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Bellwork- Naming Salts <ul><li>NAME THE FOLLOWING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NH 4 NO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NaF </li></ul...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon and oxygen combine to form carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), but these two invisible...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Small amounts of CO 2  in the air do not present any problems.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small ...
<ul><li>Because two non-metals may combine in different ratios  (ex. CO and CO 2 ),  the quantity of each element must be ...
<ul><ul><ul><li>A prefix in the name of a binary molecular compound tells how many atoms of an element are present in each...
<ul><ul><ul><li>naming binary molecular compounds: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name the elements in the or...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use the  mono-  prefix on the first element in the name.  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><ul><li>The prefixes in the name tell you the subscript of each element in the formula.  Write the correct symbols...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon carbide is a hard material like diamond.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The name  silicon ca...
<ul><ul><li>1. Which of the following compounds is named INCORRECTLY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CS 2 , carbon disulfi...
<ul><ul><li>2. Which of the following molecular compounds is named INCORRECTLY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SbCl 3 , an...
<ul><ul><li>3. The correct formula for  tetraphosphorus trisulfide  is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P 3 S 4 </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Section 9.4- Naming Acids and bases </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>An acid is a compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions (H + ) when diss...
<ul><ul><ul><li>An acid is named after its anion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anion  ending </li></ul></ul></ul><u...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Acid formulas start with hydrogen & end with the formula of the anion.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><u...
A base is a compound that produces hydroxide (OH - ) ions in water
<ul><ul><ul><li>Bases are named in the same way as other ionic compounds —the name of the cation is followed by the name o...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a base that is used to make paper. </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaners and soap contain sodium hydroxide. </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>1. The name for H 2 S(aq) is  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sulfuric acid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><ul><li>2. The chemical formula for chlorous acid is  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HClO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>3. The correct chemical name for NH 4 OH is  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen tetrahydrogen hydroxide. ...
Dihydrogen monoxide DHMO ?  It is in water sources everywhere…  It is responsible for many deaths every year… It is the mo...
<ul><li>Bellwork- Mixed Naming </li></ul><ul><li>Name the following compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>1. CCl 4 </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><ul><ul><li>The rules for naming and writing formulas for compounds are possible only because compounds form from the ...
<ul><ul><ul><li>The  law of definite proportions  states that in samples of any chemical compound, the masses of the eleme...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Water obeys the law of definite proportions. In every sample of water, the mass ratio of oxygen to hydroge...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen peroxide obeys the law of definite proportions. The mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is always 16...
<ul><ul><ul><li>The law of multiple proportions : Some elements can combine to form more than one compound, in which the q...
<ul><li>Sulfur dioxide  Sulfur trioxide </li></ul><ul><li>SO 2   SO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>1:2 ratio  1:3 ratio </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>A Diagram of the Law of Multiple Proportions </li></ul></ul></ul>5 5
<ul><ul><li>To use a flowchart to write the correct name for a compound, follow the arrows and answer the questions. </li>...
 
<ul><ul><ul><li>In writing a chemical formula from a chemical name, it is helpful to remember the following guidelines. </...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefixes in a name generally indicate that the compound is molecular.  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><u...
 
<ul><ul><li>1. The law of definite proportions states that in samples of any chemical compound, the elements are always in...
<ul><ul><li>2. If you determine that the name of an ion ends in  -ite  or  -ate , the ion is a  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
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Lecture 9.3 through 9.5- Naming molecules & acids

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Section 9.3, 9.4, & 9.5 lecture slides for Honors & Prep Chemistry

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  • Carbon monoxide is an invisible, gaseous compound of carbon and oxygen. It is a toxic product of incomplete burning, such as occurs in automobile engines and faulty furnaces.
  • Carbon monoxide is an invisible, gaseous compound of carbon and oxygen. It is a toxic product of incomplete burning, such as occurs in automobile engines and faulty furnaces.
  • A grinding wheel made of silicon carbide (SiC) can shape even the toughest materials. Inferring What causes the sparks?
  • To create designs such as this on glass, the glass is first coated with wax and the design is drawn through the wax. When the glass is dipped into hydrofluoric acid (HF), the acid etches (eats away) the glass wherever the wax has been removed.
  • Sodium hydroxide is an important industrial and consumer product. a) Recycled paper and wood are digested with NaOH to make pulp in the first step in making paper. b) Cleaners containing NaOH cut through heavy grease. c) An important use of sodium hydroxide is in making soap. Inferring Why is the woman in the second photo wearing gloves?
  • Sodium hydroxide is an important industrial and consumer product. a) Recycled paper and wood are digested with NaOH to make pulp in the first step in making paper. b) Cleaners containing NaOH cut through heavy grease. c) An important use of sodium hydroxide is in making soap. Inferring Why is the woman in the second photo wearing gloves?
  • Water and hydrogen peroxide contain the same two elements, but they have different properties. a) Water does not bleach dyes. b) Hydrogen peroxide is a bleach.
  • Water and hydrogen peroxide contain the same two elements, but they have different properties. a) Water does not bleach dyes. b) Hydrogen peroxide is a bleach.
  • The diagram illustrates the law of multiple proportions. Two compounds, X and Y, contain equal masses of element B. The ratio of the masses of A in these compounds is 5:10 or 1:2 (a small whole number ratio). Applying Concepts Would the ratio be different if
  • This flowchart will help you name chemical compounds. Begin with the letters Q and R in the general formula Q x R y . Q and R can be atoms, monatomic ions, or polyatomic ions.
  • This flowchart will help you write a chemical formula when given a chemical name. Interpreting Illustrations What are the two types of chemical compounds whose formulas you can write using this flowchart?
  • Transcript of "Lecture 9.3 through 9.5- Naming molecules & acids"

    1. 1. Bellwork- Naming Salts <ul><li>NAME THE FOLLOWING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NH 4 NO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NaF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Na 2 SO 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MgO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WRITE THE FORMULA FOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium hydroxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum nitrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium iodide </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon and oxygen combine to form carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), but these two invisible gases are very different. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><ul><ul><li>Small amounts of CO 2 in the air do not present any problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small amounts of CO in a room can be deadly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A naming system that distinguishes between these two compounds is needed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Because two non-metals may combine in different ratios (ex. CO and CO 2 ), the quantity of each element must be specified in the name of a molecule. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>A prefix in the name of a binary molecular compound tells how many atoms of an element are present in each molecule of the compound. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><ul><ul><li>naming binary molecular compounds: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name the elements in the order listed in the formula. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use prefixes to indicate the number of each kind of atom. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use the mono- prefix on the first element in the name. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The suffix of the name of the second element is - ide . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>CO 2 carbon dioxide CO carbon monoxide
    8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>The prefixes in the name tell you the subscript of each element in the formula. Write the correct symbols for the two elements with the appropriate subscripts. </li></ul></ul></ul>Writing Formulas for Binary Molecular Compounds
    9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon carbide is a hard material like diamond. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The name silicon carbide has no prefixes, so the subscripts of silicon and carbon must be one. Thus, the formula for silicon carbide is SiC. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><ul><li>1. Which of the following compounds is named INCORRECTLY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CS 2 , carbon disulfide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCl 3 , boron trichloride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IF 7 , iodine heptafluoride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCl 5 , phosphorus hexachloride </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>2. Which of the following molecular compounds is named INCORRECTLY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SbCl 3 , antimony trichloride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C 2 O 5 , dicarbon pentoxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CF 4 , carbon tetrafluoride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 3 As, hydrogen arsenide </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><ul><li>3. The correct formula for tetraphosphorus trisulfide is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P 3 S 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S 3 P 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P 4 S 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S 4 P 3 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Section 9.4- Naming Acids and bases </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>An acid is a compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><ul><ul><li>An acid is named after its anion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anion ending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-ide hydro__________ic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-ite __________ous acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-ate __________ic acid </li></ul></ul></ul>Anion stem Anion stem Anion stem
    16. 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>Acid formulas start with hydrogen & end with the formula of the anion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrobromic acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contains bromide (Br - ) HBr </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sulfuric acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> contains sulfate (SO 4 2- ) H 2 SO 4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sulfurous acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> contains sulfite (SO 3 2- ) H 2 SO 3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. A base is a compound that produces hydroxide (OH - ) ions in water
    18. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>Bases are named in the same way as other ionic compounds —the name of the cation is followed by the name of the anion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The formula for the base aluminum hydroxide is Al(OH) 3 . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a base that is used to make paper. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaners and soap contain sodium hydroxide. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><ul><li>1. The name for H 2 S(aq) is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sulfuric acid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrosulfuric acid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sulfurous acid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrosulfurous acid. </li></ul></ul></ul>9.4 Section Quiz
    22. 22. <ul><ul><li>2. The chemical formula for chlorous acid is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HClO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HClO 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HClO 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HCl </li></ul></ul></ul>9.4 Section Quiz
    23. 23. <ul><ul><li>3. The correct chemical name for NH 4 OH is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen tetrahydrogen hydroxide. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen pentahydrogen oxide. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ammonium oxyhydride. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ammonium hydroxide. </li></ul></ul></ul>9.4 Section Quiz
    24. 24. Dihydrogen monoxide DHMO ? It is in water sources everywhere… It is responsible for many deaths every year… It is the most addictive substance known…
    25. 25. <ul><li>Bellwork- Mixed Naming </li></ul><ul><li>Name the following compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>1. CCl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>2. SO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>3. MgBr 2 </li></ul><ul><li>4. NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Write the chemical formula for the following compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinitrogen tetroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Dinitrogen dioxide </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>The rules for naming and writing formulas for compounds are possible only because compounds form from the elements in predictable ways. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These ways are summed up in two laws: the law of definite proportions and the law of multiple proportions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><ul><ul><li>The law of definite proportions states that in samples of any chemical compound, the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. A sample of water always contains 8g O to every 1g H. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><ul><ul><li>Water obeys the law of definite proportions. In every sample of water, the mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is always 8:1. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen peroxide obeys the law of definite proportions. The mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is always 16:1. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><ul><ul><li>The law of multiple proportions : Some elements can combine to form more than one compound, in which the quantities of each element are always in a ratio of small whole numbers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compound CO CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio 1:1 1:2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide </li></ul><ul><li>SO 2 SO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>1:2 ratio 1:3 ratio </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><ul><ul><li>A Diagram of the Law of Multiple Proportions </li></ul></ul></ul>5 5
    33. 33. <ul><ul><li>To use a flowchart to write the correct name for a compound, follow the arrows and answer the questions. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. <ul><ul><ul><li>In writing a chemical formula from a chemical name, it is helpful to remember the following guidelines. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An - ide ending generally indicates a binary compound. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An - ite or - ate ending means a polyatomic ion that includes oxygen is in the formula. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 36. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefixes in a name generally indicate that the compound is molecular. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Roman numeral after the name of a cation shows the ionic charge of the cation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 38. <ul><ul><li>1. The law of definite proportions states that in samples of any chemical compound, the elements are always in the same proportion by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mass. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>volume. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>group number. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>period number. </li></ul></ul></ul>Section Quiz 9.5.
    37. 39. <ul><ul><li>2. If you determine that the name of an ion ends in -ite or -ate , the ion is a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polyatomic cation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polyatomic anion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transition metal cation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>group A anion. </li></ul></ul></ul>
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