Use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., appeal to logic throughreasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical belief; relate a personal anecdote, case study, oranalogy).c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expertopinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and logical reasoning.d. Address readers concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.Instructional ObjectivesAfter viewing examples of advertisements, the students will be able to identify thepersuasive technique used with at least an 80% accuracy.After reading or listening to and analyzing various speeches from the provided list, thestudent will be able to correctly identify the type of argument used in the presentationwith at least 80% accuracy.After completing objective 2, students will be able to provide an example of each type ofargument listed (argument by causation, analogy, authority, emotion and logic) with100% accuracy.Students will be able to read a document or listen to a speech and correctly identify thetype of argument used with an 80% accuracy.After completing objective 4, students will be able to present a persuasive speech to theclass.After completing objective 4, students will be able to write a persuasive essay.return to top of documentStudent Activities
Introductory ActivityClass discussion:Possible ice breaker.....How will you use this knowledge in real life?How often do you think someone molds your opinion?Over 25,000 times each day, we are bombarded with advertisements persuading us to buythis, use that, or join this group.People in advertising are paid excellent salaries to persuade you to do something that youare not yet doing. How do they do that?Lets look at some samples and see how we are being persuading to change our behaviors.(Can use magazine, newspaper advertisements, video of television or radio commercialsthat the teacher has prerecorded or examples on the internet - for exampleadvertisements on search engine home pages. )Show advertisements ...(magazine, newspaper, video clips from television ads) talk aboutthe categories of argument, while you are showing the samples, display an overheaddefining the categories of argument while you show samples and identify argument style,then show more samples and let the students provide the classification.Then ask the students to tell you other ways we are persuaded in our everyday lives.When, where and how do this events take place. Why do they happen?For the speeches that the students listened to there was also an added benefit from theinternet, the students could hear the tone and emotion in the voice. With thespeeches/documents that are visual only, the students have to determine on reading only.Enabling ActivitiesAs a group, look at and listen to some examples of persuasive speeches.Martin Luther King, Jrs "I have a dream"Malcom XHitlerJFKs Ask Not
Presidents July 4th Speech from the movie Independence DayPRESIDENT Good morning. In less than one hour planes from here and all around theworld will launch the largest aerial battle in the history of mankind... (beat) Mankind. Theword has new meaning for all of us now. We are reminded not of our petty differences butof our common interests. oup, listening. Perhaps its fate that today, July the Fourth, wewill once again fight for our freedom. Not from tyranny, persecution or oppression. Butfrom annihilation. Were fighting for our right to live, to exit. From this day on, the fourthday of July will no longer be remembered as an American holiday but as the day that all ofmankind declared we will not go quietly into the night. We will not vanish without a fight.We will live on. We will survive.Might supplement with a clip from the movieSpeech from the movie Braveheart: Yes, I have heard! He kills men by the hundreds! And if he were here, he would consumethe English with fireballs from his eyes, and bolts of lightning from his ass! I am William Wallace. And my enemies do not go away. I saw out good nobles hanged. Mywife... I am William Wallace. And I see a whole army of my countrymen, here in defiance oftyranny. You have come to fight as free men. And free men you are! What will you do withfreedom? Will you fight? Yes. Fight and you may die. Run and you will live, at least awhile. And dying in your bedmany years from now, would you be willing to trade all the days from this day to that, forone change to come back here as young men, and tell our enemies that they make take ourlives, but they will never take our freedom?Look! The English comes to barter with our nobles for castles and titles. And our nobleswill not be in the front of the battle!No! They will not!And I will.As you read and listen to these speeches identify the type of persuasion used. (Hint: Inthe better speeches, there may be more than one method used.)Offer extra credit for examples the students bring in for web sites or written speeches.They have to identify the type of persuasive technique(s) (arguments) in their submission.Culminating Activities
Students present an original 3-5 minute persuasive speech to their classmatesStudents prepare an original persuasive paper.Student may select their own topic ( a list of possible topics)Minimum of 2 pages -typed, double spaced, 12 font (times roman or courier),one inch marginsincluding visuals (pictures, graphs, etc.) return to top of documentAssessmentThe following rubrics are based on the California High School Speech AssociationCurriculum.Scoring Criteria for Persuasive Essay Student pageScoring Criteria for Persuasive Speech Student page return to top of documentPre-Test15 multiple-choice questions which cover identifying examples of each type of argumentlisted (argument by causation, analogy, authority, emotion and logic)Post-Test20 multiple-choice questions which cover identifying each type of argument listed(argument by causation, analogy, authority, emotion and logic). return to top of documentResultsAfter implementing your lesson (sometime between January & March), insert a chart ofyour pre-test, post-test, and culminating assessment data.Web Resources & Supplementary MaterialsIntroductory ActivityPretest - Look at advertisements and read short excerpts from documents or speechesanswering a multiple choice quiz on selecting type of argument
Show different advertisements - ask students to identify the way they are beingmanipulated by the advertisers. Discuss ways that we as consumers and members of oursociety are manipulated.Search engine home pagesEnabling ActivityStudents are able to read and listen to some examples of great speeches before theypresent their essay and/or persuasive speech to the class.Guides for a persuasive speechhttp://members.aol.com/chssa/PDFFiles/PerPack.pdfSample SpeechesHistory Placehttp://www.historychannel.com/speeches/index.htmlCulminating ActivitiesPersuasive essay submitted. (The class could determine the best 5 essays to be uploadedon a web page for the schools web site.)Persuasive speech presented to class, video taped.Students watch their own video (TV turned to allow private viewing)Student submits to the instructor five things they see that they like and five things theythink they can improve in their next presentation.With proper permission slips completed, the video can also be presented at open housefor parents or during a teacher development dedicated to sharing good practices. (Tape ofthe class presentations can be running on television set up at a booth, or off to the side)Objective vs. Subjective Elements of WritingWriting can be very difficult to judge, as many factors are subjective (what an individualthinks) as opposed to objective (independent of thought or individual preference, such asrules of grammar). In guaranteeing the quality of writing, it’s important to constituteexactly what you’re guaranteeing.
Objective Aspects in WritingWriting questions that you can answer with with a “right” or “wrong” would be classifiedas objective. For example, having a period outside of quotation marks, typos, and otherparts of sentence structure that are incorrect would be objectively incorrect.These types of writing elements can be easily guaranteed, such as “we guarantee thisarticle to be free of grammar mistakes.”Subjective Aspects in WritingOn the other hand, items such as professional tone, interesting content, gripping dialogue,etc., would be classified as subjective. Items that people can argue, judge, believe, and havefeelings one way or another for are harder to guarantee. Just like paintings, music, andother art-related matters, what is “good” and what is “bad” depends on the eyes of thebeholder.Remember What You’re GuaranteeingI would stay away from guarantees such as “I know you’ll be 100% satisfied with ourwriting” or “We guarantee complete satisfaction with your article” because that ispromising approval on subjective items. How do you know the exact tastes of the reader(your client)? Just because you or your writers feel it reads well doesn’t mean everyonewill.Grades: High School (9-12)Subjects: Visual Arts, English—Language ArtsTime Required: 2-part lessonTwo class periodsAuthor: J. Paul Getty Museum Education StaffFeatured Getty Artwork:Head with Horns, Paul Gauguin, 1895–1897http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=144617Lesson Overview
Students will analyze the sculpture Head with Horns by Paul Gauguin through objectiveand subjective writing activities and class discussion. They will then consider the meaningof this sculpture and examine the differences between objective and subjective analysis.Lesson ObjectivesStudents will be able to:• explain the differences between objective and subjective writing, when writingabout an art object.• consider a work of art within the context of the artist’s life.• develop opinions about a work of art.• chart the changes in their own opinions about a work of art—from their firstimpressions, to understanding the ways that their acquired knowledge about the work ofart affects new interpretations.• explore the meaning of the word savage within the contexts of Paul Gauguins worksof art and historical and contemporary attitudes and beliefs.Materials List• Image of Head with Horns by Paul Gauguin• Pen or pencil and paperLesson Steps1. Begin by displaying an image of the front view of Head with Horns by Paul Gauguin.Ask students to write down their initial thoughts about the work.2. Explain to students that they are now going to learn about objective versussubjective analysis through writing about a work of art. Begin by discussing as a classwhat the terms objective and subjective mean.3. Next, show students the image of the back of the sculpture (available in the ImageBank information), and have them write a paragraph describing what they see. Askstudents to begin by writing only things they can see, as discussed earlier when definingobjective writing. At this point they will just look for details to describe, and try to avoidforming any opinions or interpretations.
4. Reintroduce the image of the front view of Head with Horns. Have students writeanother, longer objective paragraph (at least six sentences) describing what they see onthe front of the sculpture.5. Discuss as a group the students’ descriptions of the sculpture.6. After discussing what students have written about what they see in the sculpture,explain that some art scholars who study the work of Paul Gauguin believe that thissculpture includes some of the artist’s own facial features. The sculpture could possibly bea self-portrait of Gauguin. As a class, or as part of a computer lab assignment, ask studentsto find self-portraits by Paul Gauguin on the Internet.7. Discuss whether students agree with the scholars that there is a resemblancebetween the sculpture and Gauguins self portraits?8. Have the students return to their writing. This time, ask them to speculatesubjectively about what they think Gauguin might have wanted to communicate whenmaking this sculpture.9. Next, refer to the biographical information about Paul Gauguin (available in theImage Bank information). Discuss some of the aspects of Gauguin’s life and work withstudents, and speculate on the impulses behind his work. Call to their attention the factthat Gauguin thought of himself as a “savage.” What do you think he meant by that?10. Have students return to their own subjective writings about the sculpture. Ask themto re-read their own analyses and then compare what they have learned about PaulGauguin and his life with their own earlier interpretations. Gauguin said of his own work:• “In order to do something new we must go back to the source, to humanity in itsinfancy.”• “I have tried to make everything breathe in this painting: belief, passive suffering,religious and primitive style, and the great nature with its scream.”• “To me, barbarism is a rejuvenation.”Discuss the following:• Would you classify Gauguin’s comments as subjective, or objective?• What do you think these quotations reveal about Gauguin and his ideas about art?
• How do you think these comments relate to Gauguins vision of himself as a “savage”untamed by civilized society?Gauguin did not lead a conventional life. He abandoned his job as a banker and his wifeand five children in the early 1880s in order to turn his full attention to painting. He wouldlater remove himself further from modern Europe by traveling to the South Pacific islandof Tahiti in 1891, and to the Marquesas in 1895. Head with Horns could be Gauguin’srepresentation of himself as a savage. In this way, he may have been revealing a part of hischaracter through his art.11. Have students research the term savage. They should write down the definitionsthey find and answer the following questions:• What does the word savage mean to us today?• What do you think the word may have meant in Gauguin’s time? Have studentsresearch the etymology of the word.• Why is this term so controversial today, when it is used to describe people?12. Revisit students’ initial thoughts about this sculpture, recorded in their objectiveand subjective writings, in a class discussion.• Were your initial thoughts subjective or objective?• How has research and discussion about the sculpture changed your initialperceptions about it?AssessmentStudents will be assessed on their understanding of objective vs. subjective writing,writing assignments in complete paragraphs, participation in class discussion, andresearch of the use of the word savage.Extensions"May the day come soon when Ill be myself in the woods of an ocean island! To live therein ecstasy, calmness, and art…There in Tahiti I shall be able to listen to the sweetmurmuring music of my hearts beating in the silence of the beautiful tropical nights." —Paul GauguinFrom Gauguin’s own writing we can interpret that he valued his time in the South Pacific.Have students write about a trip that changed them. What was it about the trip that had
such an impact on their life? Was it the place? Or was it the activities they participated in?The people they met? Have them reflect on how the experience impacted their life.Standards AddressedVisual Arts Content Standards for California Public SchoolsGrades 9–12, proficient1.0 Artistic PerceptionAnalyze Art Elements and Principles of Design1.3 Research and analyze the work of an artist and write about the artists distinctive styleand its contribution to the meaning of the work.Impact of Media Choice1.5 Analyze the material used by a given artist and describe how its use influences themeaning of the work.3.0 Historical and Cultural ContextDiversity of the Visual Arts3.3 Identify and describe trends in the visual arts and discuss how the issues of time,place, and cultural influence are reflected in selected works of art.4.0 Aesthetic ValuingDerive Meaning4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, andpolitical contexts influence the interpretation of the meaning or message in a work of art.English—Language Arts Standards for California Public SchoolsGrades 9–10ReadingVocabulary and Concept Development1.1 Identify and use the literal and figurative meanings of words and understand wordderivations.Writing
2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)2.1 Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories:c. Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and thespecific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interiormonologue to depict the characters feelings.2.3 Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports:b. Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately andcoherently.Grades 11–12Reading1.1 Trace the etymology of significant terms used in political science and history.Vocabulary and Concept Development1.3 Discern the meaning of analogies encountered, analyzing specific comparisons as wellas relationships and inferences.Writing2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)2.1 Write fictional, autobiographical, or biographical narratives:c. Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and thespecific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interiormonologue to depict the characters feelings.e. Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, andsensory details.2.3 Write reflective compositions:a. Explore the significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns byusing rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, description, exposition, persuasion).Search: Lesson PlanLesson Plans > Language Arts & Literature > Grades 9 - 12 > Argument[24 votes]
Kinesthetic LearnerVisualLearnerAuditoryLearnerTechnologyIntegrationArgumentWriting an Argument: Developing SupportGrade Level: 9-12Concept: Use evidence to support a persuasive positionEstimated Duration: 90 minutesObjectivesStudents will be able to•provide evidence to support a position•write a persuasive essay using a coherent whole (topic sentence/position statement, andmain supports)MaterialsVEO SAFE CATS explanationVEO SAFE CATS graphic organizerWhite Board or Chalk board2 Newspaper ArticlesHighlightersDifferentiated StrategiesThese strategies are used to meet the varied needs of all learners:•Varying academic levels: use newspaper articles of varying reading levels•Visual learners: students will use graphic organizers with a mnemonic device to allow tohelp comprehension of the types of evidence used for support•Auditory learners: students will discuss the types of evidence with a partner•Kinesthetic learners: students will highlight key evidence found in the articles they readKey Vocabularyevidencestatistics
analogiesfactsopinionsanecdotescredibilityProceduresWarm Up•On the board, write the following statement: What rule would you like to see changed atschool? After the class has brainstormed some rules, have them vote on one rule todiscuss. Write that rule on the board the position statement. For example: The schooldress code should be changed.• Have students turn to a peer and brainstorm reasons as to why this change shouldhappen. As a class, ask students to share their ideas and write them on the board.Direct Instruction•Explain to students that they are creating evidence to support a position. Tell them thattheir position is "The school dress code should be changed" and that their reasons why arecalled evidence. Explain that having solid evidence creates credibility in thespeaker/writer.• Distribute the worksheet called VEO SAFE CATS explanation. This is a mnemonic devicein order to help students remember the types of evidence that can be used to support aposition.• Using the worksheet as a reference, label on the board the types of evidence thatstudents have brainstormed. If any types of evidence have not been brainstormed, askstudents to think of new evidence to add to the board. Make sure students understandeach of the types of evidence.Practice• Have students work with a partner. Give each group two different newspaper articles.Articles can be easily downloaded from your local newspaper or from websites such as
www.nytimes.com. Each editorial should be of different degrees of difficulty so thatstudents may choose the reading level most fitting for them.• Give each student a copy of the VEO SAFE CATS graphic organizer and a highlighter.With their partner, students should highlight and note the types of evidence provided intheir article. Next, students should transfer the evidence they found to the correct sectionof the graphic organizer.• As a class, discuss the types of evidence they discovered. Monitor the discussion and askguiding questions to help students correct their misconceptions.Assessment•Have individual students choose a rule at home they would like to change.• Using the VEO SAFE CATS graphic organizer, students complete their position statementon the rule and create three types of evidence to support their position.• Once the graphic organizers are completed and initialed by the teacher, students shouldwrite a persuasive paragraph. The topic sentence of the paragraph should be the positionstatement and the rest of the paragraph should include the evidence from the graphicorganizer.Closure•Remind students that there will be many times in life where they will need to convincesomeone that their opinion should be considered. Explain to them that by using solidevidence as support, their opinions will have a better chance of being viewed as credible.•Applied learning: Ask students to consider using the types of evidence studied today thenext time they need to make a convincing statement to their parents or teachers.Is That a Fact?By JENNIFER RITTNER and BRIDGET ANDERSONNote: This lesson was originally published on an older version of The Learning Network;the link to the related Times article will take you to a page on the old site.Teaching ideas based on New York Times content.See all lesson plans ».Overview of Lesson Plan: In this lesson, students investigate commonly-acceptedscientific claims and gather evidence that supports or refutes them. They synthesize their
learning by writing their own “Really?” columns modeled after those found in The NewYork Times’s weekly Science Times section.Author(s):Jennifer Rittner, The New York Times Learning NetworkBridget Anderson, The Bank Street College of Education in New York CitySuggested Time Allowance: 1 hourObjectives:Students will:1. Consider five commonly-accepted scientific claims and determine the sources of thoseassumptions; brainstorm additional claims.2. Review the research on the relationship between eating carrots and eyesight by readingand discussing the article “Really? The Claim: Eating Carrots Improves Your Eyesight.”3. Gather evidence about common scientific claims.4. Share their findings by writing articles modeled after the article read in class.Resources / Materials:-five large piece of poster board, prepared as described in the Warm-Up activity below(one per small group)-markers (one per small group)-pen/pencils-classroom board-copies of the article “Really? The Claim: Eating Carrots Improves Your Eyesight” (foundonline athttp://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/featured_articles/20050503tuesday.html)(one per student)-resources for researching health and science topics (computers with Internet access,textbooks, encyclopedias, library resources, etc.)Activities / Procedures:
1. WARM-UP/DO-NOW: Prior to class, prepare five pieces of poster board by creatingthree columns on each, each column labeled with the following titles: “The Claim,” “Trueor False?,” and “Why Do You Think That?” In the “The Claim” column, write one of thefollowing assertions (or create your own), making sure that each poster has a differentfocus:-Sitting in the sun ruins your skin.-Cracking your knuckles causes arthritis.-Using aerosol hairspray destroys the ozone layer.-Reading in the dark damages the eyes.-The temperature of the earth is getting warmer.Arrange desks in to five groups, and place one of these posters and a marker at eachgrouping. Upon entering class, students should divide themselves into the five groups, andeach group should complete the following assignment, written on the board for easierstudent access: “On your desk, you will find a poster with a common scientific or healthclaim written on it. As a group, discuss this claim and decide, based on your existingknowledge, if you believe it is true or false. (If there is dissent in your group, indicatewhich students believe the statement is true and which students think it is false.) Then, inthe third column, jot down examples of the evidence that support your claim. Also includethe sources of your information (teachers, personal experience, etc.)”After a few minutes, ask each group to appoint a spokesperson, who should then presentthe group’s ideas with the class. Why do students think there are so many health andscience claims that are seemingly constantly proven or refuted? How do scientists proveor disprove these claims? What are some additional claims that they can think of? Listthese claims on the board for use in a later activity. If necessary, provide some of thefollowing suggestions to prompt further student brainstorming: eating spinach makes youstrong; drinking coffee stunts growth; eating too much sugar causes diabetes; goingoutside with wet hair causes colds; eating chocolate causes acne. Help students to see thateach claim has a cause and an effect.2. As a class, read and discuss the article “Really? The Claim: Eating Carrots Improves YourEyesight”(http://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/featured_articles/20050503tuesday.html),focusing on the following questions:a. What scientific claim does the article address?
b. What initial statement does the article make about the validity of the claim?c. What primary facts about carrots does the article include?d. According to the article, under what conditions is poor vision rampant?e. Why might people who eat carrots still need glasses?f. In what ways does the article support the assertion that carrots improve eyesight, and inwhat ways do they not have any effect?g. What was the purpose of the 1998 Johns Hopkins study? Who were the subjects? Whatwere the findings?h. Does the 2003 study at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston support or refute the1998 research? How?i. What conclusion does the article draw with regards to the original claim?3. Explain to students that today they will be gathering evidence about common scientificclaims and writing articles modeled after the “Really?” column article read in class.Students will work individually or in pairs to conduct their research using all availableclassroom resources. Each individual or pair should select one of the claims written on theboard in the Warm-Up activity. To guide their research, students should answer thefollowing questions (written on the board for easier student access):-What is the claim that you are attempting to prove or disprove?-Look at the cause-and-effect relationship established by this claim. What basic facts doesone need to know to understand this claim? (For example, if your claim is “milk buildsstrong bones,” what does one need to know about milk’s properties and about thestructure of bones that link these two parts of the claim together?)-What evidence is there that either supports or refutes this claim? In other words, whatresearch has been done on this topic, and what does it show?-What is the “bottom line” about this claim? To what degree is it true or false?4. WRAP-UP/HOMEWORK: Synthesizing the research conducted in class, each student orpair prepares a “Really?” column article about their claim. The article should state theclaim as the headline, provide ample facts supporting or refuting the claim, and provide abottom line summarizing the validity of the claim. Articles can be shared in a future class,and might be submitted to the school newspaper for possible publication.
Further Questions for Discussion:-How do you know if information that you receive is true?-When and why is it important to back up claims with evidence?-How often do you conduct research on your own to determine if something you haveheard or read is true? When do you not bother to research something?-What sources can you consult to find evidence to back up information that you hear? Howdo you know if those sources are correct?Evaluation / Assessment:Students will be evaluated based on participation in the initial group exercise,participation in class discussions, and thoroughly researched and thoughtfully writtenarticles supporting or refuting common scientific claims.Vocabulary:baseless, beta carotene, coincidence, staple, scarce, rampant, deficiency, decline, placebo,cataractsExtension Activities:1. Using The Food and Nutrition section of the U.S.D.A. Web site(http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_1OB?navtype=SU&navid=FOOD_NUTRITION), research other foods that address specific ailments or parts of the body. Forexample, what other foods provide vitamin A or beta carotene? What foods or vitaminsaffect specific ailments or parts of the body? Create a resource book filled with tips forpeople with some health problems that might be in part remedied through dietarychanges.2. What is the placebo effect? Conduct research to find evidence of cases in which thefindings suggested that a placebo had the same effect as the object of the study. Create aposter explaining the findings. What does this suggest about the how a person’s state ofmind affects physical health?3. Create a “How It Works” poster on how beta carotene or vitamin A affects the eyes.What does it do to keep the eyes healthy?4. As a class, read and discuss each week’s new “Really?” column, available online athttp://www.nytimes.com/pages/health/columns/index.html. Using the samemethodology as practiced in the Warm-Up exercise, write the claim on the board and asks
students to share their views on whether it is true or false; then read the column anddiscuss the findings. Do the evidence and bottom line support or refute students’ initialassumptions?5. What are some of the other columns found throughout The New York Times? Choose acolumn that interests you and follow it over the course of a month or longer. Clip eacharticle and write a response in your journal. (Columns might include Science Q&A,Observatory, or Vital Signs in Science Times; Beliefs in the National section; White HouseLetter in the Politics section; Public Lives or Metropolitan Diary in the New York Regionsection; On Education in the Education section; or Playlist in the Arts section, among manyothers.)Interdisciplinary Connections:American History/Global History- Conduct research to find well-established historicaltheories that have been debunked due to new evidence or research. What was the initialtheory? What was the evidence that proved it? What new evidence was discovered thataltered the original findings? What is the new theory? Is it possible that new evidence canbe found to refute this claim? Is there ongoing research in this area? Write a paper sharingyour findings.Journalism- Interview journalists from a local newspaper. How do they investigate claimsor assertions for their articles? How do they ensure that they are providing readers withaccurate information? Based on what you learn, write an article for student journalistsutilizing some of the tips or suggestions from the professional journalists.Media Studies- Choose a segment from a radio or television news program. Can you findevidence that supports and/or refutes the information provided in the news piece? Writean analysis paper that argues the validity of the news segment. Be sure to include allevidence you gathered and to cite your sources.Other Information on the Web:Previous articles from the “Really?” column can be found in the Health section ofNYTimes.com (http://www.nytimes.com/pages/health/columns/index.html).Academic Content Standards:Grades 6-8Health Standard 6 – Understands essential concepts about nutrition and diet. Benchmark:Understands how eating properly can help to reduce health problems
Health Standard 7 – Knows how to maintain and promote personal health. Benchmarks:Knows personal health strengths and risks (e.g., results of a personal health assessment);Knows how positive health practices and appropriate health care can help to reducehealth risks; Knows strategies and skills that are used to attain personal health goalsScience Standard 14-Understands the nature of scientific knowledge. Benchmark:Understands that questioning, response to criticism, and open communication are integralto the process of scienceScience Standard 15- Understands the nature of scientific inquiry. Benchmarks:Understands the nature of scientific explanations; Knows that scientific inquiry includesevaluating results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical andmathematical models, and explanations proposed by otherScience Standard 16- Understands the scientific enterprise. Benchmark: Knows ways inwhich science and society influence one anotherLanguage Arts Standard 1- Demonstrates competence in the general skills and strategiesof the writing process. Benchmarks: Uses style and structure appropriate for specificaudiences and purposes; Writes expository compositionsLanguage Arts Standard 4- Gathers and uses information for research purposes.Benchmarks: Uses a variety of resource materials to gather information for researchtopics; Organizes information and ideas from multiple sources in systematic waysGrades 9-12Health Standard 6 – Understands essential concepts about nutrition and diet.Benchmarks: Understands how nutrient and energy needs vary in relation to gender,activity level, and stage of life cycle; Understands the reliability and validity of varioussources of food and nutrition information; Understands the role of food additives andtheir relationship to healthHealth Standard 7 – Knows how to maintain and promote personal health. Benchmarks:Knows how personal behaviors relate to health and well-being and how these behaviorscan be modified if necessary to promote achievement of health goals throughout life;Understands the short – and long-term consequences of safe, risky, and harmful behaviorsScience Standard 14-Understands the nature of scientific knowledge. Benchmark: Knowsthat scientific explanations must meet certain criteria to be considered valid
Science Standard 15- Understands the nature of scientific inquiry. Benchmark: Knows thatconceptual principles and knowledge guide scientific inquiries (historical and currentscientific knowledge influence the design and interpretation of investigations and theevaluation of proposed explanations made by other scientists)Science Standard 16- Understands the scientific enterprise. Benchmark: Knows thatcreativity, imagination, and a good knowledge base are all required in the work of scienceand engineeringLanguage Arts Standard 1- Demonstrates competence in the general skills and strategiesof the writing process. Benchmarks: Writes compositions that are focused for differentaudiences; Writes compositions that fulfill different purposes; Writes expositorycompositionsLanguage Arts Standard 4- Gathers and uses information for research purposes.Benchmarks: Determines the validity and reliability of primary and secondary sourceinformation and uses information accordingly in reporting on a research topic; Identifiesand defends research questions and topics that may be important in the futureWould you really buy that? Persuasive techniques in advertisingBy Andrea Fedon, Gail Frank, and Cindy NeiningerProvided by CareerStartEssential question: How can awareness of the different methods of argument make you amore informed consumer?Learning outcomesStudents will respond to various advertisements by addressing the ads’ use of bias,emotional factors, and semantic slanting.Teacher planningMaterials needed•Examples of television, magazine, newspaper, and internet advertisements (See “pre-activities” below.)•Optional: Access to a video resource site such as Learn 360, United Streaming, or TeacherTube.•LCD projector or other means of viewing advertisements as a class
•Post-it notes•Advertising vocabulary handout (Note: These terms are also listed under “criticalvocabulary” below.)•Several magazines — You may choose to have students bring in magazines they usuallyread.Time required for lesson30 minutes or one class periodPre-activities•Before the lesson, find several examples of television, magazine, newspaper, and internetadvertisements that you can share with the class. Try to find examples the demonstrate avariety of the advertising techniques mentioned in the lesson. (See “critical vocabulary”below.)•Ask students to bring in magazines they usually read, or compile a variety of magazines— enough for each group of students to look at a few different magazines.Activities1.Activating strategy: Show the class a few television or print advertisements using aprojector and video resource website. Ask the students questions about theadvertisements: Would they buy the products being advertised? Who is the ad targeting?What caught their eye about the advertisement?2.Have a class discussion about advertising techniques and the way advertisers targetspecific groups of people: men, women, children, teens, athletes, senior citizens, etc. Handout the advertising vocabulary sheet and discuss each term with students. Ask them toname examples of each technique from ads they’ve seen.3.Show the examples of advertisements, and ask the students who they think theadvertisers are targeting with each ad, using examples from the advertisement to supporttheir answers. Ask them which advertising technique is being used in each ad.4.Put students into small groups. Pass out several different magazines to each group andask them to find various examples of advertising and to decide which demographic eachad targets and which techniques are used. Have the students use post-it notes to labeleach advertising example.
5.Have students work individually to choose an advertising technique that they were notable to find in the magazines they viewed. Each student will create an ad that uses thistechnique and is targeted to a teen audience.6.Wrap up the lesson with a discussion of some of the careers involved in advertising. (SeeCareer Information below.)ExtensionThis lesson provides a great opportunity for students to write a persuasive paper. Somesuggested writing prompts:•You are trying to obtain a patent for a new product. What is your product and why is itmore effective or better than existing products?•You want to convince an audience that you deserve a new iPhone. You must write twopersuasive letters to different audiences (parents, grandparents, Santa Claus, a friend, etc.)In these letters, you must present information that you believe will persuade the audienceto buy the iPhone for you.Critical vocabularyNote: These terms are listed on the vocabulary handout.Loaded wordsWords with strong associations such as “home,” “family,” “dishonest” and “wasteful.”TransferenceAttempts to make the audience associate positive words, images, and ideas with a productand its users.Name callingComparing one product to another and saying it is weaker or inferior in quality or taste.Glittering generalityUsing words that are positive and appealing, but too vague to have any real meaning, like“pure and natural.”TestimonialA product is endorsed by a celebrity or by an expert.
BandwagonThe advertiser tries to make you feel like everyone else has the product and if you don’thave it too, you’ll be left out.Snob appealThe opposite of the bandwagon technique, snob appeal makes the case that using theproduct means the consumer is better/smarter/richer than everyone else.RepetitionA product’s name or catchphrase is repeated over and over, with the goal of having it stickin the viewer or listener’s mind.FlatteryThe advertiser appeals to the audience’s vanity by implying that smart/popular/richpeople buy the product.Plain folksThe advertiser says or implies that people just like you use a product. (This often takes theform of a testimonial.)Emotional appealsThe advertiser appeals to people’s fears, joys, sense of nostalgia, etc.Facts and figuresUsing statistics, research, or other data to make the product appear to be better than itscompetitors.Special offerThe advertiser offers a discount, coupon, free gift, or other enticement to get people to buya product.UrgencyThe advertiser makes you feel like you need the product right away.Career informationCareer information comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational OutlookHandbook.
Advertising and public relations servicesNature of the industryFirms in the advertising and public relations services industry prepare advertisements forother companies and organizations and design campaigns to promote the interests andimage of their clients.Training and qualificationsMost entry-level professional and managerial positions in advertising and public relationsservices require a bachelor’s degree, preferably with broad liberal arts exposure.EarningsIn 2006, nonsupervisory workers in advertising and public relations services averaged$724 a week—significantly higher than the $568 a week for all nonsupervisory workers inprivate industry.Job prospectsCompetition for many jobs will be keen because the glamour of the advertising and publicrelations services industry traditionally attracts many more job seekers than there are jobopenings. The best job opportunities will be for job seekers skilled in employing theincreasing number and types of media outlets used to reach an increasingly diversecustomer base.Advertising, Marketing, Promotions, Public Relations, and Sales ManagersNature of the workAdvertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers coordinate theircompanies’ market research, marketing strategy, sales, advertising, promotion, pricing,product development, and public relations activities. In small firms, the owner or chiefexecutive officer might assume all advertising, promotions, marketing, sales, and publicrelations responsibilities. In large firms, which may offer numerous products and servicesnationally or even worldwide, an executive vice president directs overall advertising,marketing, promotions, sales, and public relations policies.Training and qualificationsA wide range of educational backgrounds is suitable for entry into advertising, marketing,promotions, public relations, and sales managerial jobs, but many employers prefer thosewith experience in related occupations.
For marketing, sales, and promotions management positions, some employers prefer abachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration with an emphasis on marketing.Courses in business law, management, economics, accounting, finance, mathematics, andstatistics are advantageous. Additionally, the completion of an internship while thecandidate is in school is highly recommended.EarningsMedian annual earnings in May 2006 were $73,060 for advertising and promotionsmanagers, $98,720 for marketing managers, $91,560 for sales managers, and $82,180 forpublic relations managers.Job prospectsAdvertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales manager jobs are highlycoveted and will be sought by other managers or highly experienced professionals,resulting in keen competition. College graduates with related experience, a high level ofcreativity, and strong communication skills should have the best job opportunities.North Carolina curriculum alignmentEnglish Language Arts (2004)Grade 8Goal 3: The learner will continue to refine the understanding and use of argument.Objective 3.01: Explore and evaluate argumentative works that are read, heard and/orviewed by:monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed.analyzing the work by identifying the arguments and positions stated or implied and theevidence used to support them.identifying the social context of the argument.recognizing the effects of bias, emotional factors, and/or semantic slanting.comparing the argument and counter-argument presented.identifying/evaluating the effectiveness of tone, style, and use of language.evaluating the authors purpose and stance
making connections between works, self and related topics.Responding to public documents (such as but not limited to editorials, reviews, local, state,and national policies/issues including those with a historical context).