Lecture 7.2- Ionic Compounds

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Section 7.2 Lecture for Honors & Prep Chemistry

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  • Aluminum metal and the nonmetal bromine react to form an ionic solid, aluminum bromide.
  • Sodium cations and chloride anions form a repeating three-dimensional array in sodium chloride (NaCl). Inferring How does the arrangement of ions in a sodium chloride crystal help explain why the compound is so stable?
  • The beauty of crystalline solids, such as these, comes from the orderly arrangement of their component ions.
  • Sodium chloride and cesium chloride form cubic crystals. a) In NaCl, each ion has a coordination number of 6. b) In CsCl, each ion has a coordination number of 8. c) Titanium dioxide forms tetragonal crystals. In TiO2, each Ti4+ ion has a coordination number of 6, while each O2- ion has a coordination number of 3.
  • Sodium chloride and cesium chloride form cubic crystals. a) In NaCl, each ion has a coordination number of 6. b) In CsCl, each ion has a coordination number of 8. c) Titanium dioxide forms tetragonal crystals. In TiO2, each Ti4+ ion has a coordination number of 6, while each O2- ion has a coordination number of 3.
  • When sodium chloride melts, the sodium and chloride ions are free to move throughout the molten salt. If a voltage is applied, positive sodium ions move to the negative electrode (the cathode), and negative chloride ions move to the positive electrode (the anode). Predicting What would happen if the voltage was applied across a solution of NaCl dissolved in water?
  • Lecture 7.2- Ionic Compounds

    1. 1. Bellwork- Ions Draw a sketch of the periodic table and label ion charges for groups 1A, 2A, 3A(13), 5A(15), 6A(16), & 7A(17).
    2. 2. Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds.
    3. 3. Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are electrically neutral. (positive charges always equal the negative charges)
    4. 4. Aluminum metal and the nonmetal bromine react to form an ionic solid, aluminum bromide.
    5. 5. The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds are called ionic bonds.
    6. 6. An ionic compound is also called a salt. Salts contain positive and negative ions that alternate in a regular 3D pattern called a crystal lattice.
    7. 7. The transfer of an electron from Na Na Cl to Cl creates an anion and a cation Na+ Cl-
    8. 8. The transfer of an electron from Na Na Cl to Cl creates an anion and a cation Na+ Cl-
    9. 9. The transfer of an Their electron opposite from Na charges Na Cl to Cl attract creates them to an each anion other and a cation Na+ Cl-
    10. 10. Take an atomic-level look at the formation of KCl.
    11. 11. •A chemical formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance.
    12. 12. •A chemical formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance. •A formula unit is the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
    13. 13. NaCl is the chemical formula for sodium chloride.
    14. 14. NaCl is the chemical formula for sodium chloride.
    15. 15. NaCl is the chemical formula for sodium chloride.
    16. 16. NaCl is the chemical formula for sodium chloride.
    17. 17. Determining formulas for ionic compounds The positive charges must equal the negative charges, because the compound is neutral. Mg2+ and Cl- make MgCl2 because you need 2 Cl- to cancel
    18. 18. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O?
    19. 19. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O? Al3+ O2-
    20. 20. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O? Al3+ O2- Find the least common multiple!
    21. 21. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O? Al3+ O2- Find the least common multiple! 3+ x 2 = 6+ 2- x 3 = 6-
    22. 22. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O? Al3+ O2- Find the least common multiple! 3+ x 2 = 6+ 2- x 3 = 6- So you need 2 Al3+ and 3 O2-
    23. 23. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O?
    24. 24. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O? Al 3+ O2-
    25. 25. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O? Al 3+ O2- Al2O3
    26. 26. What is the formula of a compound containing ions of Al and O? Al 3+ O2- Al2O3 The charge on one ion becomes the subscript for the other ion!
    27. 27. Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature.
    28. 28. Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature. Ionic compounds have high melting points.
    29. 29. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    30. 30. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    31. 31. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    32. 32. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    33. 33. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    34. 34. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    35. 35. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    36. 36. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    37. 37. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    38. 38. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    39. 39. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    40. 40. The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids.
    41. 41. Simulation 5 Simulate the formation of ionic compounds at the atomic level. Simulation 5
    42. 42. • The coordination number of an ion is the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal.
    43. 43. • The coordination number of an ion is the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal. • In NaCl, each ion has a coordination number of 6.
    44. 44. • In CsCl, each ion has a coordination number of 8.
    45. 45. • In CsCl, each ion has a coordination number of 8. • In TiO2, each Ti4+ ion has a coordination number of 6, while each O2- ion has a coordination number of 3.
    46. 46. Electricity is the directed movement of charged particles. To conduct electricity, a substance or mixture must contain positive or negative charges that can move freely.
    47. 47. Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when
    48. 48. Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when
    49. 49. 7.2 Section Quiz. 1. Which chemical formula is incorrect? a. KF2 b. CaS c. MgO d. NaBr
    50. 50. 7.2 Section Quiz. 1. Which chemical formula is incorrect? a. KF2 b. CaS c. MgO d. NaBr
    51. 51. 7.2 Section Quiz. 2. Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current a. only when melted. b. when melted or dissolved in water. c. only when dissolved in water. d. when solid or melted.
    52. 52. 7.2 Section Quiz. 2. Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current a. only when melted. b. when melted or dissolved in water. c. only when dissolved in water. d. when solid or melted.
    53. 53. 7.2 Section Quiz. 3. At room temperature, most ionic compounds are a. crystalline solids. b. liquids. c. gases. d. soft, low melting-point solids.
    54. 54. 7.2 Section Quiz. 3. At room temperature, most ionic compounds are a. crystalline solids. b. liquids. c. gases. d. soft, low melting-point solids.
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