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Section 1.1 & 1.3 Lecture What is Chem?  &  THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
What Is Chemistry? <ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry  is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. </li></ul></ul...
What Is Chemistry? <ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry  is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. </li></ul></ul...
What Is Chemistry? <ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry  is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. </li></ul></ul...
What Is Chemistry? <ul><ul><li>EVERYTHING is CHEMISTRY!! </li></ul></ul>1.1 Because living and nonliving things are made o...
Why Study Chemistry? 1.1 <ul><ul><li>Chemistry  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can help explain the natural world, prepare peo...
The Scientific Method <ul><ul><ul><li>The  scientific method  is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scien...
<ul><ul><li>Making Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you use your senses to obtain information, you make an...
<ul><ul><li>Making Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you use your senses to obtain information, you make an...
<ul><ul><li>Testing Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A  hypothesis  is a  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pro...
<ul><ul><li>Testing Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A  hypothesis  is a  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pro...
<ul><ul><li>Testing Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A  hypothesis  is a  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pro...
<ul><ul><li>Testing Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A  hypothesis  is a  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pro...
<ul><ul><ul><li>An  experiment  is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis.   When you design experiments, you deal ...
<ul><ul><ul><li>An  experiment  is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis.   When you design experiments, you deal ...
<ul><ul><ul><li>An  experiment  is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis.   When you design experiments, you deal ...
If   it is the sun that is damaging the leaves on my fern,  then  moving it to a spot with less sun should stop more frond...
If   it is the sun that is damaging the leaves on my fern,  then  moving it to a spot with less sun should stop more frond...
If   it is the sun that is damaging the leaves on my fern,  then  moving it to a spot with less sun should stop more frond...
Hypothesis- Bubble size depends on gum flavor The Scientific Method
Hypothesis- Bubble size depends on gum flavor Experiment- measure  bubble size using  different gum flavors  The Scientifi...
Hypothesis- Bubble size depends on gum flavor Experiment- measure  bubble size using  different gum flavors  Manipulated v...
Hypothesis- Bubble size depends on gum flavor Experiment- measure  bubble size using  different gum flavors  Manipulated v...
A  controlled variable  is something that could affect the  outcome of your  experiment, so  because it is not of  interes...
Failure to identify and control competing factors can make an experiment  invalid .   The Scientific Method
The best experiments have just one manipulated variable and all other variables are controlled.  The Scientific Method
The best experiments have just one manipulated variable and all other variables are controlled.  This makes it certain  th...
<ul><li>Matter-  </li></ul><ul><li>anything with mass and volume </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis-  </li></ul><ul><li>a propos...
<ul><ul><li>Developing Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a hypothesis is supported by repeated experimentation, i...
<ul><ul><li>Developing Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a hypothesis is supported by repeated experimentation, i...
<ul><ul><li>Developing Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a hypothesis is supported by repeated experimentation, i...
<ul><ul><li>Scientific Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A  scientific law  is a concise statement that summarizes the r...
<ul><ul><li>Scientific Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A  scientific law  is a concise statement that summarizes the r...
Steps in the Scientific Method 1.3 The Scientific Method
Hypothesis - an explanation Experiment - tests hypothesis Theory - an explanation that is supported by  so many different ...
Hypothesis - an explanation Experiment - tests hypothesis Theory - an explanation that is supported by  so many different ...
HOMEWORK <ul><li>Your first homework assignment is to complete the section 1.1 &1.3 review. </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments ...
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Lecture 1.1 & 1.3- What is Chem?

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Lecture 1.1 & 1.3 for Honors & Prep Chemistry
What is Chemistry & the Scientific Method

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  • Chemical changes that occur in leaves can cause brilliant displays of color.
  • Chemical changes that occur in leaves can cause brilliant displays of color.
  • Chemical changes that occur in leaves can cause brilliant displays of color.
  • Observation is an essential step in the scientific method.
  • Observation is an essential step in the scientific method.
  • The steps in the scientific method do not have to occur in the order shown. Comparing and Contrasting How are a hypothesis and a theory similar? How are they different?
  • Transcript of "Lecture 1.1 & 1.3- What is Chem?"

    1. 1. Section 1.1 & 1.3 Lecture What is Chem? & THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
    2. 2. What Is Chemistry? <ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. </li></ul></ul></ul>1.1
    3. 3. What Is Chemistry? <ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. </li></ul></ul></ul>1.1 Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter = STUFF
    4. 4. What Is Chemistry? <ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. </li></ul></ul></ul>1.1 Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter = STUFF If it is not matter, then it is empty space .
    5. 5. What Is Chemistry? <ul><ul><li>EVERYTHING is CHEMISTRY!! </li></ul></ul>1.1 Because living and nonliving things are made of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of life and most natural events.
    6. 6. Why Study Chemistry? 1.1 <ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can help explain the natural world, prepare people for career opportunities, and produce informed citizens. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The Scientific Method <ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific method is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Making Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you use your senses to obtain information, you make an observation . </li></ul></ul></ul>The Scientific Method
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Making Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you use your senses to obtain information, you make an observation . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppose you try to turn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on a flashlight and it does not light. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An observation can lead to a question: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s wrong with the flashlight? </li></ul></ul></ul>The Scientific Method
    10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Testing Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hypothesis is a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proposed explanation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for an observation </li></ul></ul></ul>1.3 The Scientific Method
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Testing Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hypothesis is a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proposed explanation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for an observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You guess that the flashlight needs new batteries. </li></ul></ul></ul>1.3 The Scientific Method
    12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Testing Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hypothesis is a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proposed explanation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for an observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You guess that the flashlight needs new batteries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can test your hypothesis by putting new batteries in the flashlight. </li></ul></ul></ul>1.3 The Scientific Method
    13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Testing Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hypothesis is a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proposed explanation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for an observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You guess that the flashlight needs new batteries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can test your hypothesis by putting new batteries in the flashlight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the flashlight lights, you can be fairly certain that your hypothesis is true. </li></ul></ul></ul>1.3 The Scientific Method
    14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>An experiment is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis. When you design experiments, you deal with variables (things that change). </li></ul></ul></ul>1.3 The Scientific Method
    15. 15. <ul><ul><ul><li>An experiment is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis. When you design experiments, you deal with variables (things that change). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The variable that is changed on purpose is the manipulated variable , or independent variable. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>1.3 The Scientific Method
    16. 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>An experiment is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis. When you design experiments, you deal with variables (things that change). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The variable that is changed on purpose is the manipulated variable , or independent variable. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The variable that is observed during the experiment is the responding variable , or dependent variable. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>1.3 The Scientific Method
    17. 17. If it is the sun that is damaging the leaves on my fern, then moving it to a spot with less sun should stop more fronds from dying. The Scientific Method
    18. 18. If it is the sun that is damaging the leaves on my fern, then moving it to a spot with less sun should stop more fronds from dying.  HYPOTHESIS! The Scientific Method
    19. 19. If it is the sun that is damaging the leaves on my fern, then moving it to a spot with less sun should stop more fronds from dying.  HYPOTHESIS!  EXPERIMENT! The Scientific Method
    20. 20. Hypothesis- Bubble size depends on gum flavor The Scientific Method
    21. 21. Hypothesis- Bubble size depends on gum flavor Experiment- measure bubble size using different gum flavors The Scientific Method
    22. 22. Hypothesis- Bubble size depends on gum flavor Experiment- measure bubble size using different gum flavors Manipulated variable- gum flavor The Scientific Method
    23. 23. Hypothesis- Bubble size depends on gum flavor Experiment- measure bubble size using different gum flavors Manipulated variable- gum flavor Responding variable- bubble size The Scientific Method
    24. 24. A controlled variable is something that could affect the outcome of your experiment, so because it is not of interest it must be removed or kept constant for every trial. Controlled variables- Brand, quantity, … The Scientific Method
    25. 25. Failure to identify and control competing factors can make an experiment invalid . The Scientific Method
    26. 26. The best experiments have just one manipulated variable and all other variables are controlled. The Scientific Method
    27. 27. The best experiments have just one manipulated variable and all other variables are controlled. This makes it certain that changes in responding variables are a result of that one experimental manipulation because it was the only thing different. The Scientific Method
    28. 28. <ul><li>Matter- </li></ul><ul><li>anything with mass and volume </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis- </li></ul><ul><li>a proposed explanation for an </li></ul><ul><li>observation </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment- </li></ul><ul><li>a procedure used to test a hypothesis. </li></ul>In Review The Scientific Method
    29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Developing Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a hypothesis is supported by repeated experimentation, it may become a theory. </li></ul></ul></ul>The Scientific Method
    30. 30. <ul><ul><li>Developing Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a hypothesis is supported by repeated experimentation, it may become a theory. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A theory is a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>The Scientific Method
    31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Developing Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a hypothesis is supported by repeated experimentation, it may become a theory. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A theory is a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A theory may need to be changed at some point in the future to explain new observations or experimental results. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>The Scientific Method
    32. 32. <ul><ul><li>Scientific Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. </li></ul></ul></ul>The Scientific Method
    33. 33. <ul><ul><li>Scientific Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A scientific law states what happens but does not explain how it happens. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That explanation requires a theory. </li></ul></ul></ul>The Scientific Method
    34. 34. Steps in the Scientific Method 1.3 The Scientific Method
    35. 35. Hypothesis - an explanation Experiment - tests hypothesis Theory - an explanation that is supported by so many different experiments that we agree it is TRUTH. Scientific Law - what happens The Scientific Method
    36. 36. Hypothesis - an explanation Experiment - tests hypothesis Theory - an explanation that is supported by so many different experiments that we agree it is TRUTH. Scientific Law - what happens LAW- Ships disappear on the horizon Old hypothesis- the ship falls off the world because it is flat Current theory- the ship moves out of view because the world is a sphere. The Scientific Method
    37. 37. HOMEWORK <ul><li>Your first homework assignment is to complete the section 1.1 &1.3 review. </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments are due at the start of the next class. </li></ul><ul><li>Completed homework is stamped during bellwork to show that it was completed on time. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all stamped work until collected before the quiz. </li></ul>
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