Lecture 13.2- Liquids

2,253 views

Published on

Section 13.2 Lecture for Honors & Prep Chemistry

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,253
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
37
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Both liquids and gases can flow. The liquid on the left is colored water. The gas on the right is bromine vapor. If a gas is denser than air, it can be poured from one container into another. These pictures were taken in a fume hood because bromine is both toxic and corrosive. Predicting Over time, what will happen to the gas in the uncovered beaker? Explain .
  • The process of evaporation has a different outcome in an open system, such as a lake, than in a closed system, such as a terrarium. a) In an open container, molecules that evaporate can escape from the container. b) In a closed container, the molecules cannot escape. They collect as a vapor above the liquid. Some molecules condense back into a liquid.
  • The process of evaporation has a different outcome in an open system, such as a lake, than in a closed system, such as a terrarium. a) In an open container, molecules that evaporate can escape from the container. b) In a closed container, the molecules cannot escape. They collect as a vapor above the liquid. Some molecules condense back into a liquid.
  • On the graph, the intersection of a curve with the 101.3-kPa line indicates the boiling point of that substance at standard pressure. INTERPRETING GRAPHS a. Analyzing Data What is the boiling point of chloroform at 101.3 kPa? b. Analyzing Data What is the vapor pressure of ethanol at 40°C? c. Analyzing Data What would atmospheric pressure need to be for ethanoic acid to boil at 80°C?
  • A liquid boils when the vapor pressure of particles within the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure. The boiling point varies with altitude.
  • Lecture 13.2- Liquids

    1. 1. Bellwork <ul><li>What is kinetic energy? </li></ul><ul><li>How is average kinetic energy related to temperature? </li></ul><ul><li>Which has higher kinetic energy, an olympic size pool of cool water or a cup of hot coffee? </li></ul>
    2. 2. Section 13.2- Liquids!
    3. 3. <ul><ul><ul><li>Substances that can flow are referred to as fluids. Both liquids and gases are fluids. </li></ul></ul></ul>13.2
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>The motion of molecules is counteracted by intermolecular attractions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Together they determine the physical properties of liquids. </li></ul></ul>13.2
    5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor is called vaporization . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When vaporization occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling, the process is called evaporation . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>13.2
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>During evaporation, only molecules with a certain minimum kinetic energy can escape from the surface of the liquid. </li></ul></ul>13.2 Evaporation is a cooling process because the molecules with the highest kinetic energy escape.
    7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>In an open container, molecules that evaporate can escape from the container. </li></ul></ul></ul>13.2
    8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>In a closed container, the molecules collect as a vapor above the liquid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vapor pressure is the force exerted by a gas above a liquid. </li></ul></ul></ul>13.2
    9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>Some molecules will condense back into a liquid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dynamic equilibrium exists between the vapor and the liquid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The system is in equilibrium when the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Vapor pressure increases with Temperature. </li></ul>13.2
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Vapor Pressure and Temperature Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An increase in the temperature of a contained liquid increases the vapor pressure. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The particles have increased kinetic energy, so more particles will have the minimum energy needed to escape the liquid. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>13.2
    12. 12. <ul><ul><li>When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout the liquid have enough kinetic energy to vaporize, the liquid begins to boil. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid is the boiling point (bp). </li></ul></ul></ul>13.2
    14. 14. Boiling Point 13.2
    15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Boiling Point and Pressure Changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because a liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure, liquids don’t always boil at the same temperature. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At a lower external pressure, the boiling point decreases.(ex. at high altitudes) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At a higher external pressure, the boiling point increases. (ex. Pressure cooker) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude and Boiling Point </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><ul><ul><li>The normal boiling point is the boiling point of a liquid at atmospheric pressure (1 atm or 101.3 kPa) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 13.2
    19. 19. <ul><ul><li>1. In liquids, the attractive forces are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>very weak compared with the kinetic energies of the particles. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong enough to keep the particles confined to fixed locations in the liquid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong enough to keep the particles from evaporating. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong enough to keep particles relatively close together. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><ul><li>2. Which one of the following is a process that absorbs energy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>freezing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>condensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solidifying </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 13.2 Section Quiz <ul><ul><li>3. In a sealed gas-liquid system at constant temperature eventually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>there will be no more evaporation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the rate of condensation decreases to zero. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the rate of condensation exceeds the rate of evaporation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><ul><li>4. Where must particles have enough kinetic energy to vaporize for boiling to occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>at the surface of the liquid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>at the bottom of the container </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>along the sides of the container </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>throughout the liquid </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><ul><li>5. The boiling point of a liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases at higher altitudes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decreases at higher altitudes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is the same at all altitudes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decreases as the pressure increases. </li></ul></ul></ul>

    ×