Final version wpb project report by okoye elochukwu obinna

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  • 1. Wind power BasicsSpring 2011AN OVERVIEW OF WINDPOWER PLANNING IN NIGERIA Photo By New Era Energy Nigeria Ltd.[1] By Okoye Elochukwu Obinna Nnewi, Nigeria. February, 2011 Supervisors: Fan Zou Examiner: Liselotte Aldén Gotland University, Visby, Sweden
  • 2. Executive SummaryFrom the grid or graph as the case may be, it was uncovered that the wind meanspeed at a height of 10m above the ground ranges between 2.3m/s to 3.4m/sfor sites along the costal areas and 3.0m/s to 3.9m/s for highland areas andsemi-arid regions. The analysis carried out in this report on data shows that themonthly average wind power can be as high as 50.1W/m².Small wind energyconversion systems for pumping water, irrigation and small agriculturalindustries are recommended for a small communities living in isolated areasaround the selected sites. It was also discovered that the wind turbine cangenerate up to 97MWh per year in Sokoto, a site in a high wind speed regions.Therefore, using wind energy conversion systems for electric power generationand supply in Nigeria—especially around the Sokoto axis will be cost effective.Similarly, after analysis a wind potential of a town near Jos, it was discoveredthat the maximum power intensity which could be extracted from the wind inthe areas was found to be 14.23W/m² out of the estimated available wind powerintensity of 24.00W/m².The amount of energy density available in the wind hasalso been estimated to be 1126.28KWh/year. The use of wind power for supplyof electricity broadens the energy base & reduces environmental pollution. It isparticularly practical if it can be economically competitive with conventionalenergy sources. The use of wind energy will be suitable for rural farmingcompanies that require lighting and some limited supply of electricity which willbe costly to get due to the location of farms. Several researchers have shownthat in areas with annual mean wind speeds of 3.5m/s - 4.0m/s or greater, windpower systems can usually deliver electricity or pump water at costs lower thanphotovoltaic, diesels, or grid-extension.[5]The new generation of wind turbines work in light winds starting as low as3m/s, making wind power a viable and economically sound source forenergy in most of the Northern States in Nigeria and also else wheredepending on the geography of selected sites. ii
  • 3. PrefaceThis report is about a wind power project in Nigeria which is on the planningstage and also presents data on wind analysis, environmental and planningaspects. The content is focused on Nigeria. After a research of several weeks toget the information I needed, I contacted ―New Era Energy Nigeria Ltd.‖ whoprovided me with some vital information that led to the success of this greatproject.NEW ERA Energy is an international energy solutions company with offices inKano, Sokoto and Lagos in Nigeria and Gerrards Cross, near London. They arecompanies that specialize in Wind driven water and energy solutions, Exclusivewind turbine distributor and installator in West Africa Gaia, Evance, Proven,Southwest WindPower.I will not fail to extend my regards to Mr. NSIMA ASUQUO, a good friend ofmine in the department of Industrial Production Engineering ,Nnamdi AzikiweUniversity,Awka Nigeria who gave me all the necessary assistance i neededduring my research work.The Environmental Impact Assessment report that I used was realized fromNew Era Energy Nigeria Ltd.Most importantly, I am thanking God Almighty who was always there for meduring this Report and finally made it a success for me.OKOYE ELOCHUKWU OBINNA (Name) 2011-02-24 (Date) NNEWI, NIGERIA (Place) iii
  • 4. Table of contentsCHAPTER 1 –INTRODUCTION.............................................................................1 1.1 BACKGROUND............................................................................. 1 1.2 LOCATION DESCRIPTION.......................................................... 2CHAPTER 2 – PLANNING PROCESS...................................................................4 2.1-WIND ENERGY POTENTIAL IN NIGERIA................................4 2.2-WIND SPEED DATA ANALYSIS……………………………….5CHAPTER 3 – WIND TURBINES…………………………................................. 6 3.1 -DESCRIPTION OF WIND TURBINES........................................6 3.2 -INSTALLATION OF WIND TURBINES.....................................7CHAPTER 4 -ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT……………………………………7 4.1-INFLUENCE OF INSTALLATION IN THE IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT…………………………………………………7 4.2- AIR TRAFFIC…………………………………………………….8 4.3-NOISE………………………………………………………..........8CHAPTER 5 – CONCLUSION ..............................................................................8REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………9APPENDIXES..........................................................................................................I iv
  • 5. CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION1.1 Background Roughly 90% of Nigerian economy is dependent on the crude oil.Expectedly, most of her generating plants are thermal power stations which arepresently operating below installed capacity. This report therefore looks at theprospects of wind energy in Nigeria. The wind speed data collected from sometowns in Nigeria indicates that the country has good sites for installation ofwind energy conversion systems. This report recommends the incorporation ofwind energy in the renewable energy resources development programme of adeveloping economy like Nigeria. This would be a way of boosting her energyneeds as well as accelerating the sluggish nature of the Federal government ofNigeria rural electrification programmes.The wholesale of the supply for electrical energy in the country has been fromthe National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) which presently the task is beingperformed by the Power Holding Company Of Nigeria(PHCN) which uses theconservative energy generation method-Water has so many demerits such as :  Hydro plants depend for sustained operation on in-flow of water into the storage and this in-flow can be affected up stream by drought and outside the borders of this nation, by political or other considerations.  The pollution arising in the case of thermal stations from combustion of fuel is not environment-friendly due to the fact that sulphur oxides, heavy metals, radio-active elements, hydrocarbons and large quantities of carbon dioxide are emitted which leads to acid rain.  Fossil and nuclear fuels are finite and non-renewable energy sources.  Burned nuclear fuel is radioactive; it requires remote handling and special processing and disposal of toxic waste.  Special system designs are required to prevent radioactivity release during normal operation or due to accidents.  Major portions of a nuclear plant are radioactive during and after operation, requiring special precautions and advanced technology for maintenance of much of the plant. [5]Wind power, which is the subject of this report, is a very sustainable way ofproducing energy; wind turbines aren’t producing polluting emissions or climatechange gases. 1
  • 6. The following figure will present the wind power production capacities ofNigeria for the year 2002 – 2010 in Megawatts (MW). Figure 1: shows above on windpower production capacities of Nigeria for the ending of the year 2002 – 2010 in MW. [2]  End 2002: 1 MW (+ %)  End 2003: 2 MW (+100 %)  End 2004: 2 MW (+0 %)  End 2005: 2 MW (+0 %)  End 2006: 2 MW (+0 %)  End 2007: 2 MW (+0 %)  End 2008: 2 MW (+0 %)  End 2009: 2.2 MW (+10.1 %)  End 2010: 2.2 MW (+0 %)[2]1.2 Location DescriptionThe wind power project site of this report is located at GADA in Sokoto state,Nigeria. Gada is a Local Government Area in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Itsheadquarters are in the town of Gada. Gada shares a border with the Republicof Niger to the north. The site is situated at an area of 1,315 km² and apopulation of 248,267 at the 2006 census.[7] 2
  • 7. Figure 2: The localization of Gada in Sokoto, Nigeria and Africa shown in the map above on red dots.Source: Falling Rain Genomics, Inc.[8] 3
  • 8. Figure 3: The map shown in this figure below is on the basis of ground level observations. Wind speeds are up to 20% higher at 50’ elevation due to less turbulence. ▼ Source: New Era Energy Nigeria Ltd, 2011. [1]CHAPTER 2 – PLANNING PROCESS 2.1 – Wind Energy Potential in Nigeria This conservative system of using large centrally located power plants andgrid extension for rural electrification is currently being challenged by theadvent of smaller, modular technologies such as wind power, micro-hydroand photovoltaic. The various wind generator projects in Nigeria wereneglected in the last decade due to increasing popularity and low price ofcrude oil. In recent times the high price of petroleum products leads toattempts at restructuring these windmills. However, difficulties in obtainingspare parts for models which were no longer being manufactured hinderedthe restoration. Also, some other factors that led to the failure of past windgenerators are the assessment of wind energy potentials, feasibility studieson wind energy utilization, inadequate wind data base used as the bases fordesigning & building different prototypes that need be considered inreducing locally manufactured windmills.[5] 4
  • 9. 2.2 – Wind Speed Data Analysis In an attempt to discover wind energy potential in the country, several sites (Enugu, Jos, Ikeja& Sokoto ) which differ in natural conditions and having different wind characteristics were selected for this report.Fig 4: Windspeed data for Enugu station Fig 5:Windspeed data for Jos station Fig 6:Windspeed data for Ikeja station Fig 7:Windspeed data for Sokoto station Figures 4-7 show the wind speed data for various stations from the year 2000 to 2003.[5] 5
  • 10. CHAPTER 3 – WIND TURBINES 3.1 -Description of Wind TurbinesA wind turbine is a rotary device that extracts energy from the wind. If themechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as for pumpingwater, cutting lumber or grinding stones, the machine is called a windmill.If the mechanical energy is instead converted to electricity, the machine isoften called a wind generator.The kind of wind turbine envisioned or planned to be used is the Vestas V – 90.Table 1 in Appendix I is displaying the technical data thereof. Fig. 8: Schematic view of a wind turbine structureThe V – 90 by VESTAS produces 2MW. The turbine is constructed out ofan 80m high conical steel tower. At the ground level the diameter of thetower is 4,5m. The rotor blades have a diameter of 90m, what makes a totalconstruction height of the wind turbine of 125m. The control system ispitch controlled. The start wind of the turbine is 2,5m/s and the rated windspeed is 13m/s. And the cut out wind speed is 25m/s. The nacelle weighswith all its components 68tons. The generator is asynchronous (VESTAS2008,Installation of Wind Turbines3.2- New Era Energy).[6] 6
  • 11. Figure 9: showing New Era Energy‘s Installation of wind turbine atthe site in GADA. Photo source: New Era Energy Nigeria Ltd.[1]All their projects are professionally handled and installed by proficientteams. Lifting of the wind turbine can be physically strenuous and shouldonly be performed by a strong vehicle and in a good weather condition.Lifting the tower should never be executed in high wind conditions orwhen a venture of rain or electrical storms exists.Wind powered solutions will deliver maximum water and/or electricitywhen the entire solution is thoughtfully designed and well planned.All NEW ERA ENERGY solutions incorporate design to verify sitesuitability, actual needs, solution options, storage strategies, training andcapacity development. NEW ERA ENERGY will then plan the installationlogistics and resource requirements so ensure that this project are deliveredon time, to quality and to budget. All NEW ERA ENERGY projectsinclude capacity development so as to make the projects sustainable.CHAPTER 4 -ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT4.1-Influence of Installation in the Immediate EnvironmentThe utmost influence on the environment will probably be during theassembly at site. Roads of good quality are needed to access theconstruction site of each turbine. To start with the now existing roads aregoing to be used for transports, which will cause a need to widen, level 7
  • 12. and reinforce the construction of the roads. Any possible damages on theroads due to heavy transports will be repaired when the wind farm is readyto be taken into use.4.2- Air TrafficAs stated by the civil aviation board regulation (LFS 2008:47), windturbines with a total height lower than 150 meters must be equipped with ared midintense flashing light. It is possible to dim the light during the nightto a more low penetrating character. If the wind turbines are provided withGPS the lights can be controlled to flash synchronized. With the help ofthese preventive measures, the interloping of the surroundings will bereduced as far as possible with consideration of the air traffic securitydemands. 4.3- NoiseThe most perceptible impact of a wind turbine places upon theenvironment is noise pollution. Many people think wind turbines are agreat idea, yet a large proportion of these people would oppose a windfarm development close to their home. This is down to the noise, andmany people compare the sound output of a wind turbine to a small jetengine. The impact of noise pollution has the potential to lower propertyvalues within a varying radius of the construction. Modern technologies areever increasing the efficiency of wind turbines, yet they fail to decrease thenoise output by significant levels. The noise pollution can greatly dependon the average annual wind speed (i.e. the higher the wind speed, thegreater the noise output can be) and the size of the blades. Noise pollutionis said to be one of the biggest disadvantages of a wind turbine.CHAPTER 5 – CONCLUSIONBy using metrological data collected from some selected weather stations inNigeria, analysis of such data shows that wind power prospects in Nigeriais high. From the analysis also, it was clearly seen that costal and hilly areasare excellent sites for wind power development. Therefore, using WindEnergy Conversion Systems(WECs) for electric power generation andsupply in Nigeria—especially around Sokoto axis with mean wind speed ofabout 3.78m/s will be cost effective.[5]Description of the current state of Wind Power in Nigeria as was illustratedon the map at figure 3 above, which I also collected from the New Era 8
  • 13. Energy Nig. Ltd: The Northern part of Nigeria has better average windspeeds of 4 -5.5m/s but there are also parts of the mountainous Centre andSouth in the same range, Peak winds are April-August.The first of a series of national wind generation projects will start in Katsinaby 2012.Small wind turbines generally require 4 m/s to work and Mechanical windpumps generally require 2.5 m/s to work.Considering the prospect of wind energy in a developing economy likeNigeria, the following recommendations are made: 1. Excellent sites such as Jos and Sokoto should have a wind power plant for the generation of electricity which should be integrated with the existing national grid. 2. Wind energy resources should be included in the renewable energy resources development programme of Nigeria. REFERENCES 1. http://neenigeria.com/html/windpower.html, New Era Energy Nigeria Ltd, 2011. 2. www.thewindpower.net , The Wind Power Datasheet updated: 10/2010. 3. Enibe, S.O.: ―A method of Assessing the wind Energy potentials in a Nigeria location‖, Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy, Vol.6, 1987, pp.14 -17. 4. Ezeugwu , D.U.: ―Wind Energy prospects in a developing economy‖, B.Eng. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka , September 2004. 5. Okoro,O.I. and Govender, P:Prospects of Wind Energy in Nigeria, 2007/02/3. 6. www.vestas.com, 2008. 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gada,_Nigeria , Accessed on 2011/02/24. 8. http://www.fallingrain.com/world/NI/51/Gada.html, Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. 1996-2010. 9
  • 14. AppendixesAppendixes 1:Table 1: Technical Data for the turbine Vestas V- 90 (Source: Vestas, 2008). ▼ Technical Data Vestas V – 90 Rated power 2MW Rotor Diameter 90m Swept area 6.362 m² Hub height 80m Total height 125m Power Control Pitch Optispeed Rotational Speed 9 – 14.9rpm Start Wind 2,5m/s Rated Wind 13m/s Stop Wind 25m/s Generator AsynchronousAppendixes 2: Fig. 8: Schematic view of a wind turbine structure ▼ I