Lecture 2.1- Properties of Matter


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Section 2.1 Lecture for Honors & Prep Chemistry on Properties of Matter

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  • This bowling ball and candlepin are used in a game played mainly in New England
  • The copper kettles are about 150 years old.
  • This gold falcon standard from Egypt is about 3000 years old. Analyzing Data Which of the properties listed in Table 2.1 could not be used to distinguish copper from gold?
  • The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a solid, the particles are packed closely together in a rigid arrangement.
  • The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a liquid, the particles are close together, but they are free to flow past one another.
  • The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a gas, the particles are relatively far apart and can move freely. Relating Cause and Effect Use the arrangements of their particles to explain the general shape and volume of solids and gases.
  • The silvery substance in the photograph is gallium, which has a melting point of 30°C. Inferring What can you infer about the temperature of the hand holding the gallium?
  • Lecture 2.1- Properties of Matter

    1. 1. BELLWORK Properties of matter Property- a quality or attribute Make a list of properties used to describe matter. Ex. Color, texture …
    2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Properties used to describe matter can be classified as extensive or intensive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An extensive property depends on the amount of matter in a sample. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An intensive property depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter. </li></ul></ul>Describing Matter
    3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Extensive properties depend on amount. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter the object contains. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The volume of an object is a measure of the space occupied by the object. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1 The big ball has more mass and volume than the little ball. Describing Matter
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Intensive Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The hardness of a bowling ball is an example of an intensive property. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1 Describing Matter
    5. 5. Is flammability an extensive or intensive property?
    6. 6. Identifying Substances <ul><ul><ul><li>Matter that has a uniform and definite composition is called a substance . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A substance is pure. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1
    7. 7. Identifying Substances <ul><ul><ul><li>Every sample of a given substance has identical intensive properties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example- Every sample of pure water is a clear, odorless, liquid at room temperature. It will boil at 100 ºC and freeze at 0ºC. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These properties are intensive because they do not depend on how big the sample is. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1
    8. 8. Identifying Substances <ul><ul><ul><li>A physical property can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardness, color, and malleability are examples of physical properties. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1
    9. 9. Identifying Substances 2.1
    10. 10. States of Matter <ul><ul><li>Three states of matter are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solid, liquid, and gas. </li></ul></ul>2.1
    11. 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>A solid is a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1 States of Matter
    12. 12. <ul><ul><ul><li>A liquid is a form of matter that has an indefinite shape (it flows) but a definite volume. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1 States of Matter
    13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>A gas is a form of matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The gas state is the only state of matter that is compressible. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1 States of Matter
    14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>Vapor describes a gas that is usually a liquid or solid at room temperature, as in water vapor. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1 States of Matter
    15. 15. States of matter- the 3 forms in which matter exists Solid- particles are tightly packed in a rigid structure. Has a shape and a fixed volume! Liquid- particles are very close but can move around each other. Takes the shape of its container, but has a fixed volume. Gas- particles are far apart and moving fast. Has no fixed shape or volume.  
    16. 17. Substances go from solid to liquid to gas as energy increases.
    17. 18. Physical Changes <ul><ul><ul><li>During a physical change , some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As gallium melts in a person’s hand, the shape of the sample changes, but the composition of the material does not change. </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1
    18. 19. Homework <ul><li>Read section 2.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Complete section 2.1 review </li></ul>