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Lecture 12.3- Limiting Reagents and Percent Yield

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Section 12.3 Lecture for Honors Chemistry …

Section 12.3 Lecture for Honors Chemistry
Slides 1-7 are for Prep as well

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  • A batting average is actually a percent yield.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Bellwork- Make 1cup of water H 2 + O 2  H 2 O How many liters of H 2 gas and O 2 gas at STP are required to make a cup of water? One cup (240mL) has a mass of 240g for pure water. 240g H 2 O x 1mol = 13.3mol H 2 O 18g 13.3 mol H 2 O x 13.3 mol H 2 O x 2 2 2 moles H 2 2 moles H 2 O 1 mole O 2 . 2 moles H 2 O = 13.3mol H 2 = 6.67mol O 2 x 22.4L/mol = 299L H 2 x 22.4L/mol = 149L O 2
    • 2. Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield
      • If a carpenter had two tabletops and seven table legs, he cou ld only build one four-legged table.
      • The number of table legs is the limiting factor.
      • Similarly, in chemistry, the amount of product made in a chemical reaction may be limited by the amount of one or more of the reactants.
    • 3.
          • 2 H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O
          • When reactants combine in their stoichiometric ratio (a.k.a. mole ratio ), both reactants will be completely used.
          • In any other ratio, one of the reactants will be used up and the other will have some left over.
    • 4.
          • In a chemical reaction, an insufficient quantity of any of the reactants will limit the amount of product that forms.
            • The limiting reagent is the reagent that determines the amount of product that can be formed by a reaction.
    • 5.
          • N 2 + 3H 2  2NH 3
          • You’ve got 2mole N 2 3mol H 2
          • How much NH 3 can you make?
          • What is the limiting reactant?
    • 6.
          • N 2 + 3H 2  2NH 3
          • You’ve got 2mole N 2 3mol H 2
          • How much NH 3 can you make? Only 2 moles
          • What is the limiting reactant? Hydrogen, because there is not enough H 2 to react with the 2nd mole of N 2.
    • 7.
          • Nitrogen is the reagent that is not completely used up in the reaction.
          • The reagent that is not used up is called the excess reagent .
          • N 2 + 3H 2  2NH 3
          • You’ve got 2mole N 2 3mol H 2
    • 8. 12.7
    • 9. 12.7
    • 10. 12.7
    • 11. 12.7
    • 12. for Sample Problem 12.7
    • 13. 12.8Q
    • 14. 12.8
    • 15. 12.8
    • 16. 12.8
    • 17. for Sample Problem 12.8
    • 18.
          • The percent yield is a measure of the efficiency of a reaction carried out in the laboratory.
          • A batting average is actually a percent yield.
    • 19.
            • The theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that could be formed from given amounts of reactants.
            • In contrast, the amount of product that actually forms when the reaction is carried out in the laboratory is called the actual yield .
      comes from stoichiometry comes from the lab
    • 20.
          • The percent yield is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed as a percent.
      What yo u get in the lab What you get mathematically
    • 21. The actual yield is often lower than the theoretical yield because not all reactions go to completion. The actual yield should never be higher than your theoretical yield.
    • 22. 12.9
    • 23. 12.9
    • 24. 12.9
    • 25. 12.9
    • 26. 12.10
    • 27. 12.10
    • 28. 12.10
    • 29. 12.10
    • 30. for Sample Problem 12.10
    • 31. 12.3 Section Quiz.
        • 1. In the reaction 3NO 2 + H 2 O  2HNO 3 + NO, how many grams of HNO 3 can form when 1.00 g of NO 2 and 2.25 g of H 2 O are allowed to react?
          • 0.913 g
          • 0.667 g
          • 15.7 g
          • 1.37 g
    • 32. 12.3 Section Quiz.
        • 2. How many grams of H 2 O can be formed from 24.0 g O 2 and 6.00 g H 2 ?
          • 30.0 g
          • 27.0 g
          • 54.0 g
          • 13.5 g
    • 33.
        • 3. Octane burns according to the following equation.
        • 2C 8 H 18 + 25O 2  16CO 2 + 18H 2 O
        • What is the percent yield if 14.6 g of CO 2 are produced when 5.00 g of C 8 H 18 are burned?
          • 106%
          • 94.8%
          • 34.2%
          • 62.5%
      12.3 Section Quiz.