Lecture 9.1 & 9.2- Naming Salts

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Section 9.1 & 9.2 lecture for Honors & Prep Chemistry on chemical nomenclature for ionic compounds

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  • The representative elements shown form positive ions with charges equal to their group numbers. Applying Concepts Are the ions anions or cations?
  • Note the positions of the nonmetals and the metalloid, arsenic. These elements form anions. Common transition elements that form more than one ion are also shown. Applying Concepts Do the transition metals form anions or cations?
  • The ions of these transition metals produce an array of colors when dissolved in water. From left to right, the ions are Co 3+ , Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Ni 2+ , and Mn 2+ .
  • Many transition metals form brightly colored compounds that are used in making artists’ paints.
  • These molecular models show the arrangement of atoms in four common polyatomic ions. Interpreting Diagrams How does the ammonium ion differ from the other three?
  • Hydrogen-containing polyatomic ions are part of many compounds that affect your daily life. a) Sodium hydrogen carbonate, which contains the HCO 3 - ion, can relieve an upset stomach. b) The presence of dissolved HCO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , and H 2 PO 4 - ions in your blood is critical for your health. c) Crop dusters spread fertilizers containing HPO 4 2- and H 2 PO 4 - ions.
  • Hydrogen-containing polyatomic ions are part of many compounds that affect your daily life. a) Sodium hydrogen carbonate, which contains the HCO 3 - ion, can relieve an upset stomach. b) The presence of dissolved HCO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , and H 2 PO 4 - ions in your blood is critical for your health. c) Crop dusters spread fertilizers containing HPO 4 2- and H 2 PO 4 - ions.
  • Hydrogen-containing polyatomic ions are part of many compounds that affect your daily life. a) Sodium hydrogen carbonate, which contains the HCO 3 - ion, can relieve an upset stomach. b) The presence of dissolved HCO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , and H 2 PO 4 - ions in your blood is critical for your health. c) Crop dusters spread fertilizers containing HPO 4 2- and H 2 PO 4 - ions.
  • Tin(II) fluoride and tin(IV) sulfide have different compositions and uses. a) Tin(II) fluoride is added to toothpastes to prevent cavities. b) Tin(IV) sulfide is used in glazes for porcelain fixtures and dishes. Inferring What are the charges on the tin ions in the two compounds?
  • Tin(II) fluoride and tin(IV) sulfide have different compositions and uses. a) Tin(II) fluoride is added to toothpastes to prevent cavities. b) Tin(IV) sulfide is used in glazes for porcelain fixtures and dishes. Inferring What are the charges on the tin ions in the two compounds?
  • In the process for making steel, iron is extracted from hematite, an ore containing iron(III) oxide. Applying Concepts What is the formula for iron(III) oxide?
  • Some examples of ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions are shown. a) Oysters produce calcium carbonate to form their shells and sometimes pearls. b) Lead(II) sulfate is an important component of an automobile battery. c) Compounds such as ammonium sulfate or ammonium phosphate are common fertilizers.
  • Lecture 9.1 & 9.2- Naming Salts

    1. 1. Chemical Names and Formulas Dihydrogen monoxide ? It is in water sources everywhere… It is responsible for many deaths every year…
    2. 2. <ul><ul><ul><li>Monatomic ions consist of a single atom with a positive or negative charge. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive ions result from the loss of one or more valence electrons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>negative ions result from the gain of one or more valence electrons. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Cations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the metals in Groups 1A, 2A, and 3A lose electrons, they form cations with positive charges equal to their group number. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><ul><ul><li>The names of the cations of the Group 1A, Group 2A, and Group 3A metals are the same as the name of the metal, followed by the word ion or cation . </li></ul></ul></ul>Na Na + Sodium atom sodium cation or sodium ion Group1A = 1 valence e - = +1 ion
    5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>These elements have ionic charges that can be obtained from their group numbers . </li></ul></ul></ul>Al 3+ 3e -
    6. 6. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-metals gain electrons. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anion charge = group number - 8 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anion names start with the stem of the element name and end in -ide . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>O O oxygen atom oxide ion 2-
    8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>These Group A elements form anions . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some transition metals can form more than one ion. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The charges of these transition metal cations must be specified because there is more than one possible charge. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><ul><ul><li>These colorful solutions contain the transition metal ions Co 3+ , Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Ni 2+ , and Mn 2+ . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>Many transition metal compounds are colored and can be used as pigments. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><ul><ul><li>Two methods are used to name the ions of transition metals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Stock system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The classical method </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>In the Stock system, a Roman numeral in parentheses is placed after the name of the element to indicate the numerical value of the charge. </li></ul></ul></ul>FeCl 3 iron(III) chloride FeCl 2 iron(II) chloride
    14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>In an older less useful method, the latin name of the element is used to form the root name for the ion. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Conceptual Problem 9.1
    16. 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>Polyatomic ions, are composed of more than one atom. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The names of most polyatomic anions end in - ite or - ate . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><ul><ul><li>These models show the structures of four common polyatomic ions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>Names and Formulas of Some Common Polyatomic Ions </li></ul></ul></ul>Polyatomic ions are covalently bound groups with an overall charge.
    19. 19. <ul><ul><ul><li>NaHCO 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium hydrogen carbonate can relieve an upset stomach. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>HCO 3 – , HPO 4 2– , and H 2 PO 4 – ions in your blood are critical for your health. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizers contain HPO 4 2– and H 2 PO 4 – ions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>A binary compound is composed of two elements and can be either ionic or molecular . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Ionic compounds are named differently than molecular(covalent) compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>When naming ionic compounds, state the cation first then the anion. </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><ul><li> KNO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> K + NO 3 - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potassium nitrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> TiO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Ti 4+ O 2- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>titanium(IV) oxide </li></ul></ul>Watch out for elements that make multiple ions!!- They need (charge) Look out for polyatomic ions!! More than 1 non-metal
    25. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>Tin(II) flouride, or SnF 2 , is added to toothpastes to prevent cavities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>Tin(IV) sulfide, or SnS 2 , is used in glazes for porcelain fixtures and dishes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><ul><ul><li>Hematite, a common ore of iron, contains iron (III) oxide. The balanced formula is Fe 2 O 3 . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write the symbol of the cation and then the anion. Add whatever subscripts are needed to balance the charges. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al 3+ and O 2- ions make Al 2 O 3 crystals. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Compounds With Polyatomic Ions <ul><ul><ul><li>calcium cation– Ca 2+ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polyatomic nitrate anion– NO 3 – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two nitrate anions are needed to balance the 2+ charge of the calcium cation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>calcium nitrate is Ca(NO 3 ) 2 . </li></ul></ul></ul>Parenthesis are needed to show more than one polyatomic ion.
    30. 30. <ul><ul><ul><li>Lead(II)sulfate is an important component of an automobile battery. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 35. <ul><ul><li>1. When metals from groups 1A, 2A, and 3A form cations, the charge on the ion is equal to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 minus the group number. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the group number minus 8. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the period number. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the group number. </li></ul></ul></ul>9.1 Section Quiz.
    32. 36. <ul><ul><li>2. Which of the following are positively charged polyatomic ions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(I) ammonium ion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(II) perchlorate ion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(III) ferric ion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>II only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>III only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I and III </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 37. <ul><ul><li>3. If the name of an ion ends in -ite or -ate , the ion is a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polyatomic cation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polyatomic anion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transition metal cation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>monatomic anion. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 38. <ul><ul><li>1. The correct name for CrCl 3 is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chromium chlorine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chromium(III) chloride. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chromium(II) chloride. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chromium chloride. </li></ul></ul></ul>9.2 Section Quiz
    35. 39. <ul><ul><li>2. What is the correct formula for strontium nitride? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sr 3 N 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SrN 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sr 2 N 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sr 3 N </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 40. <ul><ul><li>3. Which one of the following compounds is named correctly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sodium chlorite, NaClO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>potassium nitrate, KNO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sodium acetate, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lithium sulfate, Li 2 SO 3 </li></ul></ul></ul>

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